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Engaging Learners in Vocabulary Learning: Practical, Research-based Approaches Katherine Stahl New York University Margaret Ann Richek Roosevelt University.

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Presentation on theme: "Engaging Learners in Vocabulary Learning: Practical, Research-based Approaches Katherine Stahl New York University Margaret Ann Richek Roosevelt University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Engaging Learners in Vocabulary Learning: Practical, Research-based Approaches Katherine Stahl New York University Margaret Ann Richek Roosevelt University Georgia Earnest Garcia University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Susan Bohman Talcott Elementary School, Chicago Public Schools Ellen Finnegan Walker Elementary, Evanston Public Schools International Reading Association Annual Convention May 8, 2008

2 The Importance of Vocabulary Katherine Stahl New York University

3 Vocabulary is an important predictor of future success: General learning and knowledge Learning to read Comprehension Future economic success

4 Vocabulary and Knowledge In science instruction, the challenge for science educators is teaching hundreds of terms rather than the intellectual rush of hands-on inquiry. (Armstrong & Collier, 1990).

5 Reading and Comprehension Vocabulary knowledge predicts comprehension performance with positive correlations between.6 and.8. (Pearson, Kamil, & Hiebert, 2007)

6 Relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension General Aptitude Hypothesis General Knowledge Hypothesis Instrumentalist Hypothesis

7 General Aptitude Hypothesis (Sternberg, 1987; Terman, 1916) Vocabulary knowledge is the strongest predictor of general IQ.

8 General Knowledge Hypothesis (Anderson & Freebody, 1981) Vocabulary reflects knowledge of the world. Jib, tack, yawl Linguine, marmalade, brine eucalyptus, hibiscus, aspen

9 General Knowledge Hypothesis Knowing more words gives you more control over your domain. Saucier, Dutch oven, stockpot, sauté pan Magenta, amber, teal

10 Instrumentalist Hypothesis (Anderson & Freebody, 1981; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986) Knowing more words facilitates comprehension.

11 How do children learn words? Direct Instruction Estimates are that teachers can directly teach between 300 and 600 words per year. Indirect Instruction Estimates are that children can learn about words per year from listening and reading in context. The teacher still plays a role in creating experiences and guiding discovery. You need both instruction and context, but context provides many more word meanings.

12 Vocabulary Principles to Practice Garcia, G., Pearson, P. D., Taylor, B., Stahl, K., Bauer, E. Comprehension Instruction: Cognitive strategies or cognitive engagement.

13 The Role of Vocabulary Instruction Improve reading comprehension by emphasizing: Knowledge of word meanings. Conceptual relations among words. A few select strategies for unlocking word meanings during reading.

14 Vary Vocabulary Instruction Consider: The nature of the words to be learned. The roles of those words in text. The students prior knowledge.

15 The Role of the Teacher Choose appropriate words for instruction. Vary instruction according to the nature of the words. Provide active engagement. Provide multiple exposures.

16 The Role of the Teacher Provide instruction before reading, at point- of-contact, after reading. Provide definitional, contextual, conceptual, and relational emphases.

17 The Role of the Student Learn and refine meanings for unfamiliar words. Actively engage in discussions about words in text. Develop an appreciation for novel words.

18 The Role of the Student Use strategies to figure out word meanings, when appropriate. Identify word parts. Use context clues. Use the dictionary effectively and efficiently.

19 RESEARCH-BASED STRATEGIES FOR INTRODUCING VOCABULARY CONSOLIDATING VOCABLARY MARGARET ANN RICHEK Roosevelt University, Chicago IL All strategies are referenced in Richek, M.A. (2005). Words are wonderful: Interactive, time-efficient strategies to teach meaning vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 58,

20 THREE INTRODUCTION STRATEGIES Semantic Impressions Word Expert Cards Words Alive

21 SEMANTIC IMPRESSIONS Use a narrative text (a story) before reading (or listening). List important words in the order of occurrence. (One or two words can be changed in order.) Discuss word meanings. Have students orally compose a story. The words must (1) be used in order, (2) can be reused, and (3) may be used in derived form. The teacher should write the story down. Revise the story (optional). Read (or listen to) the original text. Originally from McGinley, W. J. & Denner, P. R. (1987). Story impressions: A prereading/writing activity. Journal of Reading, 31,

22 The Semantic Impressions strategy teaches words effectively. helps students to anticipate the text. helps students to read like writers. encourages students to think creatively. gives experience in writing a narrative. fosters the revision process.

