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County-wide Urban Transportation Design Standards

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Presentation on theme: "County-wide Urban Transportation Design Standards"— Presentation transcript:

1 County-wide Urban Transportation Design Standards
Board of Supervisors Transportation Committee May 8, 2012 Department of Transportation 1

2 Purpose The purpose is to develop a set of urban transportation design standards that can be utilized anywhere in the County, including it’s urban activity centers and revitalization areas. VDOT’s current standards are primarily based on high-speed rural and suburban design. The new standards are based on context-sensitive design that accommodate low-speed urban roadway design. The new standards will create a flexible platform that focus on urban design elements, and allow for construction of “complete” streets that effectively accommodate all modes of transportation, including pedestrian, bicycle, and transit. Department of Transportation 2

3 Primary Reference Sources
Fairfax County Comprehensive Plan. Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) recommended practice: Designing Walkable Urban Thoroughfares: A Context Sensitive Approach, 2010. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004; low speed urban street design. VDOT Access Management Design Standards for Entrances and Intersections. Department of Transportation 3

4 Background In April 2010, the General Assembly of Virginia enacted HB 222 (Watts), “Design standards for state secondary highway system components” (presently codified at Va. Code Ann. Section , which required the Virginia Department of Transportation to work in conjunction with Fairfax County to develop new context sensitive, urban design standards for the county. Design standards for Tysons Corner were developed by Fairfax County Department of Transportation, in partnership with other County agencies, and the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) On September 13, 2011, the Board adopted Transportation Design Standards and a Memorandum of Agreement with VDOT (MOA), for the Tysons Corner Urban Center. Department of Transportation 4

5 Background – Continued
VDOT’s flexibility and support in development of the standards and MOA was instrumental in their successful adoption. County staff is now proposing a plan for expanding these standards county-wide, including the County’s urban activity centers and revitalization areas. Department of Transportation 5

6 County Comprehensive Plan Objectives
Objective 1 – Provide for both through and local movement of people and goods via a multi-modal transportation system that provides transportation choices, reduces single-occupancy-vehicle (SOV) use and improves air quality. (complete streets policy) Objective 2 – Increase use of public transportation and non-motorized transportation. (complete streets policy) Objective 3 – Ensure that the roadway system provides adequate local access and capacity for through movements, consistent with financial, social, and environmental constraints and with the County’s goal of reducing SOV use. (context sensitive design policy) Department of Transportation 6

7 County Comprehensive Plan Objectives
Objective 4 – Provide a comprehensive network of sidewalks, trails and bicycle routes as an integral element of the overall transportation network. (complete streets policy) Objective 6 – Ensure that improvements to the transportation system are cost-effective and consistent with environmental, land use, social, and economic goals. (context sensitive design policy) Objective 11 – Ensure that land use and transportation policies are complementary. (context sensitive design policy) Department of Transportation 7

8 Revitalization and Urban Activity Centers
Annandale Huntington McLean Merrifield Reston Richmond Highway Seven Corners and Baileys Crossroads Springfield Department of Transportation 8

9 Recommended Process Develop a County-wide set of Urban Transportation Design Standards (excluding Tysons Corner) that will be applicable within the County’s revitalization areas and urban activity centers, and adopt a County-wide Memorandum of Agreement with VDOT to implement the standards. Develop applicability criteria, entailing land-use and density, that will establish specifically how and where the Design Standards can be applied within and around the County’s revitalization areas and urban activity centers. The Design Standards would entail traffic engineering criteria that would be general enough to apply to all of the County’s urban activity centers and revitalization areas, and to other areas of the County that match the land-use and density applicability criteria. Department of Transportation 9

10 Recommended Process – Continued
The Design Standards would reference the County’s comprehensive plan and Comprehensive Plan overlays, or would include special appendices for specific information on sidewalk widths and landscape amenity panel requirements for different districts. The Design Standards, where applicable, will reference or incorporate work already done within the County’s revitalization areas and urban activity centers. Department of Transportation 10

11 Recommended Public Outreach
The Design Standards are intended to support implementation of the Revitalization Area and Urban Activity Center plans, as well as to provide a framework for implementing urban street standards in other areas that demonstrate urban land-use characteristics. No changes to the revitalization areas, urban activity centers, or the comprehensive plan are being recommended. County staff proposes to hold community workshops in different areas of the county to discuss the draft transportation design standards, and receive comments from the public. The outreach efforts will similarly follow, and improve upon the collaborative process that was used to build consensus on the Tysons Corner Design Standards. Department of Transportation 11

12 Recommended Public Outreach
Since the transportation design standards are county-wide, the meetings will be more broadly advertised and cover larger geographic regions of the County, as opposed to holding exclusive meetings for individual revitalization areas or urban centers. Department of Transportation 12

