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Presentation on theme: "ENGAGING STRUGGLING READERS OFTEN LEFT BEHIND IN LITERACY"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Sharon Pitcher
ENGAGING STRUGGLING READERS OFTEN LEFT BEHIND IN LITERACY Dr. Sharon Pitcher Dr. Darlene Fewster Dr. Elizabeth Dicembre Dr. Gilda Martinez Towson, Maryland

2 With Low Reading Levels
What Do Adolescents With Low Reading Levels Need for Engagement Dr. Sharon Pitcher

3 The Dismal Fog Only 3 out of 10 US 8th graders are proficient readers.
(Berman & Biancarosa, 2005) Approximately 8 million between 4th and 12th grade struggle to read on grade level. (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004)

4 More Bad News Reading levels for 17 year olds have been on a downward trend for the last 30 years and only 3% of adult prisoners read at the proficient level (National Endowment of the Arts, 2007) Only 7 out of 10 students are actually finishing high school (Cities in Crisis, Swanson, 2008) 53% of all college students have to take remedial courses (Reading Next, 2004)

5 Crisis in the Cities Report
In the City Near Us In 2004, only 34.6 students graduated in Balto. City, which was 47 out of 50 cities and was 47% lower than the surrounding suburban areas Crisis in the Cities Report

6 Improvement But Concerning
American Diploma Project Network, 2007

7 Research Suggests “If academic literacy instruction is to be effective, it must address issues of self-efficacy and engagement” (Alvermann, 2001). “Adolescents deserve…instruction that includes both skill development and motivation” (IRA Adolescent Literacy Position Statement, 1999).

8 Barriers to Success Decrease in motivation is #1
Lack of comprehension instruction State assessment do not lead to understanding of literacy problems Problems are ignored by teachers who read text aloud, use audiotapes or give students notes Reading to Achieve: A Governor’s Guide to Adolescent Literacy

9 Consensus from Many Researchers
We have to change the focus from trying to find a magic bullet. Resist the temptation to “fix” the learner and “fix” the learning condition to meet the needs of students. Teachers need to work in conditions that DO NOT DICTATE what they do. (Alvermann, 2003, 2004)

10 The Voices of Adolescents
825 Adolescents from Eight Sites: Maryland (Baltimore City Public Schools, Baltimore Parochial Schools, Montgomery County Public Schools) California Trinidad Pennsylvania (rural school district) New York Michigan Texas South Carolina

11 The Instrument - Adolescent Motivation to Read Survey
24 Question Survey based on research, teacher validation, and three factor analysis Assesses three factors of motivation: Value Instruction Self Concept

12 What Motivated Them the Most
Opportunity to use computers during class time (86%) Choices of what they were reading in class and for homework (80.5%) Using computers to complete homework (76.7%) Teachers reading aloud (76.6%)

13 A Surprising Response They valued being taught reading strategies:
Questioning (74.8%) Summarization (75%) Making Connections (72.7%) How to Use Different Part of Their Textbook (73.3%)

14 Self Concept As Readers
They were most confident when reading on the computer. A larger percent (57%) did not feel they read as well as their friends. Many of the teachers that participated in our study were surprised at their students answers in this section.

15 Using the computer to stay in touch with others received the highest most favorable response (42.9% answered a great way to spend time and 21.6% answered an interesting way to spend time). Students enjoyed reading magazines and newspapers but did not share what they read with their friends. Most thought they would spend time reading as an adult (67%) and enjoyed receiving books as gifts (69.2) Value of Reading A majority (66.3%) found reading a book something they liked to do

16 What Adolescents With Low Reading Levels Really Need
Comprehension Instruction Choice Technology Integration Opportunities to Share “American’s adolescents need to be literate not only to succeed in school, but also to succeed in life”(Berman & Biancarosa, 2005).

17 Comprehension Instruction
What most teens really need. Strategies applied in real materials. Time to apply the strategies until individually internalized Relate the instruction to what they are doing now across all contexts and what they will do in the future. “Process cannot be separated from content; they are one and the same”. Strategy instruction “is about teaching students how to tap into a deeper understanding of themselves as proficient learners” (Santa, 2006, p. 470)

18 Choice Teen Space
Teens Reading Online Why do they only have to read textbooks or anthologies? On-line resources make this easy and less expensive! Have you seen the American Reading Company materials?

