3 Workshop GoalsBuilding capacity to lead effective post crisis planning effortsKnowledge and tools for new strategic plannersShared understanding among UN system participants of roles for strategic planners and other planning participantsGreater clarity on a systematic approach to the planning process: goals, design and implementationGreater clarity on skills planners need, and on support for skill building
4 GroundrulesParticipation: many views, much experience, need for focused commentsFrank discussion of issues, no formal record of individual commentsCell phones silent (internet access in lobby)
5 Agenda Day 1 Purpose, principles and context for post-crisis planning UN system planning: roles, tools and coordinationInitiating Planning
6 Agenda Day 2 Assessing transition needs Defining UN comparative advantageBuilding Stakeholder SupportStrategies and skills: negotiation with stakeholders; results-based managementSkills and Support for Planners
7 A word about using the case… Fictitious case… still incomplete info…Hopefully reflective of many of the dynamics we collectively and typically facePurpose is to Stimulate ThinkingBring in your experiences…I.e., don’t get bogged down in the case… use it as a common foundation for group discussions
8 Session 1 Transition Planning: Context and Principles At your tables (10 min):Why plan? What are 3-5 reasons for UN country presences to undertake strategic planning exercises?
9 Strategic Priority Setting for UN Country Teams MD/MDGs/International normsMajor ChallengeUNCT Comparative Advantage2Alignment of key actors to support UNCT action134Key idea: UN RC/RR/Agency Rep. needs to be able to identify and set strategic priorities systematically.Main criteria for priority setting are represented as three circles: national challenges and opportunities; UNCT capacity/comparative advantage, and alignment of key actors with decision making power and influence to support UNCT action on an issue.Note: MDs, MDGs and other international agreements and norms are also a point of reference for UNCT. Here, we assume that they’ll be reflected in UNCT commitment to gear capacity and comparative advantage toward MD/MDGs, and in the overlap between UNCT and national challenges.At any point in time, these three circles are shifting and shiftable to differing degrees:National challenges shift due to factors largely beyond UNCT’s controlUNCT comparative advantage (mandate plus capacity plus ability to perform better than others) can shift over time through decisions and actions by RC and CT Representatives and staffsAlignment can increase through processes of negotiation and consensus building, which RC/RR/Agency heads can lead and/or participate inTop priorities (area 1) are the situations where all three criteria are met. UNCT can take action now and do some good.Potential high priorities (areas 2 and 3)Area 2: situations where there is a national challenge and UNCT capacity to meet the challenge, but key actors aren’t yet in alignment to support UNCT action. UN RC/RR/Agency Rep. can take strategic action through negotiation and consensus building to increase alignment. However, it may be impossible to gain support of key actors, in which case UNCT should not proceed.Area 3: situations where there is a challenge, and key actors are in principle supportive of UNCT action, but UNCT doesn’t actually have the comparative advantage to act. UNCT may be able to draw on regional/global UN capacity, something that will usually take time. Critical questions are whether capacity can be built quickly enough to respond effectively, and whether others are already better positioned and UNCT would be duplicative.Lower priorities (area 4) are situations where the Country Team has capacity and other actors are supportive, but action by the UNCT isn’t likely to make a significant contribution to major national challenges. These may be the hardest internal negotiations for UNCTs. There will be a strong temptation to do it “because we can.”Top strategic priorityPotential high priority: use negotiation/consensus building to seek alignmentPotential high priority: draw on regional/global UN capacity where feasible4. Lower priority: does not meet major challenge
10 Session 1 (2) Transition Planning: Context and Challenges At your tables (15 min):What makes strategic planning in post-crisis settings more challenging?
11 Session 2 Transition Planning in the UN Context: -- Roles, Tools and ProcessesDevelopmentHumanitarianPeace-KeepingPolitical Affairs
12 Session 2 (2)Based on these presentations, the Matoto case, and your own experiences:Identify some of the key challenges and opportunities (institutionally) of coordinated / joint planning.