13 Elements of the Design Standards
Functional Classifications Level of Service Standards Design and Operating Speed Access Management Lane Widths and On-Street Parking Median Islands and Turn Lanes Horizontal Radius Design Control Vehicles Intersection Sight Distance Multi-Modal Characteristics Bicycle Facilities Utility Placement Department of Transportation 13

14 Expected Timeframe Based on experience from the adoption of the Tysons Corner Transportation Design Standards, but given the larger geographic area being covered and the opportunity for expanded public input, expectations are to have the standards adopted in about 12 to 18 months. Develop Draft Design Standards. Meet with VDOT to reach initial consensus. Meet with community groups and accept public comment. Refine the Design Standards. Revisit the Design Standards with VDOT and the community groups, and through a collaborative process, build consensus on the final design criteria. Department of Transportation 14

15 Expected Timeframe This timeframe could be longer, if there is substantial feedback and dialogue stemming from the general public, landowners, or community groups. Comments from VDOT should be modest given the standards will mirror those already adopted for Tysons Corner. VDOT has expressed an interest in seeing one set of urban design standards for Fairfax County. This will require a creative approach that allows for diversity within the County, without overly complicating the approval process. Department of Transportation 15

16 Revitalization Areas and Urban Activity Centers
Department of Transportation 16

17 Annandale Revitalization Area
Department of Transportation 17

18 Huntington Transit Station Area
Department of Transportation 18

19 McLean Revitalization Area
Department of Transportation 19

20 Merrifield Revitalization Area
Department of Transportation 20

21 Reston Urban Activity Centers
Department of Transportation 21

22 Richmond Highway Revitalization Areas
Department of Transportation 22

23 Seven Corners and Baileys Crossroads Revitalization Areas
Department of Transportation 23

24 Springfield Revitalization Area
Outside Revitalization Area Department of Transportation 24

25 Questions? Department of Transportation 25

26 Elements of the Standards
Appendix A Elements of the Standards Department of Transportation 26

27 Functional Classifications
“Functional classification is the process by which streets and highways are grouped into classes, or systems, according to the character of service they are intended to provide.” (FHWA) It is necessary to balance and blend three separate systems into one useable classification system: Federal Classification system used by VDOT, including primary National Highway System (NHS) routes, and secondary routes; Fairfax County Comprehensive Plan; and ITE classifications based on context zone characteristics, and context sensitive solutions for designing urban thoroughfares. Department of Transportation 27

28 Recommended Functional Classifications
Fairfax County Comprehensive Plan Functional Classification ITE Functional Classification Federal Highway Function Classification Principal Arterial Low Speed Boulevard Minor Arterial Minor Arterial or Collector Avenue Collector Collector or Local N/A Local Street Local Department of Transportation 28

29 Example of Urban Arterial or Collector
Department of Transportation 29

30 Example of Urban Arterial or Collector
Department of Transportation 30

31 Example of Urban Local Street
Department of Transportation 31

32 Example of Urban Local Street
Department of Transportation 32

33 Roadway Level of Service
The Fairfax County Comprehensive Plan establishes a recommended overall Level of Service “D” (LOS). This level is defined as “near capacity,” and is intended to proved a minimum and maximum vehicle flow rate, thereby maintaining a balance between vehicle progression and pedestrian walkability. The FHWA requires that a LOS “D” be maintained to the maximum extent possible on National Highway System (NHS) routes. Department of Transportation 33

34 Level of Service Standards
Recommended Functional Classification Level of Service Standards Principal Arterial D Minor Arterial Collector Local Street Department of Transportation 34

35 Tiered Approach to Level of Service
Analyze the problem areas not meeting the LOS standards; Reanalyze and provide measurable TDM mitigation measures; Evaluate additional grid links, including offsite grid links; Consider temporary traffic mitigation measures; Consider permanent traffic mitigation measures; Phase the development; Make adjustments to the land-use mix; Provide financial contributions; Evaluate other traffic mitigation measures; Analyze through, left, or right-turn lane improvements; and Evaluate other alternative criteria. Department of Transportation 35

36 Design and Operating Speed
Recommended Functional Classification Number of Through Lanes Design Speed (mph) Operating Speed Principal Arterial 4-8 40 35 Minor Arterial 4-6 30-35 25-30 Collector 2-4 Local Street 2 25 Department of Transportation 36

37 Access Management “Access management means the systematic control of the location, spacing, design, and operation of entrances, median openings, traffic signals, and interchanges for the purpose of providing vehicular access to land development in a manner that preserves the safety and efficiency of the transportation system.” (VDOT) VDOT’s current access management standards are more suitable for high speed rural and suburban design. The proposed standards are for low speed urban design, allow for closer spacing of street intersections, and thereby permitting the development of a walkable “grid of streets.” Department of Transportation 37

