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Activity at LNL and SPES

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1 Activity at LNL and SPES
L.Corradi Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro – INFN, Italy Nupecc Meeting Catania, March 12, 2010

2 The LNL accelerators AN2000 2 MV CN 7 MV PIAVE HI Injector
ALPI Linac 40 MVeq Tandem XTU 15 MV

3 Open Calls for LoIs for the INFN research infrastructures May 2007
Transnational access Open Calls for LoIs for the INFN research infrastructures May 2007 50 LoIs 312 potential users from 15 countries (about 30% more than presented at the VI FP) E.Fioretto

4 Nuclear structure research
GASP CLARA AGATA demonstrator - High spin states - Collectivity and shell model - Isospin symmetries - Isospin mixing in N=Z nuclei - Spectroscopy at the dripline - Shell stability and evolution in neutron rich nuclei - Symmetries at the critical point - Rotational damping

5 Reaction dynamics research
PRISMA and PISOLO EXOTIC GARFIELD and 8πLP Multinucleon transfer - Nuclear superfluidity (pair transfer) - Elastic and inelastic scattering - Near and sub-barrier fusion - Multifragmentation at low excitation energies - Nuclear level density - Collective modes of excitations - Break up processes - Quasi elastic scattering with light ions produced in secondary reactions

6 LNL-FE-SI collaboration
Fundamental interaction studies the TRAPRAD experiment : production and trapping of Fr isotopes target MOT LNL-FE-SI collaboration 18O+197Au Francium is the heaviest alkali, has a simple electronic structure and has enhanced P and T violation effects 18O beam I= 200 pnA I ~ 5x105 ions/sec trapped Fr isotopes

7 % distribution of beam on target among the different set-up’s
LNL PAC Feb2006 average rejection factor for nuclear physics experiments over the last five years : 45-65% LNL PAC Feb2010

8  coupling to beam and recoil tracking devices
The innovative use of detectors (pulse shape analysis, g-ray tracking, digital DAQ) will result in high efficiency (~40%) and excellent energy resolution Conventional array Segmented detectors g-ray tracking Energy (keV) Objective of the final R&D phase 5 asymmetric triple-clusters 36-fold segmented crystals 540 segments 555 digital-channels Eff. 3 – 7 Mg = 1 Eff. 2 – 4 Mg = 30 Full ACQ with on line PSA and g-ray tracking The AGATA DEMONSTRATOR Powerful array in its own right Still to decide where to site Still to decide the key test experiments Major issue (in the demonstration phase) is the Doppler correction capability  coupling to beam and recoil tracking devices PRISMA D.Bazzacco

9 4th triple being installed now
Present set up: 3 triple clusters 4th triple being installed now Original and Doppler-corrected spectra for the 847 keV 56Fe 2+  0+ line Direction of recoils determined by the MCP Dante 547 keV (197Au) 847 keV ( 56Fe) 56Fe  197Au 220 MeV Dante+PSA 2.6 keV Dante+PSA 4.6 keV Original ~10 keV Original ~30 keV

10 Physics program : evolution of magic numbers and collectivity in neutron rich nuclei, but not only…
Proton drip-line More than 20 LoI: Highly Excited Collective Modes. Proton-rich mirror nuclei. Superdeformed states in A~40 proton-rich region. Order-Chaos transition in warm rotating nuclei. etc... Neutron drip-line Evolution of collectivity and Dynamical Symmetries in the rare earths n-rich nuclei protons Mix-symmetry states Quenching of the N=82 shell gap in n-rich nuclei N=50 shell gap: lifetime, and excited states Lifetimes in neutron-rich Ca isotopes Spectroscopy and lifetimes in the new region of deformation n-rich A~60, N~40 nuclei Lifetimes in the region of the island of inversion neutrons

11 THE PRISMA SPECTROMETER + CLARA GAMMA ARRAY
INFN exp. PRISMA (LNL,PD,TO,Na) INFN exp. GAMMA (LNL,PD,Fi,MI,Na,Pg) + broad Int. Collaboration (UK,F,D,Pl,Sp,Ro,Hr) PRISMA: a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer W  80 msr; Brmax = 1.2 Tm DA/A ~ 1/200 Energy acceptance ~ ±20%

