Presentation on theme: "The Intelligent Designer is the God who created the world recently Old Young Evidence for a young world connects the Designer with the Bible ID and Young."— Presentation transcript:
The Intelligent Designer is the God who created the world recently Old Young Evidence for a young world connects the Designer with the Bible ID and Young World
Outline Introduction Astronomy Examples of a Young Universe Geology Examples of a Young Earth Biological Examples of life being young Carbon Dating (Organic materials) Uranium-Lead Dating (Inorganic materials) Summary
Why I dont believe in evolution Materials cannot create things: information and sequencing of language is the key No fossil evidence for macro-evolution exists No biochemical mechanism for macro-evolution exists (recall Behe) Design argues against evolution (recall Newton) Law of Biogenesis argues against evolution and Spontaneous Generation (recall Pasteur) Thermodynamics argues against evolution (recall Kelvin) Randomness cannot create things (recall Maxwell) Question: If evolution is not true, is there a need for long periods of time in the earths history???
The Bible insists that the world is young For in six days the L ORD made the heavens and the earth … Exodus 20:11 For in six days the L ORD made the heavens and the earth … Exodus 20:11 Context: Ordinary days Scripture connection sixdays Not used: Long time, age, eon To thousandth generation Thousands of myriads of years
James Ussher ( ), Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, and Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin was highly regarded in his day as a churchman and as a scholar. Of his many works, his treatise on chronology has proved the most durable. Based on an intricate correlation of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean histories and Holy writ, it was incorporated into an authorized version of the Bible printed in 1701, and thus came to be regarded with almost as much unquestioning reverence as the Bible itself. Having established the first day of creation as Sunday 23 October 4004 BC, by the arguments set forth in the passage below, Ussher calculated the dates of other biblical events, concluding, for example, that Adam and Eve were driven from Paradise on Monday 10 November 4004 BC, and that the ark touched down on Mt Ararat on 5 May 2348 BC `on a Wednesday'.
Jesus Christ says the world is young 4000 years 2000 years Now No room for long ages Mark 10:6 But from the beginning of creation, God made them male and female.
Hundreds of physical processes set limits on the age of the world 1. Helium in atmosphere 2. Helium in ground 3. Meteor dust 4. Buildup of carbon Human population 6. Natural plutonium 7. Sodium in sea 8. Sediment in sea 9. Erosion of continents 10. Earth's magnetic field 11. Oil leaks in earth 12. Natural gas in earth 13. Orphan radiohalos 14. Neutrons and strontium 15. Decay of rock magnetism 16. Tight bends in rocks 21. Coral reef growth 22. Oldest living plants 23. Human civilizations 24. River delta growth 25. Undersea oil seepage 26. Uranium in sea 27. Neutrons and lead 28. Rotation of spiral galaxies 29. Interstellar gas expansion 30. C-14 in meteorites 31. Decay of comets 32. Interplanetary dust removal 33. Lifetime of meteor showers 34. Dust on the moon 35. Slowing of earth's rotation 36. Heat loss from earth 41. Peat bog growth 42. Multi-layer fossils 43. Hardening of rocks 44. Decay of Saturn's rings 45. Potassium in the sea 46. Titan's methane loss 47. Internal heat of Io 48. Leaching of chlorine 49. Radiogenic lead 50. Niagara Falls erosion 51. Stone age burials 52. Seafloor calareceous ooze 53. Uranium decay 54. Squashed radiohalos 55. Young water to sea 56. Magma to earth's crust Most give an age less than billions of years
Many of the processes set upper limits, not lower limits Age (years ) Process 10 Billion 100 Million 1 Million 10, Evolution Bible
Galaxies wind themselves up too fast Supposed to be 10 billion years old Less than 0.3 billion years windup
Not enough supernova smoke rings Only 200 remnants seen in our galaxy: Only 7,000 years worth Crab Nebula
Supposed to be 5 billion years old Lifetime in Solar System: Less than 10,000 years Comets crumble too quickly
Mud entering: 25 billion tons / year Max age: 12 million years Ocean Mud leaving: 1 billion tons / year Subducting Plate Mud: 400 meters Continent Seafloor mud accumulates too fast
The sea is not salty enough Sodium In: 450 million tons per year Out: 120 million tons per year Max age: 62 million years
