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1 2 3 4 5 Principle Text Text Hypotheses Made Linguistic schemata Content schemata Formal schemata Background knowledge Hypotheses Confirmed or Modified.

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Presentation on theme: "1 2 3 4 5 Principle Text Text Hypotheses Made Linguistic schemata Content schemata Formal schemata Background knowledge Hypotheses Confirmed or Modified."— Presentation transcript:

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5 Text Hypotheses Made Linguistic schemata Content schemata Formal schemata Background knowledge Hypotheses Confirmed or Modified

6 The Scope of Ecology No living creature, plant or animal, can exist in complete isolation. An animal is bound to depend on other living creatures, ultimately plants, for its food supply. It must also depend upon for a continued oxygen supply for its respiration. Q: What is this text likely to be about? Q: The writer starts by making a generalization. What do you think he will do next? Q: What sort of dependence? What sort of living creatures? Q: Do you want to change your prediction about the sort of dependence meant? Q: Were you right? What next do you think? Q: Upon what? Why? the activities of plants Q: Were you right? What else must it depend on plants for? Q: Why does it need oxygen?

7 Changes

8 Four Levels of Comprehension Questions Four Levels of Comprehension Questions Energy 1. Literal 2. Interpretative 3. Critical 4. Creative What are the seven kinds of energy mentioned in this selection? What is the main idea of this selection? Can we live without the sun? Explain. If we were able to harness the suns energy efficiently, what consequences would it bring for us?

9 A Literal Comprehension: information explicitly stated Interpretation: answer not explicitly stated but suggested or implied

10 This article mainly tells about the story of ______. ( ) a. a lost diary b. Deborah Logan c. Cory Luxmoore d. the Library Company The biggest advantage of this new system is that ______. ( ) a. it reduces the cost of recycling b. it saves time and space c. it saves money for people living in high rises d. it makes better use of the existing recovery equipment In what way was the night of November 9 the best night for Angela Carraro? ( ) a. She had a taste of adventure. b. Burning candles brightened the place. c. Business was better than usual. d. Many people stayed the night in her restaurant. In the writer's opinion, a good state school should ______. ( ) a. produce star performers b. help pupils improve their study skills c. train pupils in language and performing arts d. provide a general education and stage training The purpose in writing this text is ______. ( ) a. to encourage people to recycle their rubbish b. to introduce a recycling system for high rises c. to describe the use of computer technology in recycling d. to explain the need for rubbish collection in high rises Which of the following can be used in place of "Quite the reverse"? ( ) a. Quite right. b. True enough. c. Most unlikely. d. Just the opposite A 72.5%

11 I climbed the stairs slowly, carrying a big suitcase, my father following with two more. By the time I got to the third floor, I was tired and at the same time feeling lonely. Worse still, Dad missed a step and fell, sending my new suitcases rolling down the stairs. Damn! he screamed, his face turning red. I knew trouble was ahead. Whenever Dads face turns red, look out! (2000 No.26-30)

12 I climbed the stairs slowly, carrying a big suitcase, my father following with two more. By the time I got to the third floor, I was tired and at the same time feeling lonely. Worse still, Dad missed a step and fell, sending my new suitcases rolling down the stairs. Damn! he screamed, his face turning red. I knew trouble was ahead. Whenever Dads face turns red, look out! Grammar -oriented Exercise ______ a. carried b. carrying c. having carried __ a. On b. In c. By ____ a. lonely b. alone c. lone ____ a. along b. up c. down _______ a. Whatever b. Whenever c. However

13 I climbed the stairs slowly, carrying a big suitcase, my father following with two more. By the time I got to the third floor, I was tired and at the same time feeling lonely. Worse still, Dad missed a step and fell, sending my new suitcases rolling down the stairs. Damn! he screamed, his face turning red. I knew trouble was ahead. Whenever Dads face turns red, look out! Discourse -oriented Exercise ___ lazy anxious tired ____ took missed picked ____ rolling passing turning ______ danger trouble difficulty _______ give up hold on look out

