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Academic Literacy and Study Strategies for Secondary-level and College Readers: A Research Update International Reading Associations 2007 Annual Convention.

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Literacy and Study Strategies for Secondary-level and College Readers: A Research Update International Reading Associations 2007 Annual Convention."— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Literacy and Study Strategies for Secondary-level and College Readers: A Research Update International Reading Associations 2007 Annual Convention Toronto, Ontario, Canada May 14, 2007 Co-Sponsored Session College Reading and Learning Association Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D. University of Bridgeport

2 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Research about Academic Literacies Flippo, R. F. & Caverly, D. C. (2000). Handbook of college reading and study strategy research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kamil, M. L., Mosenthal, P. B., Pearson, P. D., Barr, R. (2000). Handbook of reading research, Volume III. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Flood, J., Lapp, D., Squire, J. R., Jensen, J. (2003). Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts, 2 nd edition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

3 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Research about Academic Literacies College Teaching Educational Psychologist Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy Journal of College Reading and Learning Journal of Developmental Education Journal of Instructional Psychology

4 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Strategic Studying and Learning Question 1: Whats characteristic of learning?

5 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Strategic Studying and Learning Question 1: Whats characteristic of learning? –Meaningful: Surface versus Deep Learning (Glaser, 1991; Haggis, 2003) –Long-term versus Short-term Effect –Task Specific (Jenkins, 1979) –Subject Specific –Knowledge Rich (Alexander, 1996) What works? What doesnt? Myths, lies, and misconceptions…

6 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Strategic Study Reading and Learning How a Learner Processes Information (Mayer, 1988) The focus is on the learner, not on teacher instruction. This is not reading comprehension as such but the processes inherent in working with texts for the purposes of recalling, remembering, and producing responses.

7 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Metacognitive Act Know what to do and when to do it (Allgood, Risko, Alvarez, & Fairbanks, 2000)

8 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Goals Question 2: What are basic goals of studying?

9 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Goals Question 2: What are basic goals of studying? Locate Information Understand and Remember Content Organize Information (Roe, 2007)

10 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Self-Regulated Learning (Winne, 1995, Martin, 2004) Skill & Will to Learn

11 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Strategies Question 3: What are strategies?

12 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Strategies Question 3: What are strategies? Study Strategies versus Skills Procedural (Alexander et al., 2000) »Internalized Procedures & Heuristics »Effect of Subject-Matter Knowledge –Purposeful –Effortful –Willful –Essential –Facilitative Goal Directed Efficient

13 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Strategies Question 4: Name some widely used college and secondary-level study strategies: Before Reading the Text… Working with the Text… After Reading the Text….

14 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Strategies Before Reading the Text Strategies –Previewing (Surveying) Working with the Text Strategies –Underlining –Notetaking –Annotating –Questioning –Outlining –Mapping After Reading Strategies –Summarizing –Reviewing –Remembering Vocabulary Taking the Test Strategies

15 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Processes Question 5: What are underlying processes for successful study?

16 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Processes Question 5: What are underlying processes for successful study? –Encoding –Organizing –Monitoring –Employing a Study Plan Selecting the Appropriate Strategy for the Task (such as studying for a test) and for the Domain (for example: English Literature or Mathematics) (Cukras, G. G., 2006)

17 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA A Theoretical Framework (Weinstein & Mayer, 1985) Rehearsal Elaboration Organizational Monitoring Affective & Motivational

18 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Processes and Strategies Weak Strong _________________________________________ Rehearsal Organizational Elaboration _________________________________________ Underlining Mapping Annotating Highlighting Outlining Summarizing

19 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Discussion Question #1 You are preparing for an exam in psychology. The exam will cover about 8 chapters from your course textbook and your class notes. The test is in two weeks. The test focuses primarily on concepts and vocabulary from those chapters. The test includes application-type questions in which you are expected to choose the appropriate term that illustrates the concept. What would be the best study strategies?

20 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Discussion Question #1 You are preparing for an exam in psychology. The exam will cover about 8 chapters from your course textbook and your class notes. The test is in two weeks. The test focuses primarily on concepts and vocabulary from those chapters. The test includes application-type questions in which you are expected to choose the appropriate term that illustrates the concept. What would be the best study strategies? –Factual Study Guides (Brothen T. & Wambach, C., 2000) –Concept Mapping (Romance & Vitale, 1999) –Vocabulary Note Cards –Reviewing Lecture Notes (Austin, J. L., Lee, M.; Carr, J., 2004) –Practice Test-taking (Gloe, 1999; Collins, 1999)

21 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Discussion Question #2 You have an assignment in your English class to write a paper in two weeks that is a critical analysis of a short story. What would be the best study strategies?

22 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Discussion Question #2 You have an assignment in your English class to write a paper in two weeks that is a critical analysis of a short story. What would be the best study strategies? –Annotation –Summarization (Nist & Simpson, 2000) –Generating why Questions (Pressley, et al., 1990) –Theme Writing (SIM, 2006)

23 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Online Study Processes Question 7: What strategies have proven successful in online environments?

24 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Online Study Processes Question 7: What strategies have proven successful in online environments? Reviewing and Revising Self-Authored Text Notetaking/Mapping (Hartley, 2002) Speech-to-Text Support (Elliott, L.; Foster, S.; Stinson, M, 2002)

25 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Online Study Processes Highlighting Notetaking Organizing Summarizing Annotating Mapping

26 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Study Processes and Strategies Weak Strong _________________________________________ Rehearsal Organizational Elaboration _________________________________________ Underlining Mapping Annotating Highlighting Outlining Summarizing

27 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA New Literacies Online Processes identify important questions navigate complex information networks to locate appropriate information critically evaluate that information synthesize it to address those questions and then communicate (Leu, D. J. et al., 2004; Leu, D., et al., in press)

28 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA Student Factors Prior Knowledge –Domain knowledge the student already has (Alexander & Judy, 1988) –Declarative, Procedural, Metacognitive, Conditional Knowledge, Volitional (Paris, et al., 1983) Student Ability –Metacognitive Ability (Nist et al., 1991; Pressley et al., 1987) –Reading Ability (Poor word recognition skills and low comprehension versus well-developed reading skills) Motivation –Skill and Will –Internal Drive –Belief that Studying will make a difference in performance Interest –Influences how information is processed –Domain Knowledge makes a difference, too, along with Interest (Shallert, et al., 1995)

29 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA For more information about the presentation contact: Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D. Professor of Education School of Education and Human Resources Carlson Hall 118 University of Bridgeport Bridgeport, CT

30 Patricia Mulcahy-Ernt, Ph. D., IRA For information about the College Reading and Learning Association: Annual Conference State and Regional Meetings Tutor Certification Special Interest Groups Scholarships Journal of College Reading and Learning


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