5“Leader of Tomorrow” Award 1974 Betty Crocker“Leader of Tomorrow” Award
6The state of research on assessment Assessment as the dependent variablein much reading researchAssessment itself is much less likelyto be the focus of researchPsychometric inquiry related tovalidity and reliabilityQuestions about most useful, most effective,most efficient assessment need our attention(Afflerbach, 2007; Black & Wiliam, 1998; Calfee & Hiebert, 1991; Crooks, 1988; Davis, 1998; Pellegrino, Chudowsky & Glaser, 2001)
7Assessment in the nexus PoliticsEconomicsAgendasREADING ASSESSMENTStudent growth and achievementTeacher professional developmentHigh quality teachingZone of proximal developmentCurriculum materials
8Framing questions and an observation Where is our assessment focus?Do we attend to one type of assessmentat the expense of others?Is our assessment focus one that may actuallyimpede student achievement andlimit teacher effectiveness?Is our assessment one that supports students and teachers in their critical, daily work?How might a balance of assessment,focused on both teachable moments and tests,help us reach our goals?
9is measured by a single test on a single day, but Accountabilityis measured by a single teston a single day, butaccountability is accomplishedwith daily, useful assessmentsthat inform ourbest instruction.
10Accountability for teaching and learning will be realized when there is balance in literacy assessment, including balance in:• meeting the needs of different audiences and purposes of assessment• formative assessment and summative assessment• the assessment that is done to or for students and assessment that is done with and by students
11…the need for balance in literacy assessment, including balance in: • the assessment of cognitive and affective factors related to literacy• the assessment of what students learn and how students use this knowledge• the demands for teacher and school accountability and professional development opportunities that help teachers develop expertise in assessment
12The contexts in which we conduct reading assessment are influenced by (and reflect) political, economic and social factorsIn 2008…• The prevalence of high stakes testing, NCLB or no NCLB• Traditions and habits of assessment• The tests that our children take today look much like those that we took when we were in school• How does our current understanding of literacy influence our assessments?• How does our current understanding of assessmentinfluence our assessments?
14‘Saved by a Fly’What is the main idea of the story?1. A moose drinks all the water from a river2. A group of animals is afraid of a big moose3. A fly gets rid of a troublesome moose4. A group of animals is always quarreling(Maryland State Assessment, 2006)‘The Report Card’What do you think Johnny did next?1. hid his report card2. sneaked away3. scolded his mother4. showed his report card to his parents(Nelson Denny Reading Test, 1966)
16Necessary alignments for useful reading assessments: The construct of readingReading standards andbenchmarksReading curriculum and instructionReading assessment
171. Balance in meeting the needs of different audiences and purposes of assessment Audience PurposeStudents To report on learning and communicate progress To motivate and encourageTo teach children about assessmentand how to assess their own work and progressTo build student independenceTeachers To determine nature of student learning To inform instructionTo evaluate students and construct gradesTo diagnose student strengths and weaknessesAfflerbach, 2007
181. Balance in meeting the needs of different audiences and purposes of assessment (cont.) Audience PurposeParents To inform of their children’s achievementTo help connect home and school efforts to support studentSchool To determine instructional programadministrators effectivenessTo prove school and teacher accountabilityPoliticians To establish accountability of schoolsTo inform the public of school progressTaxpayers To demonstrate that tax dollars are well spentAfflerbach, 2007
192. Balance in formative assessment and summative assessment Formative assessment provides information for:• Understanding individual students and their immediate needs• The teachable moment• Creating scaffolded approaches to instruction(Black & Wiliam, 1998; Crooks, 1988)
20Summative assessment provides information for: • Comparing students’ literacy products• Judging students’ achievement in relation to benchmarks, standards and each other(National Reading Panel, 2000; Pellegrino et al, 2001)In a thoughtful assessment system, formative and summative assessment work together…
22Summative-score at end ofgame-team standing atend of season-personalimprovementfrom seasonto seasonFormative-ball control-kicking-passing-vision-resilience-position-speed-team play-creativity
23Zone of proximal development, assessment and teachable moments Student's next level of competency and achievementAssessment and teachingZone of proximal developmentTeaching and assessmentStudent's current level of competency and achievement(Vygotsky, 1978; Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Rosenshine & Meister, 1994; Palincsar & Herrenkohl, 2002)
24A bit more on this… Student's next level of competency and achievement Where our best teaching happensAssessment and teachingZone of proximal developmentTeaching and assessmentWhere accountability is createdStudent's current level of competency and achievement
25Formative assessment is used for: Understanding individual students and their immediate needsInforming the teachable momentCreating scaffolded approaches to reading instructionFormative assessment done well leads togood news on summative assessmentsIs the daily assessment that identifies individual student needs and allows us to address themhigh stakes assessment ?
