Presentation on theme: "Accountable Talk and Reading Comprehension: The Case of Shared Inquiry in the South Bronx."— Presentation transcript:
Accountable Talk and Reading Comprehension: The Case of Shared Inquiry in the South Bronx
Overview of Session The Challenge of Reading Comprehension Brief overview of Accountable Talk and its link to reading comprehension Description of setting –Community School 134 –Shared Inquiry/Junior Great Books Intervention Directed Notes: How and why it works and video clip Shared Inquiry: Video clip and analysis How talk supports writing and achievement on standardized tests
The Challenge: Reading comprehension is critical to school success where the emphasis shifts from learning to read to reading to learn around fourth grade (Chall & Jacobs, 2003; Hirsch, 2003; Snow et al., 1998).
The Challenge: We view reading comprehension as being able to read critically, weigh evidence, and explicate text-based arguments all skills that are required in high school and college and in the workplace.
The Challenge: Results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, 2005) show that many American school children are not learning to read as early or as well as expected – 36% of fourth graders and 27% of eighth graders cannot read at the basic level (virtually unchanged from 2003).
The Challenge: More troubling, NAEP results reveal a persistent achievement gap in reading between White students and Black and Hispanic students, with White students significantly outperforming their Black and Hispanic counterparts.
The Challenge: Many elementary students struggle with the basics of literal comprehension; significantly more have difficulty with higher order comprehension skills. Put simply, reading comprehension is a major problem for many American schoolchildren.
How Talk Supports Reading Comprehension There is an emerging literature on the effectiveness of classroom discussion as a means of improving childrens reading comprehension and evidence-based reasoning.
How Talk Supports Reading Comprehension Research suggests that participation in well- orchestrated book discussions improves text comprehension, helps students read critically and interpretively, prepares students to write about texts, supports vocabulary acquisition, and develops students abilities to build text- based arguments and explicate their reasoning.
How Talk Supports Reading Comprehension Well-orchestrated book discussions have a significant, positive impact on students reading comprehension; yet, the research also indicates that few teachers are skilled at leading good discussions.
How Talk Supports Reading Comprehension Accountable Talk, developed by the Institute for Learning (Michaels et al., 2002), offers a set of tools for helping teachers lead academically productive group discussions. This presentation provides further support for the use of Accountable Talk as a framework for conducting text-based discussions.
What is Accountable Talk? It is another term for academically productive talk. Accountable Talk: 3 CD ROM set, IFL Michaels, O'Connor, Hall & Resnick (2003)
What is Accountable Talk? It is talk by both teachers and students that responds to and further develops what others in the class have said. It puts forth and demands knowledge that is accurate and relevant to the issue under discussion. Accountable Talk uses evidence appropriate to the discipline (e.g., proofs in mathematics, data from investigations in science, textual references in literature) and follows established norms of good reasoning. Accountable Talk sharpens students' thinking by reinforcing their ability to use and create knowledge (Michaels and OConnor, 2002). (www.instituteforlearning.org)www.instituteforlearning.org
3 Facets of Accountability: Accountable to the Learning Community: Accountable to Knowledge Accountable to Rigorous Reasoning Accountable Talk is talk by both teachers and students that is:
Accountability to Community Some examples: –Student: I agree with Damien because… –Student: I need some help from Pedro because I didnt understand what he was trying to say. –Teacher: Take your time. Well wait. …
Accountability to Knowledge Some examples: –Student: Where in the story does it show you that? –Student: I disagree with Damien because on the first page it says… –Teacher: Where in the text do you see that?
Accountability to Reasoning Some examples: –Teacher: So, by reading that piece of text, what point are you trying to prove to Damien? –Student: Thats what makes me know that shes nice in the end. It says it right here.
Community School 134 (George Bristow School) South Bronx, New York Population of 725 students, 99.8% free lunch eligible –44.5% Black –53.4% Hispanic –9.2% English language learners –5.9 % full time Special Ed. Introduction of Shared Inquiry/Junior Great Books Dramatic rise in test scores
Standardized Test Scores in Reading
Junior Great Books Discussions with 4th graders at Community School 134 in the South Bronx
Junior Great Books/Shared Inquiry Discussion Practice Monday Text Opener, Read aloud, Sharing Questions Tuesday Directed Notes Wednesday Interpreting Words Thursday Shared Inquiry Discussion Friday Writing
Junior Great Books/Shared Inquiry Discussion Practice Monday Text Opener, Read aloud, Sharing Questions Tuesday Directed Notes Wednesday Interpreting Words Thursday Shared Inquiry Discussion Friday Writing Monday Text Opener, Read aloud, Sharing Questions Tuesday Directed Notes Wednesday Interpreting Words Thursday Shared Inquiry Discussion Friday Writing
Design of JGB Tasks 1) Access to the text and to the conversation. 2) There is a gradual transfer of expertise from teacher to students, with a low entry threshold for participating.
Access to the text and conversation The text is read twice (typically out-loud by the teacher), and the kids follow along in their books. You don't have to be a good "reader" to participate fully in the discussions, but participating motivates you to do more reading, scouring the text for evidence, reading and re-reading, and even struggling readers read extended passages to the class to bolster their arguments with evidence. In doing Directed Notes, students get practice identifying key bits of evidence, citing the text, and reading passages out loud themselves before the SI discussion.
Gradual Transfer of Expertise from Teacher to Students The skills students practice earlier in the week, with a lot of support, are then used in later activities (the SI discussion and writing). During directed notes students get practice in identifying "evidence," and explicating a link between evidence and an interpretive claim. The SI inquiry discussion recruits these skills as students bolster their positions with evidence from the text and challenge elements of others arguments. These moves are then recruited into their writing which they do independently.
Gradual Transfer of Expertise from Teacher to Students There is thus a gradual shift in responsibility from teacher to student and a lessoning of social support as the week progresses, from practicing moves with a lot of teacher and task support, to using the moves in the service of an interpretive discussion, to using the moves in writing.
Cedric by Tove Jansson Sniff has a stuffed animal dog named Cedric. Cedric has topaz eyes and a moonstone on his collar. Sniff gives Cedric away and immediately regrets it to desperation. Story within a story: Woman collects beautiful things. No time for friends. Gets bone stuck in stomach. Decides to give all her stuff away (because shes suffocating). She finds friends. She laughs and the bone comes out. Sniff finds Cedric left out in the rain, wet and dirty, without topazes or moonstone. Now Sniff loves Cedric only for loves sake.
Video of Directed Notes
Shared Inquiry Discussion
Some fast facts about this discussion: Discussion lasted 54 minutes. 20 students participated 15 participated actively (taking from 3 to 45 turns)
Total Number of Words (7,664)
Total Number of Turns: 450
Average # of Words Per Turn
Number of Turns in which Students Refer to or Quote Text 24% of turns 36% of references to text are quotes
interpretive claim locating text quoting or paraphrasing text warrant (linking claim and evidence) logical argument, mentioning evidence, or weighing competing evidence or claims Examining Academic Moves in Discussion
Video of first 5 minutes:
Text is rich and ambiguous; Framing question, by design, is complex; Students are not yet highly skilled at making and explicating arguments; Accountable Talk moves give the students tools to persist at challenging intellectual work, take each others ideas seriously, to clarify misunderstandings, expand on one anothers ideas, and to build increasingly cogent arguments bolstering their claims with clearly cited evidence and explicit warrants.
Transfering Moves into Text
Writing Sample #2
Transferring Moves into Text
Recruiting Intellectual Moves in Answering Questions on Standardized Reading Tests Which of the following best describes the Cranes behavior? a) caring b) thoughtful c) selfish d) dangerous