19 Computer Integration If they can do it with a pencil, they can do it better with a computer! The products can be word processed or a slide presentation as well as a a handwritten worksheet. Google Docs Word processor, presentations, spreadsheets, , and more!

20 Opportunities to Share
Blogs Developing Presentations As a Team Literature Circles and Book Clubs Wikkis “There is sense of honored voice” (Santa, 2006, p. 468).

21 My Blog: Continuing PD Conversations with Sharon Pitcher
Share what you are doing. Share websites that work for your students. Share concerns An annotated bibliography including all of the references used in this presentation is posted on my blog.

22 Fight for What Teens Need
“American’s adolescents need to be literate not only to succeed in school, but also to succeed in life” (Berman & Biancarosa, 2005, p. 6). “The proportion of students who are not engaged or motivated by their school experiences grows at every grade level and reaches epidemic proportions in high school” (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004, p. 10). And Support Your Fight With Research!

23 Adolescents deserve… Acesss to a wide range of materials Instruction that includes both skill development and motivation Assessment that shows their strengths as well as needs Explicit instruction in comprehension strategies Reading specialists that help struggling readers Teachers who understand the complexity of adolescent readers’ needs and respect the differences. A family, community and country that provides opportunities to support them to achieve advanced levels of literacy so they can succeed in the world in which they live. Moore, D.W., Bean, T.W., Birdshaw, D. & Rycik, J. A. (1999). Adolescent literacy: A position statement. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

24 And increased student ACHIEVEMENT will follow!
They need us… To connect to who they are and what they need to be. To fix the learning situations so they are engaged. To demand that school systems stop wasting money on quick fix, MAGIC BULLET programs and invest in teachers who respond to what adolescents really need. Invest money in trade books, magazines, and technology. And increased student ACHIEVEMENT will follow!

25 Students with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Darlene Fewster, Ed.D. Department of Special Education College of Education Towson University May 5, 2008 International Reading Association 53rd Annual Conference Atlanta, Georgia

26 Try this and quickly… So lveall t he pro ble msbel ow.
ho wma nyda ys a ret her ein awe eek? 1.25 plusonepo in t2 fivee quals? T h esky I sblu ean dtheg rass isg reen. Howmany sid esdo esasqu areh av e?

27 The Silent Epidemic: TBI
Most common cause of death and disability in children and adults up to age 45 Occurs every 23 seconds Approximately 5.3 million Americans suffer some form of TBI disability 1.4 million Americans sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury each year 1 out of 500 children and adolescents will survive TBI that require hospitalization The number of people with TBI who are not seen in an emergency department or who receive no care is unknown.

28 What is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?
Caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

29 The Lobes of the Brain

30 The Frontal Lobe: Function
higher-order functions planning and inhibition seat of working memory most recently evolved part of the brain human frontal lobe is far more developed than in other animals

31 Parietal Lobe: Functions
Location for visual attention. Location for touch perception. Goal directed voluntary movements. Manipulation of objects. Integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single

32 Occipital Lobes: most posterior, at the back of the head
Defects in vision (Visual Field Cuts). Difficulty with locating objects in environment. Difficulty with identifying colors (Color Agnosia). Production of hallucinations. Visual illusions - inaccurately seeing objects. Word blindness - inability to recognize words. Difficulty in recognizing drawn objects. Inability to recognize the movement of object (Movement Agnosia). Difficulties with reading and writing.

33 Temporal Lobes: Observed Problems
Difficulty in recognizing faces (Prosopagnosia). Difficulty in understanding spoken words (Wernicke's Aphasia). Disturbance with selective attention to what we see and hear. Difficulty with identification of, and verbalization about objects. Short-term memory loss. Interference with long-term memory Increased or decreased interest in sexual behavior. Inability to categorize objects (Categorization). Right lobe damage can cause persistent talking. Increased aggressive behavior.

