Presentation on theme: "Sustaining Caribbean Coastal Areas"— Presentation transcript:
1Sustaining Caribbean Coastal Areas Population, Health, andCoastal Resource ManagementRoger-Mark De SouzaPopulation Reference Bureau
2The Case of Small Islands “Small island developing States … are ecologically fragile and vulnerable. Their small size, limited resources, geographic dispersion and isolation from markets, place them at a disadvantage economically and prevent economies of scale. For SIDS the ocean and coastal environment is of strategic importance and constitutes a valuable development resource.”- Agenda 21, Chapter 7, para
3Some Key Points… Role of population dynamics Health impacts in coastal areasManagement strategiesLessons from community based project
4What Are Coastal Zones? Coastlines 120 miles wide From low-tide mark inland and extending seawardIncludes ecosystems near shore:barrier islands, mangrove swamps, salt marshes, seagrass beds, coral reefsIncludes marine fisheries
5Importance of Coastal Zones Provide region with food and materials for new medicinesProtect coastal settlements from storm damageGenerate income from tourismFragile and vulnerable biodiversity
6Importance for Caribbean Steep slopes and rapid changes in topography create small, scattered ecosystemsSmall size of ecosystemsConcentration of population and activities in small areas intensifies stress conditionsHigh frequency and variety of natural disastersClose coupling of terrestrial, coastal and marine systems results in fast-spreading impacts among systems
7Human Causes of Change in Coastal Zones Population DynamicsEconomic GrowthTechnological ChangeEarth’s resources provide energy and raw materials for human activities, and these activities, in turn, have an impact on Earth’s resources and systems. These are some of the ways that humans interact with the environment — and these types of interaction have always existed. Let’s explore the three main components of population dynamics and talk a little bit about how these components interact with environment and health variables.Political-EconomicInstitutionsAttitudes and Beliefs
8Population, Health, and Coasts Human Health PerspectiveSizeCompositionDistributionWhen we talk about “population” these are the characteristics we need to consider:-Size-Distribution of a population-CompositionEnvironmental Health Perspective
9Population Balancing Equation Pt+1= Pt + (Births - Deaths) + (Inmig. - Outmig.)Natural IncreaseNet MigrationGross migration is the total number of people moving into or away from a place. Net migration is the gain or loss in population that results.
11Migration TrendsNet migration usually more significant than natural increaseHigh emigration rates — safety valveUsually a significant return flowTrinidad and Tobago — 85 percent to 98 percent
12Distribution and Composition 60 percent of the Caribbean population lives less than 100 kilometers from a coast30 percent of the population is under age 157 percent is over age 65
13Future Population Trends Declining fertilityDeclining mortalityIncreasing life expectancyLow population growth
14Population in 2010 Stable or decreasing population under 25 Increase by about 13 percent of population 25-64Labor force population = 65 percent of populationGreatest increase in year old groupPeople 65+ will constitute 10 percent of total populationSource: Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (www.carec.org/mortaility/p03.htm).
15Population PressuresAll capital cities in insular Caribbean are on coastsCoastal areas identified with principal industrial complexes, trade centers, and resort tourism enclavesSource: GEO (UNEP) Latin America and the Caribbean – Environment Outlook – p 39
16Impacts on Coastal Zones Residence in coastal zoneSewage and waste disposalClearance of mangroves and littoral forest for human habitationIncreased pressure on local fisheriesErosion, siltation, floods, stormsIncreasing development fueled by remittances
17Temporary Populations… “The region is moving from the production and sale of primary materials such as sugar, cotton, and fruits to the sale of tourism services based on sun, sand, and sea.”— State of the Environment Report, UNEP
18Tourism 100 million tourists visit Caribbean each year Is about 12 percent of LAC’s gross domestic productConcentrated along the coasts43 percent of combined gross domestic product of Caribbean and one third of export revenuesFor 2005, scuba-diving tourism could generate some US$1.2 billion in incomeSource: Environment Outlook – GEO – UNEP – p42
19Impacts of Tourism 70,000 tons of waste are generated Increasing popularity of yacht and cruise ship destination produces more wasteInadequate collection systems in ports to deal with solid waste produced by visitorsHavana Bay has concentrations of 70 micromoles per liter of nitrogen from ammonia and between 0.7 and 2.5 micromoles per liter of phosphorus, causing eutrophication of certain areas
20Types of Pollutants Toxic chemicals Sewage Agricultural nutrients Nonbiodegradable litterSedimentsPollution from maritime transport and oil production and pollution
21Sediments and Pollution Sediment load in coastal waters more than 10 million tons per yearExcessive fertilizer use furthered algal population growth and eutrophication in coastal lagoonsBetween 80 percent and 90 percent waste waters discharged without treatmentRegion’s mangrove ecosystems are being affectedUp to 65 percent of Mexico’s mangroves lostSource: UNEP – GEO – Latin America and Caribbean – Environment Outlook p 43
22Some Positive TrendsIslands with fewer people and little fishing pressure have reefs in good shapeBonaire, Cayman, Turks and Caicos, parts of BahamasSometimes diving tourism promoted awareness of reef conservationTwo-thirds of coral reefs in Caribbean are at risk, one-third are at high-risk (Bryant et al., WRI).
23Two-thirds of Reefs at Risk LowHighMediumTwo-thirds of Reefs at RiskMost reefs off Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Barbados highly threatenedAll reefs of Lesser Antilles are at riskSource: World Resources Institute
24Ecosystem Health Fisheries depletion from bycatch Negative ecosystem impacts from types of fishing gear and blast fishingExploitation and loss of food supplyPoor managementExotic speciesLoss of marine faunaUnhealthy coastal habitat
25Major Causes of Disease Sewage from untreated or poorly treated domestic wasteBathing in or ingesting sewage-contaminated water can cause ear, eye, and skin infections, cholera, infectious hepatitis, pneumoniaChildren under age 5 are particularly affectedChemicals and heavy metals caused by runoff of pesticides and industrial effluents that become stored in seafoodMost dangerous are ones like mercury that persist in marine environment and accumulate in food chain
26Current Coastal Management Independent stand-alone coastal manage-ment units (legislation)Coastal zone divisions (large, comprehen-sive management agencies)Fragmented management systems (piecemeal regulation and legislation)Implied recognition ofvulnerability of coastal zone to sea level riseneed for regulation of pollutantsUN, State of the Environment – The Caribbean, p. 15.
27Integrated Coastal Management Management of coastal zone as a whole in relation to local, regional, national, and international goalsConsiders community needs and relevant practices in given localityfisheries, aquaculture, forestry, manufacturing industry, waste disposal, and tourismBalance between competing uses of water and natural resources, hoping for long-term environmental health and productivity
28Key Elements of ICM Multiple stakeholders Strong scientific foundation Early public participationCommunity and local managementNetworking at regional and national levelsCapacity buildingStrong extension servicesReliable data and indicators to measure success
29Ideas to ponder — How to… Manage coastal issues in an integrated wayAddress population factors and human needsEducate public and raise awarenessInvolve communities in protection and managementCreate social and economic incentives