23 A sample narrative twilight young man stranded lady assist money needy café waitress pregnant change slipped out the door climbed wearily into bed love

24 Semantic Impressions on Pompeii enormous pebbles ashes poisonous crops buried uncover mosaic museum peaceful volcano peddlers shepherds weavers lawmakers trembling blast erupt

25 Volcano Disaster (edited version, note the paragraphs!) One day a peaceful volcano was sitting in the middle of nowhere. Peddlers, shepherds, weavers, and lawmakers were traveling the road near the volcano. All of a sudden, they felt trembling under their feet. Out of nowhere there was a big, loud, blast and the volcano erupted. Enormous pebbles, ashes, and poisonous gas destroyed the crops by burning them. The lava buried the grass, trees, wagons, and roads. A peddler was able to run off to the next village with his hats. Four shepherds shooed their sheep and raced to a high, nearby meadow. The weavers saved themselves by following the shepherds, but they lost their cloth. When the lawmaker told the governor, he told them to uncover the buried things. They found beautiful mosaics sold by a peddler and they put them in a museum.

26 princess prince dragon carried off chase forests bag fiery breath meatball sleep mess bum married From Paperbag Princess, Munsch

27 Harriet George amusement park roller coaster scared chicken out great all day long From Harriet and the Roller Coaster, Carlson

28 one inning more to play despair single a-hugging third ten thousand eyes strike one strike two air is shattered From Casey at the Bat, Thayer

29 EXPERT WORD CARDS The teacher makes a list of important words before a novel or unit of study begins. Each student is assigned a few words. Each gets different words. They make expert cards. (Each student makes only his/her own cards.) They teach words to each other.

30 The Expert Word Card strategy teaches words effectively. does not threaten students. allows students to cooperate. allows students artistic expression. is excellent for teaching technical words.

31 WORDS ALIVE Students are divided into small groups. Each group is given a few words. The teacher discusses the meanings of the words. Each group comes up with an action or "tableaux" (still life, involving students) that illustrates the meaning of each assigned words for other students.

32 The Words Alive strategy teaches words effectively. allows students to process words deeply. allows students to cooperate. differentiates small distinctions. is excellent for teaching technical words.

33 Lets try these: volcano peddlers shepherds weavers trembling mosaics crops

34 A few done in the past: intertidal organism bacteria sulfides kelp salt marsh hydrothermal

35 THREE REVIEW STRATEGIES Anything Goes Connect Two Two In One

36 ANYTHING GOES The Anything Goes strategy increases automaticity. provides review. deepens processing. takes five to ten minutes. The teacher lists words on board or overhead, then anything goes. That is, the teacher can ask any questions he or she wants.

37 Sample Anything Goes questions include: What does __________ mean? Find me two adjectives (or other parts of speech). Find a word with a positive meaning. How are ________ and __________ related? Find two words with prefixes (suffixes). Give me another form of _________. Find me a word that can be both a noun and a verb. Find me a word that has to do with _________. Find me a word with two (or three) meanings. Show how you ____________.

38 admire captor anticipate lanky bayonet infantry bondage marvel cavalry musket captive pine charge plot clamor pondered recoil ravine insignificant magazine

39 CONNECT TWO Words from two lists are connected by students because they have something in common. Students think of connections. The Connect Two strategy provides review. may be used in independent managed learning. deepens processing. encourages students to think creatively. From: Blachowicz, C.L.Z. & Lee, J. (1991). Vocabulary development in the whole literacy classroom. The Reading Teacher, 45,

40 admire captor anticipate lanky bayonet infantry bondage marvel cavalry musket captive pine charge plot clamor pondered recoil ravine insignificant magazine

41 TWO IN ONE Working together students combine two or more words into one sentence. The Two in One strategy provides review. may be used in independent managed learning deepens processing. encourages students to think creatively. encourages use of derivatives. encourages students to cooperate.