Current The Earths magnetic field is losing energy too fast Loses half its energy every 1400 years Lost energy faster during reversals in Genesis Flood Max age: 20,000 years
Biological material decays too fast 1. Mitochondrial Eve 200,000 years 6, DNA in amber: 135 million years 3. DNA in dino bones: 70 million years 4. Permian bacteria revived: 250 million years 5. Neandertal DNA: 100,000 years 6. Dinosaur blood cells: 70 million years < 10, < 10, < 10, < 10, < 10, DNA
Not enough Stone Age graves Human Population Time 160,000 years 1 Million Limited food Evolutionism: Farming Only thousands exist. Max ~ 500 years Time Over 6 Billion graves
Written history is too short One Thousands Millions Billions Number of Documents NowChristAbraham ~ 4500 years
These data imply the whole creation is young 7. Biological decay 8. Stone age graves 9. History shortness Life is young What about carbon dating and all that? The heavens are young 1. Galaxies 2. Supernovas 3. Comets The earth is young 4. Mud 5. Sea Salt 6. Magnetic Field
Radiometric Dating Assumptions Radiocarbon dating for living things and other methods for non-living things (K-Ar, U-Pb, etc.) Radioactive decay is measurable and hence can be used as a clock to measure ages Constant rate of decay C-14 has always been the same in air as present; that is, equilibrium is assumed, the idea that the rate of C-14 decay equals the C-14 production rate. No leeching occurred during transition from mother to daughter element (Boundary condition, nothing coming into the system) All of mother element transitioned into daughter element (Boundary condition, nothing going out of the system) No daughter element was present at beginning (initial condition) Radioactive dating assumptions
All fossils have young C-14 ages Conventional : Millions Standard C-14: < 70,000 Corrected C-14: 5,000 Percent of modern C-14/C ratio Number of samples Coal, wood, shells, bone, marble, natural gas, CO 2, calcite, oil. Carbon dating
Carbon 14 contaminates all creatures In Biosphere today: C-14 C-12 = 62 tons 75 trillion tons = trillion One out of every trillion carbon atoms in your body is radioactive ! Biosphere : Air, Plants, Animals, Soil, Sea CO 2 N 14 +cosmic radiation=C 14
When a creature dies, carbon-14 in it slowly decreases. C-14/C-12 Ratio Time 0 Birth Death Now Decay
Middle Tertiary (conventional age of 33 Myr from Geologic Column) wood from Crinium, Queensland, Australia, with uncorrected C-14 age of 44,700 years.
Wood in Jurassic siltstone (conventional age of 185 Myr from Geologic Column) Edgehill, England, with uncorrected C-14 age of 24,000 years.
Coalified wood from the Permian coal seam (conventional age of 250 Myr from Geologic Column) New South Wales, Australia, with uncorrected C-14 age of 33,700 years.
Detection Limit for the AMS Method The detection limit for the AMS method is about one 14 C atom for every C atoms, or an absolute 14 C/ 12 C ratio of Since the modern 14 C/ 12 C ratio in living things is about , the AMS method can measure ratios as low as about times (0.001%) the modern ratio (0.001 percent modern carbon or pmc). Assuming the modern 14 C/ 12 C ratio prevailed in the atmosphere uniformly back in the past, pmc corresponds to an age of 95,000 years.
Absolute Age Limitation for 14 C The observed 14 C half-life of 5730 years implies the number of 14 C atoms in a sample is reduced by 1/2 every 5730 years. After 40 half-lives or 229,200 years, the amount of 14 C is diminished by a factor of (1/2) 40 = This is smaller than the AMS detection limit and as such cannot be used beyond this limit.
Figure 1. Uniformitarian age as a function of 14 C/C ratio in percent modern carbon (pmc). The uniformitarian approach for interpreting the 14 C data assumes a constant 14 C production rate and a constant biospheric carbon inventory extrapolated into the indefinite past. It does not account for the possibility of a recent global catastrophe that removed a large quantity of carbon from the biospheric inventory. Purple band shows range of values for most 14 C dead biological samples. Uniformitarian Age (years) Percent Modern Carbon 57,000 years 48,000 years 41,000 years 0.3
TABLE 1. AMS Measurements on Samples Conventionally Deemed 14 C Dead As Reported in the Peer-Reviewed Radiocarbon Literature Item 14 C/C (pmc) (±1 S.D.) MaterialReference ±?* MarbleAerts-Bijma et al.  ±0.04 ShellBeukens  ±0.12 ForaminiferaArnold et al.  ±0.04 Commercial graphiteSchmidt et al.  ±0.09 Foraminifera (Pyrgo murrhina)Nadeau et al.  ±0.04 CalciteBeukens  ±0.20 Shell (Spisula subtruncata)Nadeau et al.  ±0.04 Whale boneJull et al.  ±0.08 MarbleGulliksen & Thomsen  ±0.1 Wood, 60 KaGillespie & Hedges  ±0.03 WoodBeukens  ±0.03 WoodVogel et al. 
