# Background Knowledge for Ontology Construction Blaž Fortuna, Marko Grobelnik, Dunja Mladenić, Institute Jožef Stefan, Slovenia.

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Background Knowledge for Ontology Construction Blaž Fortuna, Marko Grobelnik, Dunja Mladenić, Institute Jožef Stefan, Slovenia

Bag-of-words Documents are encoded as vectors Each element of vector corresponds to frequency of one word Each word can also be weighted corresponding to the importance of the word There exist various ways of selecting word weights. In our paper we propose a method to learn them! computer2 mathematics2 are1 and4 science3 …… computer0.9 mathematics0.8 are0.01 and0.01 science0.9 …… computer1.8 mathematics1.6 are0.01 and0.04 science2.7 …… Word Weigts Important Noise Computers are used in increasingly diverse ways in Mathematics and the Physical and Life Sciences. This workshop aims to bring together researchers in Mathematics, Computer Science, and Sciences to explore the links between their disciplines and to encourage new collaborations.

SVM Feature selection Input: Set documents Set of categories Each document is assigned a subset of categories Output: Ranking of words according to importance Intuition: Word is important if it discriminates documents according to categories. Basic algorithm: Learn linear SVM classifier for each of the categories. Word is important if it is important for classification into any of the categories. Reference: Brank J., Grobelnik M., Milic- Frayling N. & Mladenic D. Feature selection using support vector machines.

Word weight learning Algorithm: 1.Calculate linear SVM classifier for each category 2.Calculate word weights for each category from SVM normal vectors. Weight for i-th word and j-th category is: 3.Final word weights are calculated separately for each document: The word weight learning method is based on SVM feature selection. Besides ranking the words it also assigns them weights based on SVM classifier. Notation: N – number of documents {x 1, …, x N } – documents C(x i ) – set of categories for document x i n – number of words {w 1, …, w n } – word weights {n j 1, …, n j n } – SVM normal vector for j-th category

OntoGen system System for semi-automatic ontology construction –Why semi-automatic? The system only gives suggestions to the user, the user always makes the final decision. The system is data-driven and can scale to large collections of documents. Current version focused on construction of Topic Ontologies, next version will be able to deal with more general ontologies. Can import/export RDF. There is a big divide between unsupervised and fully supervised construction tools. Both approaches have weak points: –it is difficult to obtain desired results using unsupervised methods, e.g. limited background knowledge –manual tools (e.g. Protégé, OntoStudio) are time consuming, user needs to know the entire domain. We combined these two approaches in order to eliminate these weaknesses: –the user guides the construction process, –the system helps the user with suggestions based on the document collection. http://kt.ijs.si/blazf/examples/ontogen.html

Context Topic How does OnteGen help? By identifying the topics and relations between them: … using k-means clustering: cluster of documents => topic documents are assigned to clusters => subject-of relation We can repeat clustering on a subset of documents assigned to a specific topic => identifies subtopics and subtopic-of relation By naming the topics: … using centroid vector: A centroid vector of a given topic is the average document from this topic (normalised sum of topics documents) Most descriptive keywords for a given topic are the words with the highest weights in the centroid vector. … using linear SVM classifier: SVM classifier is trained to seperate documents of the given topic from the other document in the context Words that are found most mportant for the classification are selected as keywords for the topic

Suggestions of subtopics Topic ontology visualization Topic ontology Topic KeywordsAll documents Selected topic Outlier detection Topic document

Topic ontology of Yahoo! Finances

Background knowledge in OntoGen All of the methods in OntoGen are based on bag-of-words representation. By using a different word weights we can tune these methods according to the users needs. The user needs to group the documents into categories. This can be done efficiently using active learning. http://kt.ijs.si/blazf/examples/ontogen.html

Influence of background knowledge Data: Reuters news articles Each news is assigned two different sets of tags: –Topics –Countries Each set of tags offers a different view on the data Topics view Countries view Documents

Links OntoGen: http://ontogen.ijs.si/ Text Garden: http://www.textmining.net/

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