13 Session 2 (3) Transition Planning in the UN Context: -- Roles, Tools and ProcessesEarly Recovery Advisors (ERAs) and Peace and Development Advisors (PdAs)Integrated Peace Building Strategies (PBSO)Integrated Planning in Practice: Haiti
14 Matoto Overview 3 years of violent civil war Resource / ethnic / regional triggersFood insecurity / high youth unemploymentKizu in the north: oil rich, human development poorMarch 2006: Peace brokered by UN/EUInterim AdministrationJune 2007: Legislative ElectionsFractured representation; Coalition GovtNatl Election (2010); Local (no timeline)
15 UNIMIM 3 ERAs; PDA(?); PBC(?) UN Integrated Mission in Matoto UN SC Resolution 2345 on MatotoCeasefire monitoring, Elections, Judicial Reform, Human Rights monitoring/protectionPhase-out in 2010?DSRSG/RC/HCRC Office (3 staff, 1 field)OCHA Presence15 intl, 40 natl, 5 field officesConsolidation envisioned; handover to RC Office3 ERAs; PDA(?); PBC(?)
16 UNCT 12 Resident Agencies, 3 Non-Resident Recent humanitarian focus (+/- $360m)Recovery/Development Programmes$50m annuallyTask Forces on some issues, but not all active2001 UNDAF… but crisis in 2005Most agencies develop bilaterally w/ donorsCurrent Programme tools: CAP and annual agency programme documents
17 International Actors World Bank Donors Coordination Critical of UN lack of strategic clarity, too strict a focus on humanitarian responseSupport move towards PRSPDonorsHave supported UN humanitarian role; moving towards developmentSome concerns (EU) about understanding conflict causes betterEU, France, USAID, plus several othersCoordinationDonor forum in place… primarily WB, EU, UN
18 Political Context for Recovery GovernmentWe are no longer a crisis countryReduce the CAP - hurts our imageDonors are biased for Kizu - pressuring govt by withholding development programmesKizuWants continued focus on humanitarian, w/ targeted recoveryCan’t engage in development planning until revenue-sharing / oil resource control issues are resolved.
19 Socio-Economic, Humanitarian and Security Situation Economic SectorsOil, Subsistence Agriculture, Tourism Potential(?)Low Human Development13.5m people (1999 census)160 of 177 on Human Development Index; 63% below $2/dayGreat disparities across regionsHumanitarian Needs90,000 IDPs; human rights / GBV concernsParticularly acute in KizuSecurity ThreatsSmall arms proliferationIncreasing violent crime in Kizu, reduced access to vulnerable populations
20 Initiating the Planning Process At your tables (45 min – 1 flip-chart page):Timing: What kinds of criteria can / should be used to determine if the timing is right to initiate a post-crisis planning process?Integration: How would a UNCT strategic plan be linked with Mission planning? What role / purpose could the ISF play? What coordination challenges can you anticipate?Parameters: What are the critical parameters (e.g., timing, scope) to define and agree on within the UNCT, with the Mission, and with key partners, in order to start the planning process?
21 Initiating Post-Crisis Planning Roles of the Strategic PlannerMapping and Tracking Overall Planning Context (Natl, Intl, Agency)Identifying potential entry pointsFraming the Right QuestionsTiming, Rationales, Parameters, Consultations, PoliticalWorking w/ RC to identify who needs to be involved in addressing different questionsFacilitate the Process of Engagement
22 Initiating the Planning Process Initiating Planning in Practice:Lebanon
23 Day 1: Wrap-Up Homework Assignment: Case Reading; Comparative Advantage Profiles of UNCT Agencies
25 Matoto: Assessing Post-Crisis Needs UNCT:Has decided to develop recovery frameworkGrounded in thorough analysis/understanding of country’s needsPrime MinisterConcerned that full-blown needs assessment will delay PRSPSufficient studies already existCertain issues, such as SSR, are off-limitsMinistries concerned about including ‘capacity assessments’ - fear of losing control of resources and project implementation
26 Update (2) … Kizu: WB/Donors: Support in-depth needs assessment Support special focus on Kizu as separate exercise, due to specific regional concernsWB/Donors:Differences over process, competing priorities anticipated based on part 1 of case
27 Assessing Post-Crisis Needs At your tables (25 min – 1 flip-chart page)Concerns: How should the UN respond to the concerns of key governmental, political and/or other stakeholders about the assessment?Parameters: Recognizing that you would need more information to give a definitive answer: What are some key parameters you would suggest for the needs assessment in Matoto?Linkages: What are the key links to establish between this needs assessment and other related existing or upcoming processes (security, political, etc)?
28 Assessing Post-Crisis Needs Roles of the Strategic Planner:Frame the Issues / QuestionsScope, Consultations, ParametersFlag Potential Political ConsiderationsIdentify Potential OptionsDesign Effective Stakeholder StrategyCoordinate/Manage the Processw/ Reference to capacity, opportunities to delegateOverall: Ensure that sound analysis underpins the strategic planning effort; and that analysis is shared w/ relevant key actors.