42 admire captor anticipate lanky bayonet infantry bondage marvel cavalry musket captive pine charge plot clamor pondered recoil ravine insignificant magazine

43 Practical Strategies for Consolidating Vocabulary Susan Bohman Talcott Elementary School-Chicago, IL Ellen Finnegan Walker Elementary School- Evanston, IL

44 Word Study Centers Fostering Independent Learning Susan Bohman,NBCT 4 th Grade Teacher Chicago Public Schools

45 Process of Creating Independence Model Center Activities Guided Whole Class Practice Independent Whole Class Practice & Provide Feedback Create P.O.P. chart Release to center & review P.O.P. chart

46 Accountability & Independence Daily Documentation of Word Study on chart Weekly assessment of chart Self-reflection after guided reading centers Tests throughout the year

47 Organization Organize center activities by word and take one word per day. Students take folder to center with chart. Dictionaries and supplies kept at center.

48 Word Acquisition Through Context Clues Students use chart to study how one word is used in a sentence (or couple of sentences) each day. Sentence with underlined word is posted. Students write underlined word, code word, and write what they think it means. Students copy sentence, underline word, and then find clue and circle it (explanation clues, synonym clues, antonym clues, general context clues). Students then go back and define word and check if they found the correct clue. Write sentence on back using word. Words also are part of guided reading text and different types of clues are reinforced.

49 Name__________________________________________ Context Clues Word Study Chart WORD CODE ! = Know it + = Heard it X = Never heard it THINK IT MEANS (Must take a guess – cant write dont know.) DEFINITION simultaneously DaySentence – underline vocabulary word and circle clue word(s)/phrase. Mon. 9/21 Types of Clues Explanation clues (definition) Synonym clues (restatement) Antonym clues (contrast) General context clues (inference)

50 Name__________________________________________ Context Clues Word Study Chart WORD CODE ! = Know it + = Heard it X = Never heard it THINK IT MEANS (Must take a guess – cant write dont know.) DEFINITION simultaneously + DaySentence – underline vocabulary word and circle clue word(s)/phrase. Mon. 9/21 Types of Clues Explanation clues (definition) Synonym clues (restatement) Antonym clues (contrast) General context clues (inference)

51 Name__________________________________________ Context Clues Word Study Chart WORD CODE ! = Know it + = Heard it X = Never heard it THINK IT MEANS (Must take a guess – cant write dont know.) DEFINITION simultaneously + similar. DaySentence – underline vocabulary word and circle clue word(s)/phrase. Mon. 9/21 Types of Clues Explanation clues (definition) Synonym clues (restatement) Antonym clues (contrast) General context clues (inference)

52 When the two actors in the musical sang simultaneously their voices became one.

53 Name__________________________________________ Context Clues Word Study Chart WORD CODE ! = Know it + = Heard it X = Never heard it THINK IT MEANS (Must take a guess – cant write dont know.) DEFINITION simultaneously + similar DaySentence – underline vocabulary word and circle clue word(s)/phrase. Mon. 9/21 When the two actors in the musical sang simultaneously their voices became one. Types of Clues Explanation clues (definition) Synonym clues (restatement) Antonym clues (contrast) General context clues (inference)

54 Name__________________________________________ Context Clues Word Study Chart WORD CODE ! = Know it + = Heard it X = Never heard it THINK IT MEANS (Must take a guess – cant write dont know.) DEFINITION simultaneously + similar DaySentence – underline vocabulary word and circle clue word(s)/phrase. Mon. 9/21 When the two actors in the musical sang simultaneously their voices became one. Types of Clues Explanation clues (definition) Synonym clues (restatement) Antonym clues (contrast) General context clues (inference)

55 Name__________________________________________ Context Clues Word Study Chart WORD CODE ! = Know it + = Heard it X = Never heard it THINK IT MEANS (Must take a guess – cant write dont know.) DEFINITION simultaneously + similar DaySentence – underline vocabulary word and circle clue word(s)/phrase. Mon. 9/21 When the two actors in the musical sang simultaneously their voices became one. Inference Types of Clues Explanation clues (definition) Synonym clues (restatement) Antonym clues (contrast) General context clues (inference)

56 Name__________________________________________ Context Clues Word Study Chart WORD CODE ! = Know it + = Heard it X = Never heard it THINK IT MEANS (Must take a guess – cant write dont know.) DEFINITION simultaneously + similar To happen at the same time. DaySentence – underline vocabulary word and circle clue word(s)/phrase. Mon. 9/21 When the two actors in the musical sang simultaneously their voices became one. Inference Types of Clues Explanation clues (definition) Synonym clues (restatement) Antonym clues (contrast) General context clues (inference)

57 Sentences on back Our class stands up from our chairs simultaneously before we line up for recess.

58 Roots & Affixes Word Center Chart used to organize word study of one affix or root each day. Word part & definition posted and filled into chart Students brainstorm sample word or look up in dictionary (Encouraged to pick sample word in which meaning of word part was easy to interpret). Illustrate sample word List other sample words offered by group Write sentence correctly using word part.