±0.13 AnthraciteVogel et al.  ±0.03 AnthraciteGrootes et al.  ±0.084 Foraminifera (untreated)Schleicher et al.  ±0.07 Shell (Turitella communis)Nadeau et al.  ±0.045 Wood (charred)Snelling  ±0.033 AnthraciteBeukens et al.  ±0.03 Shell (Varicorbula gibba)Nadeau et al.  ±0.037 WoodBeukens et al.  ±0.11 Recycled graphiteArnold et al.  ±0.06 ForaminiferaGulliksen & Thomsen  ±? CokeTerrasi et al.  ±? CoalSchleicher et al.  ±0.02 MarbleSchmidt et al.  ±0.061 Carbon powderMcNichol et al.  ±0.04 Foraminifera (mixed species avg.)Nadeau et al.  ±0.018 Fossil woodBeukens 
±? Carbon-12 (mass sp.)Schmidt, et al.  –0.012 (m0.06) GraphiteGrootes et al.  ±?* Graphite rodAerts-Bijma et al.  ±0.01 Graphite (Finland)Bonani et al.  ±0.02 GraphiteVan der Borg et al.  ±0.02 Graphite (Ceylon)Bird et al.  ±0.005 Graphite (air)Schmidt et al.  ±0.013 GraphiteKirner et al.  ±0.015 Carbon powderSchleicher et al.  ±0.007 Graphite (air redone)Schmidt et al.  ±0.006 Graphite (argon redone)Schmidt et al.  ±0.010 Graphite (fresh surface)Schmidt et al.  ±? Carbon powderPearson et al.  ±0.009 GraphiteNadeau et al.  ±0.004 Graphite (argon)Schmidt et al.  ±0.010 CaC 2 (technical grade)Beukens 
Precambrian Samples indicate oldest ages of 57,000 years (Preflood)
Phanerozoic Samples indicate ages of 41,000 to 57,000 years (Post-flood)
How Do Uniformitarian Researchers Explain Large Amounts of 14 C in Samples That Should Be Utterly 14 C-Dead? They refer to the 14 C as contamination, but most admit that the 14 C is intrinsic to their samples and most further admit they have no explanation for its origin.
Table 2. Results of AMS 14 C analysis of 10 RATE coal samples. These measurements were performed using the laboratorys high precision procedures which involved four runs on each sample, the results of which were combined as a weighted average and then reduced by 0.077±0.005 pmc to account for a standard background of contamination believed to be introduced by sample processing. SampleCoal Seam NameStateCountyGeological Interval 14 C/C (pmc) DECS-1 BottomTexasFreestoneEocene0.30±0.03 DECS-11BeulahNorth Dakota Mercer Eocene0.20±0.02 DECS-25PustMontana Richland Eocene0.27±0.02 DECS-15Lower SunnysideUtahCarbonCretaceous0.35±0.03 DECS-16Blind CanyonUtah Emery Cretaceous0.10±0.03 DECS-28GreenArizona Navajo Cretaceous0.18±0.02 DECS-18Kentucky #9Kentucky Union Pennsylvanian0.46±0.03 DECS-21Lykens Valley #2Pennsylvania Columbia Pennsylvanian0.13±0.02 DECS-23PittsburghPennsylvania Washington Pennsylvanian0.19±0.02 DECS-24Illinois #6Illinois Macoupin Pennsylvanian0.29±0.03
Histogram representation of AMS 14 C analysis of ten coal samples undertaken by RATE 14 C research project.
RATE Analyses Support Already Published Results RATE AMS analyses have served to increase the confidence level in the published 14 C levels and to confirm that the variation in the values across the fossil- bearing part of the record is surprisingly small. The case that intrinsic 14 C at levels in the range pmc exists in all pre-Ice Age fossil organic materials now appears to be an all but established scientific fact.
Uniformity of 14 C Values With Depth in the Geological Record When we average our results over geological intervals, we obtain remarkably similar values of 0.26 pmc for the Eocene, 0.21 pmc for the Cretaceous, and 0.27 pmc for the Pennsylvanian coal samples.
The fact that the 14 C/ 12 C ratios cluster about a common value of about 0.25 pmc, regardless of geological age is compelling evidence that all this fossil organic material was buried contemporaneously not so long ago. This is consistent with the account in Genesis of a global Flood that destroyed most of the air-breathing life on the planet in a single year-long cataclysm. Evidence for Global Cataclysm
But how does one reconcile 14 C dates of 40, ,000 years ago for fossil organisms buried in the Genesis Flood with the Biblical date of about 5000 years ago?
The Genesis flood removed much carbon from the biosphere. There is much less carbon in todays biosphere. Coal, oil, natural gas Plants, soil, animals
The C-14 / C-12 ratio was much smaller before the flood. C-14 C-12 Ratio Pre-floodNow likely < 30 tons62 tons > 7500 trillion tons 75 trillion tons < trillionth0.83 trillionth Preflood ratio: Less than 1 % of today
The C-14 / C-12 ratio increased rapidly after the Flood. Ratio Time Trillion ~ 1% of today Now Flood The fastest change was during the Ice Age. Ice Age
C-14 data supports rapid C-14 increase during the Ice Age Ice-age dating discrepancies Wooly mammoth C-14 ages: leg bones 17,575 ± 550 yrs ribs 20,400 ± 450 yrs R.E. Lee, 1982
By not accounting for the Flood, uniformitarianism yields excessive C-14 ages. Ratio Time Ratio in atmosphere Ratio in fossil Now True Age, 5,000 yr Uniformitarian Assumption Creation Wrong "Age, 10,000 yr Flood
C-14 Detected in South African Diamond Indicates Earth is Young! In a report released in July 2003, radiocarbon lab finds level of C-14 in South African diamond 100 times above the detection threshold. Result appears to limit the age of the Earth to mere thousands of years.