29 Initiating the Planning Process Key factors to considerState of the conflict: assuming a peace agreement in place, is there a level of security and stability across substantial portions of the country that would allow recovery and institution-building?Alignment of key actors: is the government willing to participate in planning, and does it have capacity to do so? Are donors and international political actors supportive? Is the UN system (mission and UNCT, HQ counterparts) in agreement on the need to begin planning?Planning frameworks and tools: is there agreement between UNCT and Mission on a coordinated and integrated approach to planning—including links to gov’t planning? On the methods and tools to be used? Is there sufficient UN planning capacity in place?
30 Assessing Post-Crisis Needs Assessing Post-Crisis Needs in Practice:Somalia
31 Comparative Advantage Mandate to act+Capacity to actUnique Niches for UN ActorsOnly the UN can act in this area in this wayThe UN has a unique contribution in this areaThe UN is better positioned than other actors
32 Elements of Comparative Advantage… Relationships with key partnersAccess/Influence with key decision-makersLegitimacy (e.g. from mandate, other)Reputation/Track recordField Presence/Infrastructure/Admin. & managementFinancial ResourcesTechnical/Analytic ResourcesCost-Effective DeliveryEffective Programme Approaches / MethodologiesAs compared with other actors who might play same/similar role…
33 Update from Matoto… Matoto Assessment Process (MAP) ‘Light’ Needs AssessmentPriorities from the MAP finalization workshopEqual and affordable access to quality social services, focus on health and primary education, across the territoryEnvironmental degradation, through transparent and efficient management of natural resources and rehabilitation of infrastructureCore state functions and capacities, national cohesion, unity, citizen participationAchieve pro-poor economic growth, youth employment generation, financial management
34 Update from Matoto (2)…Stakeholders welcomed renewed emphasis on access to social services and employmentExpansion of Recovery PlanCertain issues, such as SSR and reconciliation, outConsequence of achieving results in these priority areasKizuRefused to endorse final report; didn’t treat Kizu separatelyUNCT ready to move ahead with addressing these prioritiesDSRSG/RC/HC: Asked each agency to prepare statement of comparative advantage.
35 Working Groups: Part 3 At your tables (25 min – 1 flip-chart page): Challenges: What kinds of obstacles / challenges do you anticipate in this phase of assessing comparative advantage?Methodologies: What else would you want to know to inform the comparative advantage analysis before developing UN strategies, and how might you find out? (i.e., what methodologies might you use)?Integration: What opportunities might exist for agency mandates and capacities to either conflict with or complement Mission mandates and capacities? What role(s) can/should the planners from both the Mission and the UNCT play in this phase of comparative advantage analysis?
38 Matoto: Stakeholder Support Proposed UNCT Strategies:National capacities to provide basic services to vulnerable populations are strengthened including through pro-poor allocation of budgetary resourcesLivelihood opportunities are increased, through public works, small scale income generating activities and environmental rehabilitationThe country’s human rights framework is aligned with international standards and monitoring systems are established, leading to a reduction of human rights violations.Citizens’ participation and engagement in public affairs are strengthened, and the design and implementation of national policies reflect the concerns and needs of all segments of the population
39 Matoto: Stakeholder Support At your tables:How would you go about building broader stakeholder support for the key strategic results developed by the UNCT?What kind of process would you propose and design? How would you frame the purpose of the process? Who would you want to consult with?What is the role of the strategic planner in this phase of building stakeholder support?
41 Matoto: Part 5 – Stakeholder Engagement As the Strategic Planner, you have invited key stakeholders to discuss the UN post-crisis strategy.Stakeholders include:MissionCentral GovernmentKizu AuthoritiesWorld BankEach has expressed initial feedback on the proposed strategy.General Instructions: Information common to everyoneConfidential Instructions: Private information about your role.
42 Matoto: Part 5 – Stakeholder Engagement The meeting will begin in 15 minutes and last for 60 minutesUse the next 15 minutes to prepare for the meeting.For those playing the role of Strategic Planner, consider your goals / purpose of the meeting, and how you plan to use the 60 minutes of the meeting.
44 Skills, Competencies and Support Given the task, context, roles and challenges of strategic planning in post-crisis settings:What are the critical skills and/or competencies required?What kinds of support would be helpful?If you had 1 hour per week, 1 week per quarter, 1 month in a year: What would be the highest value professional development opportunities?
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