26Important balance questions: Who is best served by the current array of assessments?What percentage of assessment across the school yearis formative? Summative?Is this a good thing?A test score tells us little or nothingof the means by which it was achieved.
27What does assessment mean to our students? 3. Balance the assessment that is done to or for students and assessment that is done with and by studentsWhat does assessment mean to our students?How do students conceptualize assessment?If a universal goal of reading instruction is to helpstudents become independent and successful,are we doing enoughto foster independence?How can assessment help foster this independence?
28The need to make transparent and tangible what assessment “is”… “The black box”My work in my work out = The gradeIndependent and successful readers continuallymonitor and evaluate their learning and performanceMetacognition and comprehension monitoringare learned…Who teaches them? How are they taught?(Black & Wiliam, 1998; Flavell, 1978; Markman, 1979;Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995)
29Do classroom assessments help students become independent in assessment?Are students “insiders” or “outsiders”to the culture of assessment?Is assessment done to or for students?Is assessment done with and by students?Without the ability to self-assess reading(or any other learning),how will students be independent?
30It is legitimate to further characterize the broadpoint appearance as a major archeological horizon marker for the eastern seaboard. In the terms of Willey and Phillips, a horizon is “a primarily spatial continuity represented by cultural traits and assemblages whose nature and mode of occurrence permit the assumption of a broad and rapid spread.” That a quick expansion of the broadpoint-using peoples took place is indicated by the narrow range of available radiocarbon dates, along with a correspondingly wide areal distribution of components. Once established, the broadpoint horizon developed as a “whole cultural pattern or tradition” in its own right by persisting and evolving over an expansive region for 500 to 1000 years.
33With reading… Self-assessment happens when students have metacognitive strategies to use,the mindset that they should use them,and motivation to do so.Self-assessment is strategic, so our successeswith strategy instruction can inform our teaching of self-assessment strategies.Explain, model, think-aloud and practice.(Pressley, 2005; Duffy, 1993)
34Representative State Level Intended Learning Outcomes 4. Balance the assessment of cognitive and affective factors related to learningRepresentative State LevelIntended Learning OutcomesBeginning in kindergarten and by the end of second grade students will be able to:1. Demonstrate a positive learning attitude.2. Develop social skills and ethical responsibility.3. Demonstrate responsible emotional and cognitive behaviors.4. Understand and use basic concepts and skills.
35and learning benchmark descriptions The assessment of cognitive and affective factorsthat contribute to and influence achievementMost state and local standards address affective goals and outcomes in their curriculum goals and standardsand learning benchmark descriptionsMotivation to readSelf-esteem as a readerSelf-concept as a readerAre these assessed? To what end?(Chapman & Tunmer, 1995; Guthrie & Wigfield, 1997; CORI Projects; McKenna & Kear, 1990)
36When we think of our teaching successes, do we think of students who scored well on tests? Or do we think of students who went from reluctant readers to enthusiastic readers?Do we think of students who evolved from easily discouraged readers to readers whose motivation helped them persevere through challenges?Do we remember students who avoided reading at all costs evolving into students who learned to love reading?