59 Work part and definition posted tri- three

60 Name_________________________________ Week of ______________________Focus ________________________ Roots and Affixes Chart Word Part DefinitionExample word – Definition (underline word part). Illustration of Example WordAdditional Sample Words with word part (underline word part). Tri-Three WRITE CENTERS ON THE BACK OF THIS CHART 1. My two year old niece is able to ride a tricycle because it has three wheels.

61 Name_________________________________ Week of ______________________Focus ________________________ Roots and Affixes Chart Word Part DefinitionExample word – Definition (underline word part). Illustration of Example WordAdditional Sample Words with word part (underline word part). Tri-Three Tricycle – a bike with three wheels. WRITE CENTERS ON THE BACK OF THIS CHART 1. My two year old niece is able to ride a tricycle because it has three wheels.

62 Name_________________________________ Week of ______________________Focus ________________________ Roots and Affixes Chart Word Part DefinitionExample word – Definition (underline word part). Illustration of Example WordAdditional Sample Words with word part (underline word part). Tri-Three Tricycle – a bike with three wheels. WRITE CENTERS ON THE BACK OF THIS CHART

63 Name_________________________________ Week of ______________________Focus ________________________ Roots and Affixes Chart Word Part DefinitionExample word – Definition (underline word part). Illustration of Example WordAdditional Sample Words with word part (underline word part). Tri-Three Tricycle – a bike with three wheels. Tripod; triangle WRITE CENTERS ON THE BACK OF THIS CHART

64 Name_________________________________ Week of ______________________Focus ________________________ Roots and Affixes Chart Word Part DefinitionExample word – Definition (underline word part). Illustration of Example WordAdditional Sample Words with word part (underline word part). Tri-Three Tricycle – a bike with three wheels. Tripod; triangle WRITE CENTERS ON THE BACK OF THIS CHART 1. My two year old niece is able to ride a tricycle because it has three wheels.

65 Maintaining Word Learning Flashcards Review activities: Bingo, Memory, Hot Shot, crossword puzzles Assessment: Quiz every 2-3 weeks (any word or word part from any point in year may be on quiz).

66 Using Vocabulary Journals for Vocabulary Instruction Ellen Finnegan Walker School Evanston, IL

67 Where Did This Idea Come From? Working with students who have limited vocabularies and background knowledge Looking for a new and positive way to engage learners during vocabulary instruction time

68 What Does It Include? Direct instruction, exposure in context Definitional knowledge (synonyms, antonyms, paraphrasing definitions) Semantic mapping, semantic feature analysis Concept maps, word labeling For older students, let individuals decide which approach is most helpful; use metacognitive thinking

69 Themes in Research: Recycling Words Students should revisit words in vocabulary journals Add new information (beyond the definition) until word is learned (Schmitt & Schmitt, 1995) Provide additional reading selections to allow students to read words in different contexts (Spencer & Guillaume, 2006)

70 Themes in Research: Teach Affixes, Roots, Morphemes, and Word Origins Instruct students to attack new words, breaking them into meaningful parts and predicting meaning for largest parts (Anderson & Nagy, 1992) Students can use high-frequency root word to access low- frequency word (e.g. rubber~rubberneck) (Kieffer& Lesaux, 2007) Provide a memorable structure for students to remember commonly used prefix and suffix families that can be posted on classroom walls (White et al., 1989)

71 How? Currently in use with 5th grade students Words collected from various readings: basal readers, short nonfiction texts, content area texts Unknown words written on post-its after reading selection is surveyed Students make predictions about words meaning or if they know meaning, jot it down

72 How? While reading, students naturally stop to compare contextual clues to their predictions After reading, words are revisited. Definition is written on post-it, along with any other information that helps students to remember definition. Students can use dictionary or glossary One word/post-it, one post-it/page. Post-its allow for further manipulation and classification of vocabulary words.