14 Sentence Fill-in -- Context Dependent -- What a tiring evening! -- Oh, its good to sit down after all that standing. -- ___71___ -- I dont think Ive ever felt so tired in my life. ___72___ -- And the heat. ___73___ A. Im not that tired. B. Whats more, I didnt sleep well last night. C. I could just sit here for ever and ever, and never get up. D. All that silly talk, and the drink and the cigarette smoke. E. Lets have some coffee. ( ) C D -- Wed better go to sleep early tonight. B -- Oh, yes. I need something hot. E

15 Concepts 1.1. General/Specific 2.2. Denotation/Connotation 3.3. Deductive/Inductive

16 General/Specific Food Apple Fruit Peach Pork Meat Beef

17 General/Specific Fruit Pear Peach Banana Orange

18 General/Specific Pear BananaPeach Orange Core/ Seed Color Thick skin Juicy

19 General/Specific 1.1. Word Level 2.2. Phrase Level 3.3. Sentence Level Topic sentence

20 Word Level 1. ___ place 2. ___ Susan 3. ___ evergreen ___ Room 243 ___ girl ___ spruce ___ classroom ___ person ___ tree G = most general S = most specific GS G G S S

21 Phrase Level G = most general E = equally specific 1. ___ parts of body ___ the arms of a man 2. ___ May Day ___ New Year 3. ___ basic needs of man ___ love and respect from others G G E E 4. ___ smallness of Holland ___ largeness of Russia 5. ___ quick, powerful lions ___ several wild animals ___ powerful, huge elephants 6. ___ can be harmful to health ___ an expensive habit ___ reasons for not smoking G G E E Holidays Country size

22 Sentence Level G = most general E = equally specific 1. ___ Africa falls into seven divisions. ___ East Africa is the roof of Africa. 2. ___ A snake smells with its tongue. ___ A snake swallows its food whole. 3. ___ The necktie started out as a piece of lace and turned into a silk bow. ___ The necktie has been getting smaller and smaller for hundreds of years. ___ Now many neckties are no wider than a piece of string. G G E E Snake is a strange animal.

23 Denotation/Connotation A words denotation is its dictionary meaning. eg. traveling -- going on a trip or tour eg. traveling -- going on a trip or tour The idea or feeling that a word suggests is the words connotation. eg. traveling -- taking an exciting airplane ride eg. traveling -- taking an exciting airplane ride

24 Positive Connotation Negative Connotation College = Achievement Bright future Exciting Too much work Possible failure Frightening

25 Denotation/Connotation at sentence level signification is the meaning that would be common to all utterances of a certain sentence. value is the significance of the utterance for a particular speaker in a particular situation. Arent you cold?

26 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning Mother Son who is going out with little clothing on Concern Youd better put on your warm coat. A

27 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning Friend sb. unsuitably dressed for the weather surprise My goodness! You have so little on! B

28 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning sb. feeling chilly sb. who has just opened the window complaint Why did you open that window? Its cold here! C

29 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning sb. serving hot tea guest offer Please drink something hot to warm yourself up. D

30 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning sb. feeling chilly sb. who suggests going out for a walk refusal I dont want to go out in that wind. E

31 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning sb. pointing to a fan others in the room request Shall I turn off the fan? F

32 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning mother son, who refuses to put on warm clothes order You must put on this overcoat! G

33 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning friend sb. who enjoys winter swimming admiration It must take a lot of courage to swim in winter! H

34 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning Friend sb. who talks about sleeping outdoors in winter I dont believe you can do that! I doubt

35 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning master housekeeper who fails to make a fire in the room anger Dont you realize we need some heat in this room? J

36 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning mother son who is taking a cold- water shower anxiety Stop that! You are going to catch a cold! K

