Presentation on theme: "Tactile Graphics Making Tests Accessible to Students with Visual Impairments APH Training Workshop August 18-19, 2008 Presenter Karen J. Poppe."— Presentation transcript:
Tactile Graphics Making Tests Accessible to Students with Visual Impairments APH Training Workshop August 18-19, 2008 Presenter Karen J. Poppe
Tactile Graphics are used by braille readers to obtain information that print readers get from visual pictures. TACTILE = can be perceived by touch Other terms used: Raised-line graphics, pictures, or illustrations Embossed images Relief drawings Tactile representations/displays
When is a Tactile Graphic Necessary? To convey the structure of objects too difficult to understand through words alone To describe a real object that cannot be experienced through touchi.e., its too large or too small to examine When the shape/form/pattern is important to demonstrate To illustrate scale & relationships: biology, maps, mathematics When a map/figure/graph is needed by a student to participate in classroom discussions or to answer questions
When is a Tactile Graphic Necessary? To orient tactile readers to objects/places in everyday life (e.g., map of a campus, bus route, airport terminal, etc.) To enhance educational experiences (e.g., to add interest to braille storybooks)
VISUAL vs. TACTUAL PERCEPTION Visual Perception --Objects can be experienced in their totalityat a glance --Depth, foreshortening, slight shading and size differences, etc., can be discerned. --Objects/pictures can be identified despite different rendering styles (e.g., outline, cartoon, photograph, certain viewpoint, etc.) Tactual Perception --Based upon sequential observation --Individual pieces of information are connected to build a mental image. --Depth is lost --Subtle dimensional changes cannot be detected, nor subtle line directions or textural differences.
Successful interpretation of tactile graphics will depend upon… A students tactile skills and past experiences with tactile graphics [refer to handout in folder on Early Tactile Skills and Concepts] Quality of the tactile graphics created (e.g., adherence to TG standards and appropriate selection of tactile method)
COLORS FROM DIFFERENT PALETTES Capsule Paper Thermoform Embossed Paper Thermography Collage Braille Graphics [refer to handout in folder on Tactile Graphic Methods]
TACTILE TERMINOLOGY Basic Ingredients of a Tactile Graphic Lines Point Symbols Areal/textured patterns Labels [refer to handout in folder on Tactile Terminology] labels
TACTILE DESIGN PRINCIPLES/CONVENTIONS Simplify Eliminate unnecessary information and decorative frills, i.e., tactile clutter Important: During test adaptation, its understood that some distractors are intentional and should be incorporated into the graphic. The desired goals are to 1) maintain the original intent of the test item; 2) prevent giving unfair advantage to the braille reader; 3) ensure tactile readability.
TACTILE DESIGN PRINCIPLES/CONVENTIONS Simplify (cont.) Replace complex objects with simple shapes (e.g., point symbols for counting tasks) Complex diagrams may be separated into two separate tactile displays. Replace 3D figures with 2D, except for some mathematical and scientific diagrams.
TACTILE DESIGN PRINCIPLES/CONVENTIONS Resize Graphic Enlarge graphic for braille label placement and sufficient space between tactile elements. Enlarge graphic to show critical details or to increase clarity. Distort space or shape if necessary.
TACTILE DESIGN PRINCIPLES/CONVENTIONS Consistency Same tactile design styles are employed from one graphic to the next. For example: selected texture to symbolize water should be applied to all maps. Keys/legends are always placed directly before the graphic, either on the same page or previous page Facing pages are used when test item requires more than one page.
TACTILE DESIGN PRINCIPLES/CONVENTIONS Consistency Compass rose and mileage scale are always moved to the top of the page. Grid lines in a graph should be less significant than plotted data; axis lines should be heavier than grid lines. Order of key listing: 1) textures; 2) lines; 3) point symbols; 4) alphabetic key; 5) numeric key
RESEARCH ENDEAVORS BANAS GRASP STUDY[Graphics Research And Standards Project] APH Research & Product Development
Tactile Tools and Materials Useful to Braille Readers for Test Taking Purposes
The sample test items shown in following slides were obtained from: Arizonas Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS): Sample Tests http://www.ade/az.gov/standards/AIMS/ SampleTests/ Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test: Sample Test Material Archive http://www.firn.edu/doe/sas/fcat/ facatsmpl.htm
Rating Scale GOOD= Minimal or no adjustments needed, OR graphic not necessary at all BAD= Requires some adjustments that would make it tactually understandable UGLY= Extensive adjustments needed, OR not feasible for tactile readability purposes.