Why are fluency and comprehension so highly correlated?
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Students become fluent by reading Just setting aside time for independent silent reading is not sufficient National Reading Panel Report (2000) www.nationalreadingpanel.org
In 10 minutes of independent reading… A fluent reader might read 2,000 words A struggling reader might read only 500 words Equal practice time, unequal practice
Why teach fluency ? Fluency instruction improves reading comprehension Transfers to other subject areas – improves overall achievement Fluency instruction can make a difference.
*WCPM = Words Correct Per Minute Hasbrouck, J., & Tindal, G.A. (2006, April). Oral Reading Fluency Norms: A Valuable Assessment Tool for Reading Teachers. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 636-644. 2005 Hasbrouck & Tindal Oral Reading Fluency Data
How do you assess fluency? Listen to student read three unrehearsed passages at his/her grade level for one minute, while simultaneously noting prosody. Compare average wcpm score to Hasbrouck- Tindal norms.
Who benefits from fluency instruction? Students scoring 10 words or more below the 50 th percentile on the Hasbrouck & Tindal table
What other information can we gain during a fluency assessment? High frequency words Decoding skills Prosody – punctuation, phrasing, expression Comprehension Confidence
How do you teach fluency? Monitor Progress Repeated Reading Modeled Reading
Principles of integrating fluency into classroom reading program Provide models of fluent reading Structure opportunities for repeated oral reading of text with guidance and feedback Establish criteria and monitor progress Increase time students actually spend reading
Comprehension Questions All Levels 1.Identifying the main idea 2.Recalling a fact 3.Getting the meaning of a word from context 4.Making connections within the text 5.Connecting the authors and the readers ideas Levels 5.6 and Above 6.Developing vocabulary 7.Attending to details 8.Drawing conclusions 9.Summarizing or finding supporting details
Step 9 Pass the Story
Step 10 Graph Score in Red
Step 11 Write a Retell
There is no comprehension strategy that compensates for difficulty reading words accurately & fluently. (Torgenson, 2003)