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Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Accelerators COSY and HESR March 15, 2013 | Andreas Lehrach.

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Presentation on theme: "Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Accelerators COSY and HESR March 15, 2013 | Andreas Lehrach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Accelerators COSY and HESR March 15, 2013 | Andreas Lehrach

2 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 2 Outline I ntroduction C ooler S ynchrotron COSY Prototyping and Accelerator Physics Polarized Beams Preparation for Storage Ring EDM H igh- E nergy S torage R ing HESR Beam Dynamics Simulations Design Work S ummary/ O utlook

3 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 3 Ions: (pol. & unpol.) p and d Momentum:300/600 to 3700 MeV/c for p/d, respectively Circumference of the ring: 184 m Electron Cooling up to 550 MeV/c Stochastic Cooling above 1.5 GeV/c Cooler Synchrotron COSY 2MV Electron Cooler Siberian Snake Major Upgrades

4 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 4 Prototyping and Accelerator Physics WASA 2 MeV e-Cooler (2012/13) Barrier Bucket Cavity Stochastic Cooling Residual Gas Profile Monitor Pellet Target Siberian Snake (2013) RF Solenoid RF Dipole

5 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 5 Magnetized High-Energy Electron Cooling: Development Steps COSY: from 0.1 MeV to 2 MeV HESR: 4.5 MeV Upgradable to 8 MeV Technological challenge Benchmarking of cooling forces Installation at COSY started

6 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 6 Example: Beam Cooling with WASA Pellet Target a)Injected beam b)Beam heated by target c)+ stochastic cooling d) + barrier bucket

7 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 7 Polarized Beams at COSY Intrinsic resonances tune jumps Imperfection resonances vertical orbit excitation P > 75% at 3.3 GeV/c G=4 G=5 G=6 7-Q y 0+Q y 8-Q y 1+Q y 9-Q y 2+Q y 10-Q y Polarization during acceleration Tune-Jump Length 0.6 m Max. current ±3100 A Max gradient 0.45 T/m Rise time 10 μs QyQy Q y

8 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 8 Physics at COSY using longitudinally polarized beams: Snake Concept Should allow for flexible use at two locations Fast ramping <30s Integral long. field >4.7 T m Cryogen-free system? B dl (Tm) COSY Injection Energy 45 MeV1.103 pn{pp} s π - at 353 MeV3.329 PAX at COSY 140 MeV1.994 PAX at AD 500 MeV4.090 T max at COSY 2.88 GeV ANKE PAX ANKE

9 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 9 Siberian Snake at COSY Superconducting 4.7 Tm solenoid is ordered. Overall length: 1 m Ramping time 30 s Spin dynamics and longitudinal polarized beams for experiments Installation at COSY in summer 2013

10 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 10 Polarization of a Stored Beam by Spin-Filtering Experiment with COSY / schematic Spin- flipper Stacking injection at 45 MeV Electron cooling on Acceleration to 49.3 MeV Start of spin-filter cycle at PAX: s PAX ABS off ANKE cluster target on Polarization measurement (2 500 s) at ANKE Spin flips with RF Solenoid New cycle: different direction of target polarization COSY Cycle Results COSY Cycle / schematic

11 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 11 Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research p-Linac HESR SIS18 SIS100 CR/RESR Antiprotonen Production Target Linac: 70MeV protons, 70mA, 4Hz SIS 18: 5·10 12 protons/cycle SIS 100:4·10 13 protons/cycle 29GeV protons bunch compressed to 50nsec Production target: 2·10 8 antiprotons/cycle 3% momentum spread CR: bunch rotation and stochastic cooling at 3.8GeV/c, 10s RESR: accumulation at 3.8GeV/c

12 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 12 HESR with PANDA and Electron Cooler Jülich is the leading lab of the HESR Consortium: Germany (Jülich (90%), GSI, Mainz), Slovenia and Romania HESRCOSY 575 mCircumference184 m 1.5 – 15 GeV/cMomentum0.3 – 3.7 GeV/c up to 9 GeV/cElectron Coolingup to 0.5 GeV/c Full rangeStochastic Cooling1.5 – 3.7 GeV/c HESR COSY