12 Multineutron and multiproton transfer channels near closed-shell nuclei
90Zr+208Pb Elab=560 MeV pure neutron pick-up channels Mass [amu] PRISMA spectrometer data GRAZING code calculations L.Corradi et al, J.Phys G36(2009) (Topical Review)

13 Near- and sub-barrier fusion reactions
Precise measurements of fusion excitation functions allow to probe nuclear structure effects: multi-dimentional tunnelling, influence of surface vibrations and transfer channels on reaction dynamics understand synthesis of superheavy elements measure rates of reactions of astrophysical interest cross section measurements at far sub-barrier energies may probe the nuclear potential inside the Coulomb barrier A.M.Stefanini et al PRC78(2008)044607 A.M.Stefanini et al., PRC76(2007)014610

14 Grazing reactions as a tool to study n-rich nuclei
THE PRISMA + CLARA CAMPAIGN Grazing reactions as a tool to study n-rich nuclei 136Xe 82Se 70Zn 64Ni 36S 26Mg 22Ne 48Ca 40Ar 96Zr To do that we used the most neutron-rich stable beams available at the Tandem/PIAVE- ALPI accelerator complex of LNL at energies 5-15% above the Coulomb barrier 14 14

15 The value for the heavier Cr isotopes is also close to the same limit
Gamma softness in heavy Cr and Fe isotopes populated in 64Ni+238U at Elab=404 MeV Cr (-4p) N.Marginean et al., Phys. Lett. B 633(2006)696 dynamical symmetries The R(E4/E2) ratio for the heavy Fe isotopes is very close to the 2.50 value characteristic of g-soft rotors The value for the heavier Cr isotopes is also close to the same limit 58Cr lies exactly at the 2.20 value predicted for the E(5) dynamical symmetry. The energies of the yrast band are in good agreement with the predictions of this symmetry. Transition probabilities are essential to decide whether 58Cr lies or not at the E(5) critical point. 58Cr New points

16 comparison of deduced B(E2) with large scale shell model calculations
Lifetimes measurements in 48Ca+208Pb at Elab=310 MeV Differential Plunger Method comparison of deduced B(E2) with large scale shell model calculations J.J.Valiente-Dobon et al, PRL102(2009)242502

17 July 2013 GANIL/SPIRAL2 ~15TC
AGATA Demonstrator/1Π Experimental program July 2013 GANIL/SPIRAL2 ~15TC June 2011  LNL 6TC Dec 2011  GSI/FRS ≥ 8TC AGATA D.+PRISMA FRS AGATA + VAMOS + EXOGAM Total Eff. ~6% Total Eff. > 10% Total Eff. > 20%

18 GARFIELD+HECTOR Campaign
Temperature dependence of GDR Isospin Mixing of N=Z nucleus 80Zr at high T Dynamic Dipole in N/Z asymmetric reaction Search for the Jacobi shape transition in light nuclei Onset of the multi-fragmentation and the GDR Nuclear structure at finite temperature Coincident measurements : g +LCP MeV/A PPAC or Phoswich Residues selection GARFIELD: 180 E-DE telescopes Light Charged Particles HECTOR: 8 Large BaF2 High-energy g-rays F.Gramegna, A.Bracco et al, LNL-MI collaboration

19 Two reactions – same compound
GARFIELD+HECTOR set-up – GDR studies in hot and thermalized nuclei : damping of collective modes at finite temperature Two reactions – same compound 16O (130,250 MeV ) + 116Sn  132Ce* 64Ni (300,400,500 MeV) + 68Zn  132Ce* Agreement with thermal fluctuation model if and only if CN evaporation width is included Analysis of α particle spectra shows preequilibrium effects in 16O+116Sn Increase of GDR width is due to deformation effects GDR analysis with no preequilibrium effects in 64Ni+116Sn O. Wieland et al., PRL97(2006)012501

