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Organizing the Language Arts Block: Morning Meeting, Center Activities, Guided Reading Lesley Mandel Morrow Rutgers University Rutgers Reading and Writing.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizing the Language Arts Block: Morning Meeting, Center Activities, Guided Reading Lesley Mandel Morrow Rutgers University Rutgers Reading and Writing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizing the Language Arts Block: Morning Meeting, Center Activities, Guided Reading Lesley Mandel Morrow Rutgers University Rutgers Reading and Writing Conference

2 References for Presentation Morrow, L.M. (2003, 2 nd edition) The Literacy Center: Contexts for Reading and Writing. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Morrow, L.M. (2004) Organizing and Managing the Language Arts Block. New York, NY: Guildford Publishers.

3 Statistics from the U.S. Dept. of Labor, U.S. Dept. of Education, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services and U.S. Dept. of Justice Children who learn to read become adults who are: Likely to succeed in Elementary School Likely to Graduate from High School Likely to be Healthier during their lives Less likely to get into trouble with the law Likely to have a middle-class life style Earn more than those who are illiterate Likely to have children who learn to read

4 Those Who Dont Learn to Read 50% of patients with chronic illness are illiterate 70% of prisoners tested scored functionally illiterate on a national literacy survey 50% of the unemployed are functionally illiterate Those who are functionally illiterate earn 5 times less than those that are literate Those with lowest literacy skills live in poverty Children in poverty are more likely to be illiterate causing the Achievement Gap

5 Politically Correct and Incorrect Literacy Terms Politically INCORRECT Homogeneous Grouping Standardized Tests Basal Readers Explicit Instruction Literal Worksheets Phonics/Skills Based Direct Instruction Curriculum Driven Skilled Reader Politically CORRECT Flexible Grouping Portfolio Assessment Literature-Based Cooperative Learning Open-ended Discussions Whole Language Authentic Instruction Child Centered Engaged Reader

6 Politically Correct and Incorrect Literacy Terms Politically CORRECT Homogeneous Grouping Standardized Tests Basal Readers Explicit Instruction Literal Worksheets Phonics/Skills Based Direct Instruction Curriculum Driven Skilled Reader Politically INCORRECT Flexible Grouping Portfolio Assessment Literature-Based Cooperative Learning Open-ended Discussions Whole Language Authentic Instruction Child Centered Engaged Reader

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8 No Child Left Behind Prevention Accountability Grants to Implement Reading First and Early Reading First

9 How To Succeed With No Child Left Behind: Teaching Includes: Explicit Modeling Guided Practice/Scaffolding Independent Practice Structure and Routines Build Background Knowledge More Time on Task Feedback

10 Excellent Teachers Know there is More Problem Solving Exploring, experimenting Open-ended experiences Choice Collaboration Social Interaction

11 National Reading Panel Report Findings: According to the National Reading Panel Report, instruction in the following areas is necessary for achievement: Phonemic Awareness Phonics Comprehension Fluency Vocabulary Development Many areas in reading instruction were not included in this study. Only quantitative research and studies identified as scientifically based by the panel were consulted. Many respected investigations were not included.

12 According to Research from the following groups: Children are more successful developing literacy when they have excellent teachers The Program for the Improvement of Student Achievement (PISA) The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) The Center for English Language Achievement and Assessment (CELA) Researchers (Allington, Johnston, Morrow, Pearson, Pressley, Ruddell, Taylor)

13 Exemplary teachers have students who score well on reading tests.

14 Exemplary teachers help low achieving children to score better

15 Characteristics of Exemplary Literacy Instruction Varied Strategies Grouping to Meet Individual Differences High expectations Teachers Care Constructive Feedback Productively Engaged Explicit Instruction Problem Solving Organization & Management Skills: eg. Rules Quality Preparation & Continuous Professional Development

16 Wonderful Teachers Are Appreciated Who Wonderful Teachers Are Appreciated and Good Teachers are appreciated and Can Make Our Childrens Dreams Come True Dear Mrs. Eisen, You are sweeter then a sweet potato. You are beter than a chocalate ice crème with foge. I love you. Caprice Dear Mrs. Rupper, I love you so mutch. I think of you all the tim. I need to give you a hug all the time. I will alwayz think of you. Love, MariCarmen Dear Mrs. Roman, I like to talk to flowers on Saturday and Sunday. But I really get to talk to one all the other days in school when I talk to you. I love you, Orlando Dear Mrs. Heyer When I grow up, I want to be just like you. Love, Tania

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19 Reading is Complex Syntax Association Cultural Background Contextually Based Text Comprehension Motivation Predictability Life Experience Sight Words Picture Clues Controlled Vocabulary Repetition Phonemic Awareness Phonics Writing Visual Discrimination