13 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 13 HESR design driven by the requirements of PANDA: Antiprotons with 1.5 GeV/c p 15 GeV/c High luminosity: 2·10 32 cm -2 s -1 -Thick targets: 4·10 15 cm -2 High momentum resolution: Δp/p 4· Phase space cooling Long beam life time: >30 min Criteria for the Layout of the HESR

14 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 14 Beam Dynamics Simulations Beam injection and accumulation: stacking injection concept (Simulation codes by T. Katayama and H. Stockhorst) Dynamic aperture calculations and closed-orbit correction: steering and multipole correction concept (MAD-X, SIMBAD based on ORBIT) Beam losses at internal targets / luminosity estimations: particle losses (hadronic, single Coulomb, energy straggling, single intra-beam) (Analytic formulas) Beam-cooling / beam-target interaction / intra-beam scattering: beam equilibria (BetaCool, MOCAC, PTARGET, Jülich stochastic cooling code) Ring impedance: RF cavities, kicker etc. (SIMBAD based on ORBIT) Trapped ions: discontinuity of vacuum chamber, clearing electrodes (Analytic codes)

15 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 15 Injection and Accumulation Barrier Bucket and stochastic cooling will be used to accumulate antiprotons in HESR Proof of principle measurement Beam accumulation in HESR required for modularized FAIR start version

16 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 16 Future HESR Upgrade Options Spin Filtering Antiproton Polarizer (APR) Asymmetric Collider 15 GeV/c – 3.5 GeV/c Polarized Proton-Antiprotons Collider Polarized Electron-Nucleon Collider ENC Accelerator Working Group:

17 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 17 Summary / Outlook P rototyping and Accelerator Physics at COSY Detector tests for PANDA and CBM Preparation for HESR: High-Energy Electron Cooling and High-Bandwidth Stochastic Cooling Internal Targets, RF Manipulation techniques COSY is essential to develop and establish these techniques for HESR P olarized beams at COSY Polarizing stored Antiprotons by spin-filtering R&D work for storage ring EDM searches of charged particles First direct EDM measurement, ideal EDM injector COSY is essential to perform R&D work for PAX and EDM H ESR project status New HESR beam accumulation scheme due to modularized start version of FAIR Design work of the HESR is finalized and the construction phase started Main HESR components are ordered (dipoles, quadrupoles,... ) corresponds to roughly 30% of total project costs

18 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 18 Siberian Snake Full snake: χ = 180° ν sp = ½ Spin tune independent of beam energy No spin resonances except snake resonances: ν sp = ½ = k ± lQ x ± mQ y Partial snake: χ < 180° ν sp k Keeps the spin tune away from integer No imperfection resonances χ spin- and particle motionspin rotation

19 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 19 Energy Range: MeV High-Voltage Stability: < Electron Current: A BINP Novosibirsk Installation at COSY started New 2 MV Electron Cooler at COSY Electron Beam Diameter: mm Cooling section length: m Magnetic field (cooling section): kG

20 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 20 Stochastic Cooling System Cooling Bandwidth (2 – 4) GHz Pickup and Kicker Structures: Circular Slot Type Couplers*) Aperture 90 mm Length per cell 12.5 mm 88 pickup cells Total length: 1100 mm Zero dispersion at pickup and kicker Noise temperature pickup plus equivalent amplifier noise: 40 K Momentum range 1.5 GeV/c to 15 GeV/c Above 3.8 GeV/c: Filter Cooling Below 3.8 GeV/c: TOF Cooling R. Stassen, FZJ

21 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 21 Spin Manipulation in COSY RF Solenoid Water-cooled copper coil in a copper box, length 0.6 m Frequency range roughly 0.6 to 1.6 MHz Integrated field B rms dl ~ 1 T·mm RF Dipole 8-turn water-cooled copper coil in a ferrite box, length 0.6 m Frequency range roughly 0.12 to 1.6 MHz Integrated field B rms dl ~ 0.1 T·mm Jump Quadrupole Air coil, length 0.6 m Current ±3100 A, gradient 0.45 T/m Rise time 10 μs, fall time 10 to 40 ms Siberian Snake (ordered) Fast-Ramping Superconducting Solenoid, length 0.98m Ramp time to maximum 30s Integrated field B rms dl = 0.47 Tm