34 Traumatic versus Acquired Brain Injury
Open Results in a penetrating wound to the brain Closed Skull and protective tissue remain intact Internal compression, stretching, or shearing Acquired Anoxic injuries Infections Strokes/vascular accidents Tumors Metabolic disorders Toxic products

35 How the Brain Can be Hurt

36 Primary & Secondary Impact

37 TBI Differs from Other Conditions
Onset After an injury rather than at birth Complexity Student may have symptoms that mimic a variety of other conditions Prognosis Many improve dramatically, especially in early stages as brain heals

38 Common Causes of Acquired Brain Injury
Infants Abuse Neglect Toddlers & Preschoolers Falls

39 Common Causes of Acquired Brain Injury
Early Elementary Falls Pedestrian motor vehicle accidents Late Elementary and Middle School Pedestrian/bicycle accidents Motor vehicle accidents Sports High School

40 Assessment/Diagnosis
Medical (Glasgow Coma Scale) Neurological Scanning instruments (CAT scans, MRI) Tests of intellectual aptitude Adaptive Behavior Direct observations

41 Stages of Treatment Acute care Postacute care
Outpatient rehabilitation School reentry

42 What Equipment Will You See When You Visit?

43 Cognitive Changes Attention Concentration Long-term memory
Short-term memory Reasoning Problem-solving Slow processing Learning new information

44 Physical Changes Vision & hearing problems
Speech and coordination of movement Stamina and endurance Balance, strength, equilibrium Motor function Eye-hand coordination

45 Linguistic Changes Expressive language returns relatively quickly
Receptive and written language communication are often long-term impairments Aphasia- an inability to use language appropriately for a period after TBI

46 Personality Changes Disinhibition Lack of motivation
Struggles with new identity Often denies the existence of a new identity Emotionally may respond to new identity Temper tantrums Euphoria Disinhibition Lack of motivation Poor self-monitoring skills Poor coping skills Poor social skills

47 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Attention)
Failure to follow directions Disrupted attention, fatigue, underarousal Lose attention with difficult tasks Perform poorly at new tasks

48 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Perception)
Failure to interpret nonverbal signals Difficult finding things

49 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Memory and Learning)
Failure to complete assignments Failure to bring materials to class May require large number of repetitions May need to be told to repeat information

50 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Organization)
May unexpectedly move from topic to topic May lose things May work inefficiently May not profit from reviewing notes

51 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Reasoning and Abstract Thinking)
May fail to generalize strategies to new situations May not profit from experience May do well on true-false and multiple-choice tests, but unable to answer essay questions May comprehend the information in a reading passage, but be unable to answer open-ended question requiring inferences May understand the facts in science class, but unable to formulate rules or generalization

52 Who Will Help After Brain Injury?

53 Strengthen Previous Learning by…
Building a bridge from the old to the new Creating a framework for learning Implementing functional practice with a purpose Generalizing the learning to a new situation Moving toward independence

54 The Transition Process from Rehabilitation:Concerns
When is the student really ready to reenter school-based program? Where should the student initially be placed? What comprises and IEP for a student with TBI?

55 Criteria for School Reentry
Attend to task for minutes Tolerate minutes of classroom stimulation Function in a group of two or more Engage in meaningful communication Follow simple directions Give evidence of learning potential

56 What Educators Need to Know
Influences on outcomes What environmental changes need to be made to help the student with TBI? What are the crucial transition issues in school reentry for students, parents, and the school? What developmental factors impact on a student’s recovery over time? What types of teaching-learning framework best combines current knowledge of the brain and brain injury?

57 Necessary Components for Educational Programs
Component training Direct remediation of deficits in basic cognitive processes (attention, memory, reasoning, processing speed) Compensatory training Alterations in the environment (changes in expectations of others, use of cues and support from others, and physical alterations of space) Functional/integrative training The application and generalization of cognitive skills in real-life settings (mastery of several settings)

58 Try these So lveall t he pro ble msbel ow.
ho wma nyda ys a ret her ein awe eek? 1.25 plusonepo in t2 fivee quals? T h esky I sblu ean dtheg rass isg reen. Howmany sid esdo esasqu areh av e?