20 GARFIELD : studies of response of silicon detectors - channelling
effects and digital pulse shape DIGITAL PULSE SHAPE on 500μm Silicon The FAZIA Initiative 32S 474 MeV Final goal: build the full array for lower (SPIRAL2 / LNL / SPES) and higher energy (GANIL / LNS / FAIR / EURISOL / RIA) studies with exotic and stable beams. Ne F O N C B Be Random impinging ions channelling spoils mass identification 300 μ 500 μ G.Poggi

21 transport/beam cooler/separator
SPES ISOL facility Cyclotron 750 μA, 70 MeV (max) for protons in two exit ports: RIB - up to 300 μA p on UCx Application - up to 500 μA Additional target station (special plants second priority) RIB or neutron production transport/beam cooler/separator High Resolution Mass Spectrometer 1/20000 UCx target station 1013 fission/s Charge Breeder 1+  n+ (Post Accelerator) G.Prete

22 ALPI upgrade for SPES Optimum beta βo = 0.047 βo = 0.056 βo = 0.11
ALPI layout Optimum beta βo = 0.047 βo = 0.056 βo = 0.11 βo = 0.13 Nella prima è accennato il primo upgrade, quello che si completa quest'anno ed è stato finanziato (ECR e basso beta) e poi quello finale dove si cambiano molte delle lenti magnetiche (da 20 a 30 T/m) e si aggiunge un buncher SC a 80 MHz e 2 ulteriori criostati low beta (CR01 e 2). To be funded: 2 additional LowBeta Cryostats (CR1, CR2) a New buncher New magnetic lenses (upgrade from 20 to 30 T/m) Funded upgrade (2009) LowBeta CR3, new couplers 22

23 The ALPI post accelerator
27/03/2017 The ALPI post accelerator Expected SPES energies Superconductinglinac based on QW Resonators 2003: Up graded to Veq ~ 40 MV - Nb/Cu sputtered cavities or bulk Nb cavities; 2009: 48 MV Energies up to MeV/A for A=130 beams 23

24 Representative expected beams at SPES
27/03/2017 Representative expected beams at SPES ionization efficiencies: (1+) 30% and (n+) 4% (1+) 90% and (n+) 12% for Kr and Xe, Transport efficiency 50% 24

25 SPES SCHEDULE 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Facility design
First Target and ion source Second target and ion source Authorization to operate Building Tender & Construction Target installation and commissioning Cyclotron Tender & Construction Cyclotron Installation and commissioning Alpi preparation for post acceleration Installation of RIBs transfer lines and spectrometer Complete commissioning And the schedule we have is the following.

26 SPES technical design report

27 Dynamical Dipole yield increases with asymmetry of fusing ions
Dynamical Dipole Yields Dynamical Dipole yield increases with asymmetry of fusing ions Radioactive Beams LOI SPIRAL2 Dynamic Dipole in 172Yb  5MeV/A (onset energy for DDR) Information can be extracted on the symmetry energy term at low density S.Leoni Baran, Brink, Colonna, DiToro PRL87(2001)182501 27

28 proton pick-up channels lead to neutron rich heavy mass nuclei
proton stripping channels lead to neutron rich medium mass nuclei

29 production of neutron rich isotopes
Multinucleon transfer reactions with neutron-rich beams possibility to populate nuclei via pick-up and stripping of both neutrons and protons probing (nn), (pp) and (np) correlations. Important for studies on pairing vibrations/rotations, nuclear superfluidity production of neutron rich isotopes GRAZING code calculations C.H.Dasso, G.Pollarolo, A.Winther, PRL73(1994)1907

30 Near- and sub-barrier fusion reactions with exotic beams
With the lower beam intensities of RIB, one can derive fusion barrier distributions by measuring excitation functions of quasi-elastic channels Key issues with RIB Enhanced effects of positive Q-value transfer channels Role of surface modes in nuclei with significant neutron excess F.Liang et al., PRC75(2007)054607 S.Mitsuoka et al, PRL99(2007)182701