73 Further Implications Once word has been mastered, it is moved to the back of the journal. Word should still be revisited. Question? How will I know when students have mastered a vocabulary word? Two research articles specifically on vocabulary journals suggest: colecting notebooks and marking them (Schmitt & Schmitt, 1995; Fowle, 2002)

74 Assessment Ideas Multiple-choice Cloze (Blachowicz & Fisher, 1996) James was on a _____ to find the buried treasure once they reached the cay on a desert island. questmajorbiome Ask student what a word means (oral performance assessment) Use an earlier strategy (word map, SFA)

75 Bibliography Anderson, R.C., Nagy, W.E. (1992). The vocabulary conundrum. American Educator, 16(4), Blachowicz, C. & Fisher, P. (1996). Teaching Vocabulary in All Classroooms. Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Fowle, C. (2002). Vocabulary notebooks: Implementation and outcomes. ELT Journal. 56(4), Kieffer, M.J., Lesaux, N.K. (2007). Breaking down words to build meaning: Morphology, vocabulary, and reading comprehension in the urban classroom. The Reading Teacher 61(2), Spencer, B.H., Guilluame, A.M. (2006). Integrating curriculum through the learning cycle: Content-based reading and vocabulary instruction. The Reading Teacher 60(3), Schmitt, N., Schmitt, D. (1995). Vocabulary notebooks: Theoretical underpinnings and practical suggestions. ELT Journal 49(2), White, T.G., Sowell, J., & Yanagihara, A. (1989). Teaching elementary students to use word-part clues. The Reading Teacher, 42,

76 Translating Vocabulary Research Into Practice With English Language Learners Georgia Garcia University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

77 Overview 1. Brief research review 2. Instructional Implications 3. Instructional programs for ELLs 4. Selection of vocab for ELLs 5. How to teach & improve L2 reading vocabulary

78 Brief Research Review 1. English reading vocabulary significant predictor of ELL reading in Eng (García, 1991; Jiménez, et al.,1996; Proctor, et al., 2006; Saville-Troike, 1984) 2. Evaluate/develop vocabulary programs based on bilingualism & L2 learners a.When another language in ELLs homes, think and use two languages (García, 1991; Lopez-Velasquez, 2008) b.May know some words in one language; other words in other language (Fernandez, et al., 1992 )

79 Research Review continued c.Differ in receptive and productive competence in L2 (so may comprehend more than can say )(García, 2003) The atmosphere of Venus is another sci, science, sickness, sig nificant. I know that word but I cant say it. I cant pronounce it. d.Predictor of English academic achievement was use of L1 in class to figure out instruction (Saville-Troike, 1984 )

80 Research Review continued e. Successful ELL readers make use of cross-linguistic transfer & bilingual strategies (García, 1998; Jiménez, et al., 1995, 1996) Paraphrase, translate, code-mix, code-switch, use cognates Cognates are words with ancestral roots that are spelled the same, or almost the same, and that have almost the same meaning: animal animal infirm enfermo

81 Text: These clouds are a part of the planet's blanket of air, its atmosphere.. Student 1: Las nubes eran una parte especial del planeta, cobija, blanket, cobija de aire, de atmosphere. [The clouds were a special part of the planet, blanket, blanket, blanket of air, of atmosphere.]

82 Research Review cont. f.Underutilize cognate knowledge, but can be taught (Carlo, et al., 2004; García & Nagy, 1993; Nagy, et al.,1993) g.Successful ELL readers identify and resolve unknown vocab (strategic readers)(García, 1998; Jiménez, et al., 1995, 1996)

83 The photographs taken by Venus Orbiter revealed information about the cloud layers and the pattern of winds that are blowing the clouds round the planet. M:Can I read this over? I didnt understand…. M:I dont know this word. R:Which one? M: Reveal. R:Reveal, does that causeproblems? M: Uh-hum. Hmm, I think maybe it means that its telling information about…the clouds….Yep, thats what we were talking about last Friday.