37 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? SpeakerSpeaker Listener Feeling (function) Implied meaning friend sb. who is finishing the tenth ice-cream bar amusement You are so funny to eat so much ice-cream! L

38 Deductive/Inductive 1.1. Argument / Conclusion / Premises 2.2. Deductive / Inductive 3.3. Weak Argument 4.4. Hidden Premises

39 Argument / Conclusion / Premises An argument is a group of statements, one of which is the conclusion and one or more of which are the premises. Argument 1 No fish are mammals. premise Therefore, no mammals are fish. conclusion Argument 2 Everyone in town wears heavier clothing when winter comes. premise 1 It is winter now. premise 2 So everyone in town is wearing heavier clothing. conclusion

40 Deductive / Inductive Argument 1 No fish are mammals. Therefore, no mammals are fish. Argument 2 Everyone in town wears heavier clothing when winter comes. It is winter now. So everyone in town is wearing heavier clothing.

41 Deductive / Inductive Argument 3 Upon returning to the apartment I see that the mail is still in the mail box. It is my roommates habit to pick up the mail from the box upon returning home. Therefore, my roommate has not yet returned home.

42 Deductive / Inductive

43 Weak Argument 2. Faulty Analogy 1. Wrong Conclusion 3. Causal Fallacies 4. Language Ambiguity Tariffs on textiles benefit the textile industry. Tariffs on steel benefit the steel industry. Therefore, a tariff on every imported product benefits the economy. All circus clowns enjoy making others laugh. Ted enjoys making others laugh. Ted is a circus clown. Roni develops a rash whenever exposed to cactus weed. On his way home from a hike, he breaks out in a rash. Upon applying some ointment, he exclaims, I must have brushed by cactus weed. Happiness is the end of life. The end of life is death. So happiness is death.

44 Hidden Premises Theft is an action that hurts another person. Therefore, theft is immoral. Premise (explicit): Theft is an action that hurts another person. Conclusion: Therefore, theft is immoral. Premise (implicit): Actions that hurt others are immoral.

45 Hidden Premises Explicit Implicit

46 Hidden Premises

47 … Worse still, Dad missed a step and fell, sending my new suitcases rolling down the stairs. Damn! he screamed, his face turning red. I knew trouble was ahead. Whenever Dads face turns red, look out! How could I ever get him to finish unloading the car without screaming at me and making a scene in front of the other girls, girls I would have to spend the rest of the year with? ( ) Hidden premise 1: If fathers face turns red, he must be angry. Hidden premise 2: If father is angry, he would lose temper. Hidden premise 3: If father loses temper, I have to be careful. Hidden premise 4: Other girls would hear if my father screamed at me. Hidden premise 5: It was embarrassing to be screamed at in front of other people, especially girls.

48 Graphs

49 1. Kathy does not like vegetables. She ate all of her lunch except the a. meat. b. pastry. c. carrots. d. milk. 2. When Diana and her father returned from shopping, their basket was full of bananas, pears, apples, and oranges. They had bought only a. vegetables. b. meats. c. groceries. d. fruits. 3. Children may have hair like their mother's and eyes like their father's and thus show traits of both a. ages. b. features. c. parents. d. children. General Specific 1. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ 2. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ 3. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ vegetables oranges mother

50 Position of Topic Sentence 1. Top position 2. Bottom position 3. Middle position 4. Double position 5. No topic Sentence

51 For some people, carrying on the family name is important. Others want a child for its love or to prevent loneliness in old age. Some couples are curious about the result of their mixture of genes. Many of us have children because we want to give them opportunities that we never had or to treat them as we wish we had been treated: this may amount to living vicariously through our children. Some individuals have a child in order to hold their marriage together: this is unwise because it usually adds strain to an already failing relationship, and the child is often affected most. Why do people have children?