31 Some few remarks Nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with heavy ions are being investigated at near barrier energies with the TANDEM+ALPI+PIAVE accelerator complex of LNL Important developments have been made in complex detector systems (gamma arrays, tracking spectrometers, charge particle arrays) through which extensive studies have been and are being successfully performed in different areas The SPES project represents the most important step forward for nuclear physics research in Italy. Its completion will allow to perform challenging and significant studies in heavy ion physics with RIB’s

32

33 Facility Approved for construction Phase 1 - financed by INFN
27/03/2017 The SPES project Facility Approved for construction Phase 1 - financed by INFN TANDEM XTU Experimental HALLS RIB Transport Line III Experimental HALL SPES LINAC ALPI Primary Beam: Cyclotron 300 μA, 70 MeV (max) for protons in two exit ports for RIB Production Target: UCx multi-foil , up to fission s-1 Post-accelerator: PIAVE-ALPI Superconductive Linac up to 11 AMeV for A=130 33

34 Ionization methods at SPES
27/03/2017 Ionization methods at SPES Surface Ion source Elements with bad volatility (NOT EXTRACTED) Surface Ionization Method 1 2 H He 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt 8 Laser beam Laser Ion source Photo Ionization Method Plasma Ionization Method Plasma Ion source Main fission 238U fragments

35 The SPES target prototype SPES target-ion-source Front End
27/03/2017 The SPES target prototype UCx target procuction Graphite Window UCx Disk Graphite Dumpers Graphite Box SPES target-ion-source Front End SEM Characterization UCx production and characterization Target ion source construction Front End ready for test experiment (TIS and first beam transport elements; ISOLDE like) UCx emissivity 35

36 SPES expected neutron rich beams
27/03/2017 SPES expected neutron rich beams Element Mass Most Intense isotope (1/s) Ionization Eff (%) Target method R&D (difficulty) Ni 65-69 10+6 6 UCx LIS ** Cu 66-76 7 Zn 72-79 5 Ga 72-84 20 Ge 75-84 10+7 3 *** Rb 86-94 10+9 65 SIS * Sr 89-96 10+8 SIS+LIS Y 90-97 **** Pd Ag 14 Cd 10 In 15 Sn Sb Te Cs 85 Ba La 36

37 Transportation Engineering
SPES UNIPV UNIPD UNITN DIM DCT DEI DESIGN MATERIALS Chemistry CERN- ISOLDE GANIL-SPIRAL 2 ORSAY-ALTO TRIUMF- ISAC ORNL- HRIBF HANDLING CONTROLS SPES Target collaborations network KEK- TRIAC Pavia Milano LNS Bologna DCT- Structure and Transportation Engineering DIM- Mechanical Eng. DEI- IT – Eng. LNL Napoli Catania Firenze Padova UNIPA Nucl. Engin.

38 ISACII-like cryostats
PIAVE upgrade for SPES SPES layout Present layout PIAVE cryostat ISACII-like cryostats 38

39 Eurisol Project (key experiments) http://www.ganil.fr/eurisol/
Multinucleon transfer reactions in the transactinide region Eurisol Project (key experiments) Multinucleon transfer reactions are a promising tool to get access to very neutron rich heavy nuclei when using a neutron rich radioactive beam GRAZING calculations

40 Quasielastic barrier distributions : role of particle transfer channels
Exp. data : S.Mitsuoka et al, Phys.Rev.Lett.99,182701(2007) Calculations : G.Pollarolo, Phys.Rev.Lett.100,252701(2008)

41 Dipole Resonance Emission from HOT nuclei
density plot fusion CN dipole moment t=0 fm/c Charge NOT equilibrated Prompt Dipole Reaction Dynamics EOS CN all degree of freedom EQUILIBRATED Giant Dipole Resonance Temperature dependence of GDR width damping of CN GDR p vs n fusion

