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Knowledge Modeling and its Application in Life Sciences: A Tale of two ontologies Bioinformatics for Glycan Expression Integrated Technology Resource for.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Modeling and its Application in Life Sciences: A Tale of two ontologies Bioinformatics for Glycan Expression Integrated Technology Resource for."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Modeling and its Application in Life Sciences: A Tale of two ontologies Bioinformatics for Glycan Expression Integrated Technology Resource for Biomedical Glycomics NCRR/NIH Satya S. SahooSatya S. Sahoo, Chris Thomas, Amit P. Sheth, William S. York, Samir TartirAmit P. Sheth PaperPaper Presented at 15 th International World Wide Web Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland May 25, 2006

2 Outline Background Ontology Structure Ontology Population: Knowledge base Ontology Size Measures Applications in Semantic Bioinformatics Conclusions

3 Study of structure, function and quantity of complex carbohydrate synthesized by an organism Carbohydrates added to basic protein structure - Glycosylation Folded protein structure (schematic) Background: glycomics

4 Outline Background Ontology Structure Ontology Population: Knowledge base Ontology Size Measures Applications in Semantic Bioinformatics Conclusions

5 Requirements from ontologies Storing, sharing of data + reasoning over biological data logical rigor Expressive as well as decidable language OWL-DL Incorporation of real world knowledge ontology population Ensure amenability to alignment with existing bio-medical ontologies

6 Challenge – model hundreds of thousands of complex carbohydrate entities But, the differences between the entities are small (E.g. just one component) How to model all the concepts but preclude redundancy ensure maintainability, scalability GlycO ontology

7 N. Takahashi and K. Kato, Trends in Glycosciences and Glycotechnology, 15: D -GlcpNAc - D -Manp -(1-4)- - D -Manp -(1-6)+ - D -GlcpNAc -(1-2)- - D -Manp -(1-3)+ - D -GlcpNAc -(1-4)- - D -GlcpNAc -(1-2)+ GlycoTree

8 Two aspects of glycoproteomics: oWhat is it? identification oHow much of it is there? quantification Heterogeneity in data generation process, instrumental parameters, formats Need data and process provenance ontology-mediated provenance Hence, ProPreO models both the glycoproteomics experimental process and attendant data ProPreO ontology

9 parent ion m/z fragment ion m/z ms/ms peaklist data fragment ion abundance parent ion abundance parent ion charge Ontology-mediated provenance Mass Spectrometry (MS) Data

10 Ontological Concepts Ontology-mediated provenance Semantically Annotated MS Data

11 Compatibility with existing Biomedical ontologies Top level classes are modeled according to the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) approach Taxonomy of relationships and multiple restrictions per class accuracy Hence, both GlycO and ProPreO are compatible with ontologies that follow BFO approach Exploring alignment with ontologies listed at Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)

12 Outline Background Ontology Structure Ontology Population: Knowledge base Ontology Size Measures Applications in Semantic Bioinformatics Conclusions

13 Multiple data sources used in populating the ontology oKEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes oSWEETDB oCARBANK Database Each data source has different schema for storing data There is significant overlap of instances in the data sources Hence, entity disambiguation and a common representational format are needed GlycO population

14 [][Asn]{[(4+1)][b-D-GlcpNAc] {[(4+1)][b-D-GlcpNAc] {[(4+1)][b-D-Manp] {[(3+1)][a-D-Manp] {[(2+1)][b-D-GlcpNAc] {}[(4+1)][b-D-GlcpNAc] {}}[(6+1)][a-D-Manp] {[(2+1)][b-D-GlcpNAc]{}}}}}} GlycO population

15 GlycO population

16 ProPreO population: transformation to rdf Scientific Data Computational Methods Ontology instances

17 Protein RDF chemical mass monoisotopic mass amino-acid sequence n-glycosylation concensus Protein Data amino-acid sequence Chemical Mass RDF Monoisotopic Mass RDF Amino-acid Sequence RDF Peptide RDF chemical mass monoisotopic mass amino-acid sequence n-glycosylation concensus parent protein Calculate Chemical Mass Calculate Monoisotopic Mass Determine N-glycosylation Concensus Key Protein Path Peptide Path amino-acid sequence Extract Peptide Amino-acid Sequence from Protein Amino-acid Sequence ProPreO population: transformation to rdf Scientific Data Computational Methods RDF

18 Outline Background Ontology Structure Ontology Population: Knowledge base Ontology Size Measures Applications in Semantic Bioinformatics Conclusions

19 Measures of ontology size GlycOProPreO Classes Properties (datatype & object) 8232 Property restrictions instances million assertions 19, million

20 Outline Background Ontology Structure Ontology Population: Knowledge base Ontology Size Measures Applications in Semantic Bioinformatics Conclusions

21 Pathways do not need to be explicitly defined in GlycO. The residue-, glycan-, enzyme- and reaction descriptions contain all the knowledge necessary to infer pathways Glycan structure and function Biological pathways

22 The N-Glycan with KEGG ID is the substrate to the reaction R05987, which is catalyzed by an enzyme of the class EC The product of this reaction is the Glycan with KEGG ID Reaction R05987 catalyzed by enzyme adds_glycosyl_residue N-glycan_b-D-GlcpNAc_13 Zooming in a little….

23 Semantic Web Process to incorporate provenance Storage Standard Format Data Raw Data Filtered Data Search Results Final Output Agent Biological Sample Analysis by MS/MS Raw Data to Standard Format Data Pre- process DB Search (Mascot/ Sequest) Results Post- process (ProValt) OIOIOIOIO Biological Information Semantic Annotation Applications

24 Formalized domain knowledge is in ontologies Data is annotated using concepts from the ontologies Semantic annotations enable identification and extraction of relevant information Relationships allow discovery of knowledge that is implicit in the data Overview - integrated semantic information system

25 Outline Background Ontology Structure Ontology Population: Knowledge base Ontology Size Measures Applications in Semantic Bioinformatics Conclusions

26 GlycO uses simple canonical entities to build complex structures thereby avoids redundancy ensures maintainability and scalability ProPreO is the first comprehensive ontology for data and process provenance in glycoproteomics Web process for entity disambiguation and common representational format populated ontology from disparate data sources The two ontologies are among the largest populated ontologies in life sciences Conclusions

27 Data, ontologies, more publications at Biomedical Glycomics project web site: Thank You


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