59 Information on TBI Brain Injury Association State affiliates

60 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
major concern to teachers and parents because of its prevalence and its adverse affects on children 2 million school-age students have ADHD 44% of student receiving special education services have ADHD

61 Gender Differences General Population 9.2% of males 2.9% of females
Population with ADHD 27% ADHD-I 18% ADHD-H 55% ADHD-Combined

62 ADHDADHD ADHD-H ADHD-I ADHD: Combined Subtype
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)

63 ADHD-Hyperactivity/Impulsivity
The child must display six of the following symptoms often and fewer than six inattention symptoms. Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected. Runs about or climbs excessively in situations where it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults it may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly. Is “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor” Talks excessively

64 ADHD-Hyperactivity/Impulsivity
blurts out answers to questions before the questions have been completed has difficulty waiting in lines or awaiting turns in games or group situations

65 ADHD-H (Hyperactive/Impulsive Subtype
Excessive motor activity Verbal activity Identified around first grade-earlier than ADHD-I subtype (Nigg, 2001) Developmental task – inhibiting behavior

66 ADHD-H (Hyperactive/Impulsive Subtype
Impulsivity Delay aversion Delay-requires stopping an action or activity Overriding sense of impatience Interrupts physical or verbal activity Interrupting is not simply a failure to inhibit, interrupting increases participation in conversation (i.e., gets verbal activity stimulation) and reduces time listening to others (i.e., avoids boredom).

67 ADHD: Inattentive Type
Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities Often does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or her Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, or toys)

68 ADHD: Inattentive Type
Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities Often does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or her Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, or toys)

69 ADHD: Inattentive Type
Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks and play activities Often does not follow through on instruction and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions) Often avoids or strongly dislikes tasks (such as schoolwork or homework) that require mental effort Often forgetful in daily activities

70 ADHD: DSM-IV Criteria Specify That Core Symptoms Must:
Have had an onset no later than 7 years of age Be present in two or more situations (e.g., school, home) Have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level Cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning

71 Is there a simple test to diagnose ADHD?
No; unfortunately, there is no simple test (like a blood test or a short written test) to determine whether someone has AD/HD.  This is true of many medical conditions (for example, there is no "test" for a simple headache, yet anyone who has had a headache knows it's real!). Accurate diagnosis is made only by a trained clinician after an extensive evaluation.  This evaluation should include ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms involved, a thorough physical examination, and a series of interviews with the individual (child or adult) and other key persons in the individual's life (for example, parents, spouse, teachers, and others).

72 IDEA and Section 504 Section 504
definition of a disability is much broader under Section 504 not all Section 504 students are protected under IDEA provides accommodations based on the child's disability and resulting weaknesses, but does not require academic improvement.    IDEA All IDEA students are covered by Section 504 IEP, which is provided to students covered by IDEA, must be tailored to the child's unique needs and must result in educational benefit fewer procedural safeguards are offered to children and parents under Section 504 than under IDEA

73 Learning Problems and Co-Occurring Learning Disabilities
Is ADHD a learning disorder? High rates of co-occurring learning disabilities exist “ADHD is not a learning disability but a behavioral problem” (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994).

74 Cognitive Abilities Are children with ADHD as intelligent as and as innovative as their peers? Individual children fall across the full spectrum Samples drawn from clinics report lowered IQs (7-15 points below comparison samples on standardized IQ tests)

75 Executive Function Planning and sequencing complex behavior
Paying attention to several components at once Grasping the gist of a complex situation Resisting distraction and interference Inhibiting inappropriate responses Sustaining behavioral output for relatively prolonged periods

76 Problem Solving Attentional problems Working memory difficulties
Spent less time in problem solving (several possible solutions) Used less efficient questions and strategies

77 Reading Difficulties Reading Comprehension Working memory
Sustained attention

78 Classroom Accommodations
Accommodate differences in their attentional style Establish academic priorities Primary emphasis on engaged and productive time Performance quality (accuracy and creativity) Secondary goals- neatness, organization, length

79 What Works: Day planners and to-do lists are useful in keeping track of regularly scheduled tasks, projects and their deadlines, and appointments. Timers and alarms -- either through a clock, watch, PDA, or computer -- help keep the individual on track and on time. Attend to filing documents, processing daily mail, paying bills, and other mundane tasks on a daily basis.