38 Recommended Functional Classification Signalized Intersection Spacing
Access Management Recommended Functional Classification Access Management Operational Analysis Signalized Intersection Spacing Unsignalized Intersection Spacing (full access) (partial access) Driveway Spacing Principal Arterial Moderate Required 325’-660’ Restricted Access Minor Arterial Low Discretionary 525’-660’ 200’-660’ 200’ Collector 425’-660’ 155’-660’ 155’ Local Street Very Low N/A 100’-660’ 50’ Department of Transportation 38

39 Roadway Design Criteria
Reduced 10 and 11 foot lanes are incorporated into the standards to create narrow, pedestrian scale streets, and slower vehicle speeds that are more conducive to pedestrian activity. On-street parking is required on most streets to create a useable street frontage that serves street-level commercial retail, and to create side friction that reduces vehicles speeds. Except as stipulated in the County’s Comprehensive Plan, or General Plan Overlays, raised median islands, and left-turn and right-turn lanes are discouraged in order to create narrow, pedestrian scale streets. Department of Transportation 39

40 Lane Widths and On-Street Parking
Recommended Functional Classification Lane Width On-Street Parking On-Street Parking Width Principal Arterial 11’ Restricted N/A Minor Arterial 10’-11’ Required 8’ Collector Local Street 10’ 7’-8’ Department of Transportation 40

41 Median Islands and Turn Lanes
Recommended Functional Classification Raised/Landscaped Median Median Width Left and Right Turn Lanes Left and Right Turn Lane Widths Principal Arterial Required 16’-20’ Optional 11’ Minor Arterial 10’-11’ Collector 4’-8’ Local Street N/A 10’ Department of Transportation 41

42 Horizontal Radius Design Speed (mph) Minimum Radius (standard crown)
emax = 0.02 (superelevation) 20 107’ 92’ 25 198’ 183’ 30 333’ 273’ 35 N/A 408’ 40 593’ Department of Transportation 42

43 Design and Control Vehicles
Recommended Functional Classification Principal Arterial Minor Arterial Collector Local Street DV CV WB-62 CITY-BUS WB-50 SU P Department of Transportation 43

44 Intersection Sight Distance
Design Speed (mph) Minimum Intersection Sight Distance Road Gradient (percent slope) -9% -6% -3% Level +3% +6% +9% 20 130’ 120’ 115’ 110’ 105’ 25 175’ 165’ 160’ 155’ 150’ 145’ 140’ 30 230’ 215’ 205’ 200’ 185’ 180’ 35 290’ 275’ 260’ 250’ 240’ 225’ 40 385’ (355’ SSD) (335’ SSD) (315’ SSD) (305’ SSD) (290’ SSD) (280’ SSD) (270’ SSD) Department of Transportation 44

45 Multi-Modal Characteristics
Recommended Functional Classification Transit Service Freight Movement Principal Arterial Express and Local Regional and Local Truck Routes Minor Arterial Local Local Deliveries Collector Local Street Department of Transportation 45

46 Pedestrian Facilities
Recommended Functional Classification Streetscape Zone Width Min/Max Building Zone Width Minimum Sidewalk Width Minimum Landscape Amenity Panel Width Principal Arterial Design Standards are per the County’s Comprehensive Plan, and Comprehensive Plan Overlays Minor Arterial Collector Local Street Department of Transportation 46

47 Streetscape Zone Diagram
Department of Transportation 47

48 Bicycle Facilities Recommended Functional Classification Bicycle
Bike Lane Width Adjacent to Curb Bike Lane Width Adjacent to Right-Turn Lane Bike Lane Width Adjacent to Parking Isle Principal Arterial N/A Minor Arterial On-Street Bike Lane 4’ 5’ 5’-6’ Collector Local Street Department of Transportation 48

49 Utility Placement Utility Location Streetscape Zone Curb Zone
Parking Isle Travel Lane Storm Drainage Sanitary Sewer Water Natural Gas Electrical Telecommunications Department of Transportation 49

50 Appendix B Context Land Use Zones Department of Transportation 50

51 Context Land Use Zones A wide variety of factors create context in the urban environment: Land use and zoning Block length Parking type and orientation Building orientation and setback Building height and thoroughfare enclosure Building width Building scale and variety Building entries Department of Transportation 51

52 ITE Context Zone Characteristics
Natural Zone C-1 Rural C-2 Suburban C-3 General Urban C-4 Urban Center C-5 Urban Core C-6 (recommended) Natural Landscape. Agricultural with scattered Development. Primarily single family residential. Mix of housing types including attached units, with a range of commercial and civic activity. Attached housing types, such as townhouses and apartments mixed with retail, workplace, and civic activities. Highest-intensity areas, with high-density residential and workplace uses, entertainment, civic, and cultural uses. Department of Transportation 52

53 ITE Context Zone Characteristics
Department of Transportation 53

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