84 Research Review cont. h.Due to L2 status, students will not recognize all words they can decode (García, 2003) i.Due to limited English oral proficiency, they will not understand all oral explanations in English of new vocabulary (García, 2003)

85 Instructional Implications 1.Need to evaluate vocabulary across languages 2.Encourage students to think in L1 and to use L1 to discuss instruction and reading 3.Teach students how to use cross-linguistic strategies, including cognates 4.Teach students how to be strategic readers

86 Instructional Implications cont. 5.ELLs have to learn to tolerate a certain number of unknown words and how to figure out meanings of key words 6.Combine vocabulary instruction with decoding (so comprehension occurs) 7.Use ESL techniques to make vocabulary and reading instruction comprehensible a. Sheltered English: modify speech, slow it down, use same phrasing, pause more until understood

87 Instructional Implications continued Sheltered English continued: Multiple modalities: accompany oral talk and book reading with realia, hands-on learning, dramatization, gestures, visuals b. Integrate reading, writing, listening, speaking (hear it, see it, write it, say it) c. Thematic instruction across several domains

88 Instructional Programs Scripted programs for young and older ELLs (Carlo, et al., 2004; Silverman, 2007) Multifaceted: involves storybook reading, 5-10 words, 3 days/week for min., pronounce word, word spelling, compare & contrast to other words, act out meanings, how words used in other contexts

89 Instructional Programs continued 2. Unscripted programs a. Book Flood: Shared reading of illustrated story books daily for min. (Elley & Mangubhai, 1983) b. Synthesized approach: combined strategy, responsive engagement, and vocab instruction (from Stahl & Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002) for book reading instruction for 3 days for 30 min. (García, et al., 2006) Bilingual site: sheltered English, L1 for discussion and lit responses, cognates

90 Instructional Programs cont. 1 Teacher chooses appropriate words for instruction 2 Teacher varies instruction depending on whether a word is a tier 1, 2, or 3 word 3 Teacher provides multiple exposures and active involvement in word learning. 4 Instruction occurs before, during and after reading activities 5 Students learn and refine meaning for unfamiliar words through active involvement

91 Instructional Programs 6 Instruction focuses on knowledge of word meanings, conceptual relations among words, and specific strategies for figuring out unknown words during reading 7 Students use strategies to figure out the meaning of unknown words reading 8 Teachers go beyond emphasizing definitions to include both contextual and conceptual aspects of word learning (can include definitions, but needs to include contextual, and conceptual)

92 Instructional Programs Second Grade Transitional Classroom (Text in English but could use Spanish) I got better at introducing vocabulary. I downsized to about 6 words. You dont overwhelm them with the information or the words. So, you stay a lot more focused. Twelve words are a lot, even for an adult. So, if you cut to 6 words, at least they will get the 6 instead of having 12 words and they would only get 2 or 3. It was too short [3 days], especially for the hard words….they need to see the words multiple times.

93 Selection of Vocabulary 1. Need to know the text (pre-read it) 2. Can use Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3 categorizations (Beck, McKeown & Lucan, 2002) 3. Check to see if know words in L1 4. Another scheme (modified from Nagy): a. Related to central theme or major points? b. Important for overall comprehension of text (its gist)? (Story map or text structure analysis)

94 Selection of Vocabulary c. Defined in text? d. Some contextual support? e. No contextual support? Explicitly teach meaning when Central to theme/major points Crucial for understanding gist Not defined and no contextual support Not known in L1

95 Selection of Vocabulary When defined or some contextual support: Assess if understood If not, show how to identify definition Show how to use contextual support

96 1. Do they know equivalents in L1? If so, explicitly teach English labels Tell them the L1 word and meaning (even for Tier 1) Hear you say the English word as they read it Practice saying it as they read it Write bilingual labels in own notebooks or personal dictionaries Post labels on L1 & L2 word walls Teaching and Improving English Reading Vocabulary

97 Teaching and Improving Eng Reading Vocabulary cont. Multiple opportunities to use new L1 labels 2.If not in L1, vary instruction according to tier 2 or 3, but shelter instruction so comprehensible Note: will have to teach Tier 1 if not in L1 For Tier 2, child friendly comprehensible definitions in L1 and English Tier 3 words are best when themed instruction and experiential hands-on precedes reading of the text

98 Teaching and Improving English Reading Vocabulary 3. Use monolingual English ideas but add L1 and sheltering of instruction a. Increase the amount of reading that children do (in L1 and L2) b. Read to children (in L1 and L2) c. Teach new vocabulary meanings in L1 & L2 by focusing on definitions, contexts, and conceptual relationships Semantic maps, semantic features analysis, graphic organizers, concept maps

99 Teaching and Improving Eng Reading Vocabulary cont. 4.Teach students how to transfer background knowledge and vocabulary knowledge from L1 to L2 5.Teach them how to use cognates (García, in preparation) distancia distance estudiante student descubiertodiscovered revelarto reveal

100 Which words are cognates? During the past few years, people have been investigating some animals that live in the oceans. These animals are dolphins. They are small members of the whale family.