20 The Exemplary Day Independent Reading and Writing Morning Message Thematic Storybook Reading Mini Word Study Skill Lesson Mini Comprehension Lesson Modeling Center Activities Guided Differentiated Reading Instruction Writing Workshop Rich Literacy Environment

21 Why do we use Centers Children get to practice skills learned Children learn to be independent, self directed, and how to collaborate with peers Provides activities when other assigned work is completed. Allows teacher to meet with guided reading groups or individuals to teach skills

22 Types of Centers & Activities Word Study Center: With onset and rime letters create words for the following word families-- et, up, op, an, at. Write down the word families. Listening/Comprehension Center: Listen to the story on the headsets and follow along in the book Fill out the graphic organizer for story structure elements. Do one illustration for one story structure element Writing Center: Retell the story using the felt board and story characters provided. Write the retelling. Library Corner: Select an informational book that was read to the class. Partner read the book Discuss and then write and illustrate the part you liked the most Choice Activities When other Center Work is Completed: Read a book silently. Illustrate the part you like most. Do a program on the computer center Use one of the games in the word study center Write a short book about the theme being studied in your classroom

23 Practicing Comprehension with CENTER MATERIALS 1. Felt Board Stories Characters from a book made of oak tag or construction paper. They are backed with felt or sandpaper and used when telling a story by displaying them on a felt board. 2. Roll Movies stories illustrated on paper that come on a roll (such as shelving paper). Dowels are inserted into a box with a rectangular cutout opening. The roll story is taped to the dowels at the top and bottom. The dowels are turned to reveal each scene. 3. Prop Stories A collection of materials for a particular book such as three stuffed bears, three bowls, and yellow-haired doll for telling the story of Goldilocks. 4. Puppet Stories Various types of puppets for telling stories such as hand, stick, face, and finger puppets. 5. Chalk Talks Drawing a story on a chalkboard or a sheet of paper while the story is being read or told.

24 How kids go from one center to another: Teacher assigns kids Center board indicates Change with the guided reading group Ring a bell, set a Timer Assign three activities allow one choice activity

25 GUIDED READING Explicit Skill Instruction To meet Individual Needs Use of appropriate materials Assessing Achievement Nature of Groups Change frequently As many as you need, not 3 3 to 5 kids in a group Selected by similar needs Meet daily or less for 5-30 minutes Select groups using multiple measures such as: Running Records Observation Standardized Assessment Teacher Judgment Alternate Rank Ordering Books at Childs Instructional Level is determined by: Print size, Language patterns Illustrations, Vocabulary repetition Types of words, Numbers of words Number of different words, Length of sentences Length of book, Predictability, Decodable elements

26 Assessment in Guided Reading Ongoing assessment of daily progress Progress note sent home once a week for each child Have a focus child daily Running records monitor progress and determine: Reading level, strengths, needs, instruction,

27 Explicit modeling: Teacher does a lesson to introduce skills with center material Guided Practice: Materials are used with the teachers help Independent Practice: Materials placed in center for children to use Include written directions for use Include accountability for all center activities Include rules during Center Time Put completed work in a designated spot Helping children to use center activities

28 Steps in a guided reading lesson Before reading: Review something done before Introduce new story Vocabulary development Set a purpose for reading Build Background Knowledge Comprehension development Word study lessons During Reading Teacher reads story to children Children read story together Older children read alone After Reading: More Comprehension work Respond to book Word Study development

29 Literacy Centers Rocking Chair, Rugs, Throw Pillows Computer Multiple Genre Books (5-8 per child and 3-4 grade levels) Open Faced Shelving Books Stored By Genre Leveled Books Felt Board and Roll Stories Headset and Taped Stories Method For Checking Out Books Books on Tape Rules Demonstrations For Using Materials Accountability

30 Multiple Genres Available Fiction Non-Fiction Picture Books Informational Books Magazines Biography Poetry Novels

31 What Children said about Literacy Center Time The literacy center is nice and cozy and there are lots of good books you can choose from (Choice) Reading is fun in the center because you can read with a friend. When you need help your friend helps you. (Collaboration) You can take books home right from the center (Access) You can choose easy books, hard books, long books, short books. (choice, challenge) I get more done because I can work with others (Collaboration) The only thing missing from literacy center time is a snack bar.