52 (1) It is the first college established and controlled by Indians. (2) This is one of three reasons why Navajo Community College in northeastern Arizona stands out. (3) It is the first institution of higher learning on an Indian reservation. (4) It is the first sign that the navajos and other tribes are charting a course of self-determination that may lift them out of their hundred-year-old cycle of poverty and illiteracy , 3, 4

53 (1) A boy growing up on the Cheyenne- Arapaho reservation had a good life. (2) He could enjoy the sun rising over the land that stretched for miles without fences or roads. (3) He could play along the North Canadian River and the smaller streams winding through that land. (4) He could feel how friendly the life in the villages was. (5) In those villages were children and dogs and ponies outside the tipis, and men and women busy drying meat or beading moccasins or making arrows or dressing skins. (6) These activities and sights made life very pleasant for the Indian boy , 3,

54 The meat of a plump young bear is said to be quite tender and tasty; but even a hunting dog will refuse the meat of an old bear, for it is a. raw meat. b. fresh meat. c. also excellent. d. very tough. youngtender old?tough Antonym

55 Our bodies are strengthened not by what we eat but by the food that we digest. Similarly, our minds are developed not by what we read but by what we a. forget. b. understand. c. write. d. are told. eatdigest read?understand Analogy

56 Tips

57 day! In old New England the schools were result, the teacher placed their children schools the mothers and fathers were supposed to supply the wood. Sometimes wood for one reason or another. As a some of the parents didn't supply the farthest from the fire. The shivering children were certain to remind their parents about supplying wood the next heated by burning firewood. In some

58 day! In old New England the schools were result, the teacher placed their children schools the mothers and fathers were supposed to supply the wood. Sometimes wood for one reason or another. As a some of the parents didn't supply the farthest from the fire. The shivering children were certain to remind their parents about supplying wood the next heated by burning firewood. In some The story mainly tells: a. why parents don't supply wood b. how children catch cold c. how schools got parents to supply firewood d. what firewood does

59 1. The door was locked, and they could not get in because they did not have a _____. 2. The work is not hard, but it takes a long _____. 3. When she looked at her watch, she began to walk faster. She was afraid she would be _____. key time late

60 1. As one makes his ___, so must he lie. 2. East or west, ___ is the best. 3. Dont burn the ___ at both ends. 4. All ___ is not baked in one oven. 5. ___ is the discoverer of secrets. A. candle B. wine C. bed D. bread E. home

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62 O H

63 A Literal Comprehension: information explicitly stated Interpretation: answer not explicitly stated but suggested or implied

64 This article mainly tells about the story of ______. ( ) a. a lost diary b. Deborah Logan c. Cory Luxmoore d. the Library Company Which of the following statements is best supported by the last paragraph? ( ) a. Men keep their innermost feelings to themselves. b. Women are more serious than men about marriage. c. Men often take sudden action to end their marriage. d. Women depend on others in making decisions. In what way was the night of November 9 the best night for Angela Carraro? ( ) a. She had a taste of adventure. b. Burning candles brightened the place. c. Business was better than usual. d. Many people stayed the night in her restaurant. In the writer's opinion, a good state school should ______. ( ) a. produce star performers b. help pupils improve their study skills c. train pupils in language and performing arts d. provide a general education and stage training The purpose in writing this text is ______. ( ) a. to encourage people to recycle their rubbish b. to introduce a recycling system for high rises c. to describe the use of computer technology in recycling d. to explain the need for rubbish collection in high rises Which of the following can be used in place of "Quite the reverse"? ( ) a. Quite right. b. True enough. c. Most unlikely. d. Just the opposite A 73%

65 Arent you cold?Arent you cold? Value 1. Concern 2. Surprise 3. Complaint 4. Offer 5. Refusal 6. Request 7. Order 8. Admiration 9. Doubt 10. Anger 11. Anxiety 12. Amusement

66 The story mainly tells: a. why parents don't supply wood b. how children catch cold c. how schools got parents to supply firewood d. what firewood does


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