375. Balance the assessment of what students learn from reading and how students use this knowledge The 2009 Framework of the National Assessment of Educational Progress derives from expert consensus and conceptualizes reading as:Reading is an active and complex process that involves• Understanding written text• Developing and interpreting meaning • Using meaning as appropriate to type of text, purpose and situation(National Center for Education Statistics, 2007)
38“Using meaning as appropriate to type of text, purpose and situation…” In the 21st century, can our studentsIdentify claims and evidence in texts they read?Conduct critical evaluations of texts?Make judgments of texts and authors?Apply what they learn from reading to identifyand solve problems?Synthesize information from text andnon-text sources?(Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Gee, 2000)
39The application of what is learned from reading IncreasingcomplexperformanceandassessmentMeaning construction andcritical evaluation is assessed with …- Multiple choice items- Brief constructed responses- Extended constructed responses- Performances and judgments(Pellegrino, Chudowsky & Glaser, 2001)
41This Factory's Bats Are Going, Going, Gone; As Home of McGwire's 'Big Stick,' Struggling Upstate Town Gets a LiftAnd that is the best economic news in a long, long time for Dolgeville, tucked in the hills north of the Mohawk River and 23 miles east of Utica. The century-old clapboard houses and the flower beds here are well tended, but behind the trim exterior, the village is fading, its population and job base declining steadily, like so many places upstate that have lost the manufacturing that once fed them.Jamestown lost its furniture makers and the Crescent wrench works, Troy lost the Arrow shirt collar factory, and Schenectady lost the American Locomotive Company and most of General Electric. Dolgeville's soon-to-be relic is the Daniel Green shoe factory, a great stone castle along East Canada Creek that once employed nearly 1,000 people, but has seen a series of layoffs. Most of the jobs have moved overseas, and the factory will cease production in June.RICHARD PEREZ-PENA NY Times April 25, 1999
426. Balance the demands for accountability with professional development opportunities that help teachers develop expertise in assessmentHow do teachers become expert at assessment?How can teachers attain reliability in theirclassroom-based assessments?Opportunity costs of different approachesto reading assessment(Darling-Hammond, 1997; Stiggins & Conklin, 1992)
43How are teachers supported in the extremely challenging work of becoming expertat classroom assessment?
44Professional development in classroom assessment is central to school success. For example, a teacher’s checklist for asking appropriate questions can be used to sharpen daily assessment routines:_____ I ask questions that are appropriately phrased and understood by students._____ I ask questions that are at an appropriate level for the materials being covered._____ I ask questions that require students to think at various intellectual levels._____ My questions follow a logical sequence._____ Student responses are used to guide my next questions._____ My questions are consistent with the intended goals or objectives of the lesson._____ I ask questions that assess student understanding._____ I ask processing questions if a student’s answer is incomplete or superficial._____ I encourage students to answer difficult questions by providing cues or rephrasing._____ I avoid closed-ended questions that restrict students’ demonstration of learning.Slack, J. Questioning strategies to improve student thinking and comprehension. Southeast Educational Development Laboratory. Reprinted with permission.
45Towards expertise in classroom assessment Vertical and horizontal reading assessmentIn for the long termAvoiding faddismOpportunity costsConnect teachable momentswith tests(Afflerbach, 2007; Johnston, 1991)
46Effective reading assessment is conceptualized and practiced ConclusionsEffective reading assessment is conceptualized and practicedwith clear understanding ofhow teachable momentsconnect with testsThe extreme focus on high stakes tests, AYP and means to meet it skews school assessment towards summary statements, and away from valuable formative assessment
47Such formative assessment is that which informs our teachable moments— ConclusionsSuch formative assessment is that whichinforms our teachable moments—Providing information that describesstudents’ zones of proximal development--and where and what and how our instruction should address students’ needsReading assessment is influenced by powers great and small--and this often creates imbalances for teachers and students
48Our addressing imbalances should be informed by our goals ConclusionsOur addressing imbalances should be informed by our goalsfor (and with)reading assessmentTo help us understand student learningandto help us guide student learning
49This duality of reading assessment allows us to promote: ConclusionsThis duality of reading assessmentallows us to promote:-Strategic, skillful reading-Lifelong, enthusiastic readers-The Matthew effect-Cognitive and affective and social development-Independence and self-assessment
50Achieving balance in our Lastly…Achieving balance in ourreading assessment programs, materials and procedurespromotes accountabilityfrom teachable moment to test