22 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 22 COSY Upgrade 1. Improved closed-orbit control system for orbit correction in the micrometer range Increasing the stability of correction-dipole power supplies Increase number of correction dipoles and beam-position monitors (BPMs) Improve BPM accuracy, limited by electronic offset and amplifier linearity Systematic errors of the orbit measurement (e.g., temperature drift) 2. Alignment of Magnets and BPMs More precise alignment of the quadrupole and sextupole magnets BPMs have to be aligned with respect to the magnetic axis of these magnets 3. Beam oscillations Excited by vibrations of magnetic fields induced by the jitter of power supplies Coherent beam oscillation 4. Longitudinal and transverse wake fields Ring impedances

23 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 23 HESR Layout Main machine parameter Momentum range1.5 to 15 GeV/c Circumference574 m Magnetic bending power 50 Tm Dipole ramp 25 mT/s Acceleration rate0.2 (GeV/c)/s Geometrical acceptances for β t = 2 m horizontal4.9 mm mrad vertical5.7 mm mrad Momentum acceptance ± 2.5×10 -3

24 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 24 Dipoles Number 44 Magnetic length 4.2 m Deflection angle 8.182° Max B-field 1.7 T Min B-field 0.17 T Aperture 100 mm Quadrupoles Number 84 Magnetic length 0.6 m Iron length (arc) 0.58 m Max gradient 20 T/m Aperture 100 mm

25 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 25 Luminosity Considerations (Full FAIR version) Relative Loss Rate Scattering Process1.5 GeV/c9 GeV/c15 GeV/c Hadronic Interaction1.8· · ·10 -4 Single Coulomb2.9· · ·10 -6 Energy Straggling1.3· · ·10 -5 Touschek (Single IBS)4.9· · ·10 -8 Total relatve loss rate6.5· · · /e Beam lifetime / s~ 1540~ 6000~ 7100 Antiproton production rate:2·10 7 /s Pellet target: n t =4·10 15 cm -2 Transverse beam emittance: 1mm·mrad Longitudinal ring acceptance:Δp/p = ±10 -3 Betatron amplitude at PANDA: 1m Circulating antiprotons: Cycle averaged luminosity - Momentum 1.5 GeV/c: 0.3 – 0.7 · cm -2 s -1 - Momentum: 15 GeV/c: 1.5 – 1.6 · cm -2 s -1 (Production rate: 1 – 2 · 10 7 /s) A. Lehrach et al., NIMA 561 (2006) O. Boine-Frankenheim et al., 560 (2006) F. Hinterberger, Jül-4206 (2006)

26 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 26 Electron cooled beams HR mode: 7.9·10 -6 (1.5 GeV/c) to 2.7·10 -5 (8.9 GeV/c), and 1·10 -4 (15 GeV/c) HL mode: <10 -4 Stochastic cooled beams HR mode: 5.1·10 -5 (3.8 GeV/c), 5.4·10 -5 (8.9 GeV/c), and 3.9·10 -5 (15 GeV/c) HL mode: ~10 -4 Transverse stochastic cooling can be adjusted independently Cooled Beam Equilibria D. Reistad et al:, Proc. of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics COOL2007, MOA2C05, 44 (2007) O. Boine-Frankenheim et al., A 560 (2006) 245–255 Beam cooling, beam-target interactions, intra-beam scattering H. Stockhorst et al., Proc. of the European Accelerator Conference EPAC2008, THPP055, 3491 (2008). rms relative momentum spread p /p

27 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 27 Expected Pressure Distribution and Neutralization Factor Average distance of clearing electrodes of 10 m, with a clearing voltage of 200 V The mean time for residual gas ions in the antiproton beam T c (clearing time) in relation to the time of ion production T p : Emittance Growth Incoherent Tune Shift Beam Instabilities PANDA IP

28 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 28 Coherent Beam Instabilities F. Hinterberger, Ion Trapping in the High-Energy Storage Ring HESR, JÜL-Report 4343 (2011) Resonance frequencies: Bounce frequencies of transverse H + 2 ion oscillations represented as tune numbers q x,y (8 Q x ) = and (8 Q y ) = , (9 Q x ) = and (9 Q y ) = Estimates for beam instabilities Beam momentum p = 15 GeV/c horizontal vertical

29 March 15, 2013 | A. Lehrach COSY & HESR 29 Dynamic Aperture (Optimized) Dynamic Aperture 16 mm mrad Orbit diffusion coefficient D Orbit diffusion coefficient (e.g. after 1000 and 2000 turns):


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