101 Which words are cognates? During the past few years, people have been investigating some animals that live in the oceans. These animals are dolphins. They are small members of the whale family.

102 Good News 1. Large number of cognates in English expository texts (science & technical texts) 2. Cognates are low-frequency words in English but high- frequency words in Spanish 3. If recognize possible cognate, know Spanish word, can figure out English word

103 Good news cont. 4. Using cognates successfully emphasizes comprehension 5.Not that many false cognates 6.Make a mistake with a false cognate, will remember it!pie exítoexit embarazada embarrassed

104 How to teach cognates 1. Present students with a definition of cognates and show them examples 2. Have them go through an English text and circle all the cognates 3. Show them the same text with all the cognates circled

105 How to teach cognates 4.Work in pairs to see if they know the Spanish word 5.Check to see if the Spanish word will work 6.Repeat with other examples and guided practice 7.Show them you may have to change how the cognate works in the sentence to attain comprehension 8.If the Spanish word or the functional change does not fit the meaning of the text, then forget it

106 For more info Contact: Professor Georgia García University of Illinois Room 311 Education 1310 S. Sixth Street Champaign, IL 61820

107 Translating Research Into Practical Assessment Strategies for Enabling Differentiated Instruction Katherine Stahl New York University

108 The Challenge of Vocabulary Assessment Measures of vocabulary and comprehension do correlate. Vocabulary instruction strongly and positively influences comprehension of texts containing those words, but there is minimal transfer to more general vocabulary or comprehension tasks.

109 Challenges Are our vocabulary measures sensitive enough to document the relationship between word learning and comprehension? Do our vocabulary measures enable us to refine our vocabulary instruction?

110 How do you assess: Vocabulary knowledge? Vocabulary growth?

111 What does it mean to know a word? Listening, reading- receptive Speaking, writing- generative Assessment format- multiple choice, write a passage, share verbally, define

112 Begin with a survey of student knowledge WordI know this word and can tell about it. I have seen this word before. I have never seen this word before.

113 Native American Homes 321 wigwam apartment longhouse Tipi/tepee brush lodge asi

114 Vocabulary Recognition Task (Stahl, 2003) Create a list of words related to the unit concepts. Add a proportion of foils. Students circle words that they can read and are certain have something to do with the unit. Pretest and posttest the list. At posttest, students also web the words.

115 VRT Scoring Procedures Score 1 point for each word correctly circled, deduct 1 point for each foil selected. OR Use a proportional scoring method. For example, 18/25 correct- 1/8= score.

116

117 VRT Web

118

119 VRT Web- Native Americans

120 Student word-generation assessments Word Wizard Charts 3-minute meetings (Blachowicz & Fisher, 2005) Vocabulary analysis of written comprehension reponses (Bravo, Cervetti, Hiebert, Pearson, 2007)

121 Word Wizard 1 Approximately words from read-alouds or WOW are placed on an incentive chart. Students receive a check by their name each time they use word in speaking or writing. At the end of the week, the students that have the most checks become the Word Wizards.

122 Word Wizard 2 Teacher or children pick school words When children hear or see words, they tell teacher Teacher puts a Post-It note after childs name When children get 5 Post- its, they are Word Wizard

123 Evaluating Vocabulary Measures (Pearson et al., 2007) Discrete - embedded Selective - comprehensive Contextualized - decontextualized

124 Some Final Thoughts If utilizing a multiple choice test, be sensitive to the level of the distractors. Be aware of the conceptual load differences by genre. Use caution and open-mindedness with ELLs. Be a learner. Get comfortable with technology. Document vocabulary development in your class.

125 Thank you! Summary Comments Questions


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