32 Parent Involvement Food Babysitting Transportation Incentives Parent Report Card Multiple times/tasks for parents to help with during school, after school, and at home Culturally Sensitive Programs Be Persistent

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34 Professional Development Continuous Your own personal plan The School Plan 100 hours a year, 3 hours a week

35 Professional Development First year teachers mentored by exemplary teachers Attend Professional Conferences Teacher input and collaboration with peers Administrative support Time to change Goal setting Knowledgeable consultants to motivate Coaches provide modeling Teacher study groups to share and reflect

36 Vocabulary Development What Is Vocabulary? A set of words for which we know the meaning. Types Of Vocabulary To Learn: Listening Vocabulary Speaking Vocabulary Reading Vocabulary Writing Vocabulary What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Vocabulary? Learn use of dictionary Language word parts (prefix, suffix, roots) Use of context clues Themes, stories, play, music, art, science, and social studies

37 Comprehension What Is Comprehension? Constructing meaning while actively involved with text What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Comprehension? Collaboration and Cooperative Learning Retelling Graphic and Semantic Organizers - Maps, Webs, Venn Diagrams, KWL, etc. Self Monitoring Answering Questions About Inference and Prediction Generating Questions Use of Prior Knowledge Mental Imagery Multiple Strategy In Structure

38 Franklin In The Dark Retelling By Phillip, Age 5 Phillip: Franklin In The Dark. One time Franklin didnt want to go in his shell. He was too scared. But his Mama said,Theres nothin in there. But Franklin didnt want to go in the shell because there was monsters in there. He didnt like to go in because he was afraid. At the end he went in and turned on a little night light and went to sleep. Thats it.

39 Practicing Comprehension with CENTER MATERIALS 1. Felt Board Stories Characters from a book made of oak tag or construction paper. They are backed with felt or sandpaper and used when telling a story by displaying them on a felt board. 2. Roll Movies stories illustrated on paper that come on a roll (such as shelving paper). Dowels are inserted into a box with a rectangular cutout opening. The roll story is taped to the dowels at the top and bottom. The dowels are turned to reveal each scene. 3. Prop Stories A collection of materials for a particular book such as three stuffed bears, three bowls, and yellow-haired doll for telling the story of Goldilocks. 4. Puppet Stories Various types of puppets for telling stories such as hand, stick, face, and finger puppets. 5. Chalk Talks Drawing a story on a chalkboard or a sheet of paper while the story is being read or told.

40 FLUENCY What is Fluency? Reading orally with automaticity (ability to decode)and prosody (use of appropriate expression and speed, demonstrating comprehension). What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Fluency? Echo Reading Choral Reading Antiphonal Choral Reading Partner and Paired Reading (Collaborative Oral Reading) Repeated Reading Listening To Good Reading On Tape Readers Theater Listening and Critiquing Your Own Reading On Tape

41 Relationship Between Amount of Recreational Reading and Scores on Standardized Reading Tests Percentile Rank Minutes Reading/Day

42 Writing What Is Writing? Oral language written down. It includes use of narrative, expository, and functional text. What Strategies Do We Use To Teach Writing? Composition Of Narrative Composition Of Expository Functional Writing Spelling Handwriting Punctuation

43 Phonemic Awareness and Phonics What is Phonemic Awareness? Knowing that words are comprised of a sequence of spoken sounds What is Phonics? T he relationship between written letters and their sounds What strategies do we use to teach Phonemic Awareness and Phonics? Phonological Awareness (Hearing individual sounds in words) Phonemic Isolation (Identifying and manipulating sounds) Phonemic Identity (Recognizing same sound in a different word) Phonemic Categorization (Recognizing words that dont belong) Rhyming Segmenting (Breaking a word into its separate sounds) Blending (Putting together separate sounds) Authentic: Literature Based Using Art, Music, Manipulatives, and Worksheets

44 THIS OLD MAN This old man he sings H songs He sings H songs all day long With a Hick, Hack, Haddy, Hack Sing this silly song He wants you to sing along (Tick, Tack, Taddy, Tack) (Sick, Sack, Saddy, Sack) (Mick, Mack, Maddy, Mack) (Pick, Pack, Paddy, Pack)

45 THE NAME GAME - By Shirley Ellis Shirley! Shirley, Shirley bo Birley Bonana fanna fo Firley Fee fy mo Mirley, Shirley! Lincoln! Lincoln, Lincoln bo Bincoln Bonana fanna fo Fincoln Fee fy mo Mincoln, Lincoln! Come on everybody, I say now lets play a game, I betcha I can make a rhyme out of anybodys name The first letter of the name, I treat it like it wasnt there, But a B or an F or an M will appear And then I say bo, add a B, then I say the name and Bonana fanna and a fo And then I say the name again with an M this time and there isnt any name that I cant rhyme Arnold! Arnold, Arnold bo Barnold Bonana fanna fo Farnold Fee fy mo Marnold Arnold! But if the first two letters are ever the same, I drop them both and say the name like Bob, Bob drop the Bs Bo ob For Fred, Fred drop the Fs Fo red, For May, Mary drop the Ms Mo ary Thats the only rule that is contrary

46 Word Study

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49 Thomas Jeffersons Beliefs About Literacy Education The ability of every citizen to read is necessary to the practice of democracy Reading should be taught during the earliest yeas of schooling Reading will ensure that the people will be able to be safe and be the guardians of their own liberty.

50 We Can Make Our Childrens Dreams Come True Japanese Proverb Better than 1000 days of diligent study Is one day with a great teacher


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