42 GARFIELD + HECTOR experiment @ LNL Two reactions – same compound
16O (130,250 MeV ) + 116Sn  132Ce* 64Ni (300,400,500 MeV) + 68Zn  132Ce* pre equilibrium a particle spectra GDR analysis with NO pre-equilibrium effects g spectra

43 Last stage of the decay revealed by correlation functions
p+12C d+ p+7Be E*=0.7, 2.3 MeV E*=2.3, 3.5 MeV E*= 2.2, 4.3, 5.6 MeV Primary yields can be obtained after Coulomb background subtraction GRC

44 GARFIELD & Ancillaries
Pre-equilibrium emission in 16O+116Sn Measuring correlation functions Experiments with n-rich/poor LNL 32S+58Ni and 32S+64Ni 14.5 AMeV R(q) probes space-time properties of source

45 Multinucleon transfer reactions : from neutron poor to neutron rich nuclei
LNL data GRAZING code calculations 44Ar + 208Pb E=320 MeV with (moderately n-rich) heavy ions one can populate (nn), (pp) and (np) channels with comparable strength

46 Approaching 78Ni and 132Sn regions

47 Neutron rich nuclei produced in the fission of 238U in
136Xe+238U at Elab=990 MeV N.Marginean et al., Phys. Rev. C80(2009)021301(R) 47

48 Total cross sections successive transfer
S.Szilner et al, Phys.Rev.C76(2007)024604

49 PRISMA spectrometer – trajectory reconstruction
IC MWPPAC A physical event is composed by the parameters: position at the entrance x, y position at the focal plane X, Y time of flight TOF energy DE, E

50 Population of neutron rich nuclei
64Ni+238U at Elab=390 MeV 58Fe most neutron-rich stable isotopes 54Cr possibility to make spectroscopic studies of neutron rich nuclei moderately far from stability 50Ti L.Corradi et al, Phys.Rev.C59(1999)261

51 multinucleon transfer : experiment vs. theory
data : LNL theory : GRAZING code and CWKB L.Corradi et al, J.Phys.G36(2009) (Topical Review)

52 Detection of (light) target like ions in inverse kinematics with PRISMA
beam direction PRISMA 20o 94,96Zr 40Ca Prisma acceptance MNT channels have been measured down to 25 % below the Coulomb barrier L.Corradi et al, LNL exp. March 2009

53 Detection of (light) target like ions in inverse kinematics with spectrographs
beam direction Split Pole > 10o 124Sn 58Ni +1n +2n successive+direct pair transfer +3n RMS data lacking of data for +2n in the deep sub-barrier region H.Esbensen et al., PRC57(1998)2401 C.L.Jiang et al., PRC57(1998)2393

54 Comparison between experimental and theoretical (Grazing) calculations

55 Softness in Cr and Fe isotopes populated in 64Ni+238U at Elab=404 MeV
Cr (-4p) N.Marginean et al., Phys. Lett. B 633(2006)696 gating on mass 2+→0+ 4+→2+ Fe (-2p) S.Lunardi et al., Phys. Rev. C 76(2007)034303

56 E << Eb E ~ Eb E > Eb
A schematic view of fusion reactions E << Eb E ~ Eb E > Eb σ σ σ ~ mb µb - mb nb - µb E E E V V V r r r - σ steep fall off - CC effects - fusion “hindrance” - D(B) from fusion and QE processes - structure of VN at r < rB - σ fusion < σ capture - connection with surface vibrations and transfer - connection with QF, MNT, DIC, BU - connection with astrophysics

57 Parity non conservation in atoms : a test of the Standard Model
Precision tests of the SM at low momentum transfer complementary information obtained from atomic PNC and high energy electron-nucleon scattering experiments constraints on relevant new physics below certain mass scales

58 Parity non conservation in atoms : a test of the standard model
with 133Cs reached precision below 1% with radioactive beams important to pursue experimental work on chain of isotopes parity violation in specific atomic transitions nuclear anapole moment permanent electric dipole moment (time reversal symmetry violation) Francium is the heaviest alkali, has a simple electronic structure and has enhanced P and T violation effects


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