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Wake-on-WLAN Power management for mesh networks using

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1 Wake-on-WLAN Power management for 802.11 mesh networks using 802.15.4
Nilesh Mishra, Bhaskaran Raman, Abhinav Pathak Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kanpur Kameswari Chebrolu Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

2 802.11 Mesh Network 802.11 designed for indoor usage
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions designed for indoor usage Usage of for long distance connectivity Power as a constraint Lack of support in current hardware Wake-on-WLAN Summary: Current hardware is not power efficient but is being used to provide long distance connectivity

3 Power Consumption Measurements
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions A typical mesh node Single board computer based bridge/router Directional Antenna RF cable for connections * *http://www.hyperlinktech.com/web/hg2424g.php

4 Power Consumption Measurements (continued)
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Observations on power consumption: Increases with insertion of card Higher for Tx than Rx Considerable variation over different card makes Summary: Even idle power consumption is significant

5 Trivial solution Node 1 Node 3 Wired Gateway Node 2 Node 4
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Node 1 Node 3 Wired Gateway Node 2 Node 4

6 Requirements Node 1 Node 3 Wired Gateway Node 2 Node 4 • Introduction
• Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Node 1 Node 3 Wired Gateway Node 2 Node 4

7 WOW! Node 1 Node 3 Wired Gateway Node 2 Node 4 • Introduction
• Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Node 1 Node 3 Wired Gateway Node 2 Node 4

8 IEEE 802.15.4 Energy optimized Low cost radio (< $5)
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Energy optimized Low cost radio (< $5) Works in the same 2.4GHz as Sensor motes Microcontroller Power Supply Subsystem Communication Subsystem Sensing Subsystem Application Layer Subsystem CPU Memory Radio Software Sensor ADC/DAC Battery

9 Architecture Nodes turned off Remote turn on Multi-hop setting
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Wired Gateway Node 1 Node 3 Nodes turned off Remote turn on Multi-hop setting Delay due to boot up Node 2 Node 4

10 Architecture Node 1 Antenna Node 2 Battery • Introduction • Results
• Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Node 1 Antenna RF switch or splitter Power switching circuit Node 2 Battery

11 Implementation Details
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Use of Chipcon’s CC2420 CCA mode Configurable frequency and energy threshold parameters Relay based switching circuit Does not store the state CCA modes of Clear if energy below threshold Clear if valid packet Clear if valid packet and energy below threshold Summary: compliant radio is able to detect traffic

12 Wake-on-WLAN Features
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions On-demand, course-grained power on/off of networking equipments at a remote site. Use of off the shelf compliant sensor motes working in 2.4 GHz. Setting ideal for rural deployment. Usage of data channel itself for remote wake-up No separate antenna (shared with equipment).

13 Detection of 802.11 Transmission
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions A laptop with D-Link DWL b card running ‘trafficgen’ application as data traffic source Packets of size 1462 bytes at 1Mbps with inter packet intervals of 10, 20 and 100ms Polling of CCA pin on sensor node every 3ms Summary: Traffic pattern of successfully replicated on motes

14 Outdoor Evaluations • Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Validation on 3.5Km IITK-Mohanpur link on DGP testbed External antenna connected Calibrated card for determining RxPower Summary: Low sensitivity of essential for working of Wake-on-WLAN in long distance settings

15 Example Scenario • Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Power consumption of Soekris acting as a router/switch with two wireless b cards = 7.7W (typical) Boot-up time for Soekris 50s VoIP service in Sarauhan in the DGP testbed Usage pattern: 15 calls/day of 71s avg duration Sensor mote typical values: Vcc = 2.8V and I = 23mA with CPU and Radio receiving.

16 Example Scenario Thus power saving is: Eno_wow = Pup x Tup
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Eno_wow = Pup x Tup Ewow = Emote + Ebootup + Eusage where Emote = Vmote x Imote x Tidle Ebootup = Pbootup x Tbootup Eusage = Pup x Tactive Using above values Eno_wow = 120 Whrs Emote = 1.54Whrs Ebootup = 1.04Whrs Eusage = 7.73Whrs Thus power saving is: (Eno_wow – Ewow)/ Eno_wow Greater than 91%

17 Discussion Does not work on 802.11a
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Does not work on a Hibernation facility desired: faster boot-up Suffers from noise generated triggers Advanced usage: morphing topology More detailed study of usage pattern for better power savings.

18 Related Work Narrow band RF detector Wake-On-Wireless [Shieh, et al]
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Narrow band RF detector Wake-On-Wireless [Shieh, et al] Concept of ‘smart brick’ and ‘mini brick’ Separate frequency channel for wake-up Turducken: Hierarchical power management for mobile devices [Sorber, et al] Hierarchy of devices Decomposition of task Use of WiFi detectors Wake-on-Wireless Turducken Wake-on-LAN Separate antenna for detection Yes No Separate data and trigger channels Suitable for low cost long distance links Summary: Usage scenario for Rural Networking and use of is unique

19 Application Scenarios
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions VOIP usage in a typical setup 10-30 calls of 1-2 minutes duration Solar Power WiFi (http://www.green-wifi.org/) Low cost solar powered WiFi grid. On-demand data retrieval for bridge monitoring. Summary: Wake-on-WLAN is useful in energy constrained use of equipments

20 Applications Base node Node 4 Node 3 Node 2 Node 1 IEEE 802.15.4
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions External Antenna Base node Node 4 Node 3 Node 2 Node 1 IEEE 802.11 BriMon Project With: Hemanth Haridas CSE, IIT Kanpur

21 Application BriMon Project • Introduction • Results • Motivation
• Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions BriMon Project With: Hemanth Haridas CSE, IIT Kanpur

22 Application BriMon Project • Introduction • Results • Motivation
• Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions BriMon Project With: Hemanth Haridas CSE, IIT Kanpur

23 New Developments Signature pattern based Wake-on-WLAN
• Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Signature pattern based Wake-on-WLAN Checks for a pattern in a code window Overcomes the problem of noise triggered false wake-up Works in existence of periodic or non periodic noise. Improvements in switching circuit Latching circuit Transistor based switch

24 Conclusions • Introduction • Results • Motivation • Related Work • Prototype • Recent Addition • Results • Conclusions Lack of power save mode in current WiFi Mesh networking hardware Novel Wake-on-WLAN mechanism for multi hop remote on-demand wake-up of mesh nodes. Substantial power savings using Wake-on-WLAN (> 91%). Prototype tested and verified for rural deployment Newer applications emerging. Summary: Power management tools are required for current based networks deployed in energy constrained scenarios


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