RATE diamond sample, Kimberley, South Africa AMS 14 C/C ratio: 0.096±0.026 pmc
Significance of 14 C in Precambrian Samples The presence of reproducible 14 C well above AMS instrument threshold levels in essentially every Precambrian sample reported in the literature suggests that these samples contain primordial 14 C! This implies the physical earth itself must be only thousands, as opposed to billions, of years old!
Summary of 14 C Results The 14 C data provide some of the clearest radioisotope evidence yet for a few thousand year age for the fossil record. These data also provide strong support for a uniform age for all but the topmost part of this record. As such they provide compelling positive evidence that this record is the product of a single, recent, global Flood cataclysm. Moreover, 14 C in Precambrian samples puts a severe limit of the age of the earth itself.
What about other nonliving radiometric methods? Recent measurement of helium diffusion rate gives nuclear evidence for a young world! Evidence indicates 1.5 billion years worth of nuclear decay occurred within roughly the last 6000 years!
Tiny zircon crystals in the Earths continental crust are radioactive µm --contain uranium and thorium atoms
Radioactive decay makes helium. Eight Helium Atoms Nuclear decay
The helium diffuses out of the zircons. Helium Atom Crystal Atoms Lightweight Fast-moving Non-reacting Helium moves through the crystal and through cracks at crystal boundaries.
The helium is still in the zircons. Radioisotope age: 1.5 Billion years Helium retained in zircons percent of 1.5 Billion years worth : SampleDepth (meters) Temp. (º C) Helium (%) Fenton Hill, New Mexico Los Alamos geothermal site
He diffusion data support a youthful earth! Uniformitarian Jemez Zircon Data Latest data: July, µm zircon size lower temperatures Creation model D (cm 2 /sec) 1000 / Temperature (°K) Model RATE diffusion measurements confirm a short time span for all the nuclear decay: 5680 ± 2000 yr. Diffusion Measurements
Two zircon clocks disagree by factor of more than 250,000! Helium diffusion: 5680 ± 2000 years Uranium nuclear decay: 1.5 billion years The nuclear decay rate Could have been dramatically higher during brief intervals in the past.
RATE documentation is available BooksTechnical articlesLaymans articles
Quantized galaxy red shifts imply the cosmos has a center Distant star light … and our own Milky Way galaxy is the center ! … evidence for Intelligent Design !
Relativity allows a cosmos with a center to be young
Other Indicators of a Young Earth Based on the production of atmospheric helium, the atmosphere is less than 10,000 years old. Mason, Principles of Geochemistry,Wiley (1952) 186: M.Cook,"Where is the Earth's Radiogenic Helium,"Nature,179 (1957), p High concentrations of Hydrogen in the universe speaks of a youthful universe. Hoyle, The Nature of the Universe, N.Y., Harper (1960) p The present level of atmospheric Oxygen could be generated within 5000 yrs. assuming no Oxygen to start with. G.Ehrensvard, Life,Origin, and Development, Univ. of Chicago (1962) p If the earth were white hot at the beginning over billions of years ago coupled with the spin of the earth, we would get mountains 40 miles high at the equator. They dont exist (Kelvin) Other Indicators of a Young Earth
Other Indicators of a Young Earth (cont.) The sun burns up 1% of its mass every 1000 yrs., thus the earth cannot be 5 billions yrs. old. Based on the slowing down of the earth's spin it cannot be 5 billion years old. A.Fisher,"The Riddle of the Leap Second," Popular Science,202(1973),110. Erosion: wind and dust would have eroded the earth away 5 times at the current rate if it was 5 billion years old. Sharp cliffs, mountains,and oceans little affected by erosion indicate a young earth. Niagara Falls is less than 10,000 yrs. old. Dendrochronology: All living trees are less than 6000 yrs. By measuring the rate of growth of Mississippi delta, its age is about 4000 years. Other Indicators of a Young Earth
Easy-to-read books document these data
Internet sites can help you 1. Institute for Creation Research ICR.org 2. Answers in Genesis AnswersInGenesis.org 3. Creation Research Society CreationResearch.org
The Designer made a young world So you can trust the Bible Data for youth heavily outweighs data for age Young Data for age has other explanations Conclusion Old C-14