80 What Works: Color-code file folders, textbooks, binders, etc. Children will find this useful in keeping materials for different subjects organized.  Designate specific areas for things like books, calculators, and other items that can be easily misplaced. Break down large, seemingly overwhelming projects or tasks into smaller, manageable steps.

81 Accommodations and Interventions
Frequent breaks Red overlays or colored highlighting at the end of passages Interesting stories that relate to student’s interest Story maps that include characters, setting, conflicts, major events, and outcomes Self-monitoring of attention Encourage self-talking and other active responses Silent reading of self-selected books

82 Information on ADHD National Resource Center on AD/HD Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 8181 Professional Place, Suite 150 Landover, MD Please also visit the CHADD Web site at

83 Meeting the Needs of Struggling Readers in Non-Public Schools Dr. Sharon Pitcher Dr. Elizabeth Dicembre

84 Our Goal To provide administrators and teachers opportunities to learn about the newest research in literacy instruction and provide the materials to do some of the suggestions Every event was like Christmas – teachers came away with many presents to make literacy possible for struggling readers in their classes.

85 Components of the Project the First Year
Two-day Summer Institute School Visits Professional Books for Teachers’ Use in Each School Funded by Baltimore City Public School System’s Title 1 Office For 15 Non-Public Schools-Catholic Schools

86 Components of the Project the Second Year
Innovative Professional Development Test Taking Strategies and Resources to Support Teachers to Meet the Needs of Struggling Readers - Professional Study Day Unique Parent Involvement Package Funded by Baltimore City Public School System’s Title 1 Office For 26 Non-Public Schools 17 Catholic Schools and 9 Private Schools

87 Innovative Professional Development
School Visits - Individualized to Meet the Needs of the School Principal Summer Institute - Provided ideas and materials to involve more parents of struggling readers in their schools. Teacher Summer Institute - Workshops on topics suggested by teachers and administrators in the schools

88 School Visits Professional development on school chosen topics.
Walk-throughs with administration Provided schools with extra professional books on topics the teachers expressed interest in

89 Principals’ Summer Institute
Centered on increasing parent involvement DVDs for the school: Words that Cook: Reading Starts with Interests* Words that Cook: Reading Relationships* IRA’s Read to Me Video* *All three are available on IRA’s Website

90 Teachers’ Summer Institutes
Centered on: Practical strategies Choice of sessions Each teacher received: Professional books Hands on materials to use with struggling readers Additionally, some teachers received: Trade books Software Bins and materials for literacy centers

91 Middle School Topics Covered
Comprehension Vocabulary Motivation Test Taking Skills Some samples of the handouts are included in your packet.

92 Professional Study Day
Test Taking Strategies and Resources to Support Teachers to Meet the Needs of Struggling Readers Lexia Comprehensive Reading Test for each school to provide a research proven technology for continual assessment of these students which the schools we visited lacked Multisensory strategies to support struggling learners in reading and math Research-based, proven successful strategies to change achievement We shared some of the incredible successes we have all witnessed in the T.U. Reading Clinic to demonstrate what works! A middle school test-taking bookmark is included in your packet.

93 Unique Parent Involvement Package
Developed materials that could easily be used to reach many. Maximizing funds to develop school-based resources that can touch the literacy lives of families far beyond the time of our contract.

94 Parent Involvement Binder
Bookmarks that could easily be shared with parents. Family bingo cards, family literacy activities Website information Parent letters, forms, information sheets, meeting agendas All materials were put on a CD so the schools and teachers could personalize them.

95 Professional Books Provided Schools and Teachers
Some books included: Revisit, Reflect, Retell Guided Comprehension: A Teaching Model for Gr. 3-8 Teaching Vocabulary: 50 Creative Strategies K-12 Words Their Way The Reading Teacher's Book of Lists Snapshots Strategies That Work Supporting Struggling Readers and Writers The Vocabulary-Enriched Classroom: Practices for Improving the Reading Performance of All Students in Grades 3 and Up

96 So, to return to the IRA Adolescent Literacy Position Statement , We tried to provide the schools with… Acesss to a wide range of materials Instruction that includes both skill development and motivation Assessment that shows their strengths as well as needs Explicit instruction in comprehension strategies Teachers who understand the complexity of adolescent readers’ needs and respect the differences. A family, community and country that provides opportunities to support them to achieve advanced levels of literacy so they can succeed in the world in which they live. Our contract did not have funds to provide reading specialists that help struggling readers but as reading specialists ourselves, we provided as much resource as we could.

97 English Language Learners
Reaching and Teaching English Language Learners Dr. Gilda Martinez

98 Myths or Realities About ELL?
Most ELL children were born outside of the U.S. Learning a second language is entirely different from learning one’s own native language. Once ELL children speak reasonably fluently, their problems are likely to be over in school.

99 Top Languages in the World:
Language Approx. number of speakers Chinese (Mandarin) 1,075,000,000  English 514,000,000  Hindustani 496,000,000  Spanish 425,000,000  Russian 275,000,000  Arabic 256,000,000  Bengali 215,000,000  Portuguese 194,000,000  Malay-Indonesian 176,000,000 French 129,000,000

100 Top Languages in the U.S. (There are 176 languages spoken.)
English 215,423,557 Spanish 28,101,052 Chinese 2,022,143 French 1,643,838 German 1,383,442 Tagalog 1,224,241 Vietnamese 1,009,627 Italian 1,008,370 Korean 894,063 Russian 706,242 National Virtual Translation Center

101 Terminology ESOL ESL LEP L2 *ELL

102 Length of Time to Achieve English Proficiency:
1-2 years (Conversational or BICS) 5-7 Years (Academic or CALP)

103 1st Language Acquisition:
Learned at home Learned by young children Learned to communicate to loved ones Largely an unconscious process Not much time pressure Must learn developmental concepts as well as language

104 Similarities between 1st and 2nd Language Acquisition:
Errors indicate learning is taking place Learn certain aspects of language in a relatively predicable order Understands more than he can say

105 First days… Pronounce the student’s name correctly
Learn a few phrases in his language Show respect Provide a buddy Plan interactive activities Find out his interests

106 Questions to teach Beginning and Intermediate English Speakers
Point to/show me Yes/no Either/or What, where, when How Why

107 Document: Native language spoken
Prior school attended in U.S. (if any) Was English studied in his native country? What strengths does the student have? (art, math, etc.)

108 Potential checklist to use:
Relies on interpreter Gets assistance from teacher Asks you to repeat Uses facial expressions, points, gestures Draws pictures Writes thoughts on paper Repeats Speaks carefully

109 Collaborative Groups:
Buddy system To learn daily routines Writing response Provides an audience, immediate response to writing Literature circles Helps use background knowledge and value individual responses

110 Selecting Reading Materials:
Help students discover values and functions in written language Allow writing for various purposes Take in account cultural backgrounds and background knowledge

111 Characteristics of Texts that Support Reading Comprehension:
Predictable Represent culture Represent similar experiences Visuals support text Interesting/imaginative Natural language

112 Characteristics of Texts that Support Reading Comprehension:
Predictable Represent culture Represent similar experiences Visuals support text Interesting/imaginative Natural language 112

113 Reading Non-Fiction: Build background knowledge
Teach essential vocabulary Set a purpose for reading Ask questions before, during, and after the reading to enhance comprehension Text structures- -problem/solution -cause/effect -compare/contrast -story elements-setting, characters, etc. Do: Kringlejop activity 113

114 Strategies to Use with ELL Students:
Wait time Before/During/After Reading Strategies Visual Scaffolds (pictures) Read Alouds Thematic Instruction Journaling Message Boards THEMATIC - Try to at least connect with the ESOL teacher 114

115 Thematic Units: Use them whenever possible…
It helps ELL students know what you are talking about They can make connections 115

116 Thematic Unit on Cultural Backgrounds:
ABC Book Family Tree Maps Research Travel Brochures International Recipe Book Multicultural Corner 116

117 Work on Strengths…Think MI:
Bodily/Kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Musical Visual/Spatial Naturalistic Think about areas you feel comfortable in. Make sure to work on areas you are not comfortable in…in your class. You could have students who feel better working in those areas. You want your students to feel success. Example: me ice-skating…I never went back! For visual…which is ESSENTIAL FOR ELL: -Pictures -Maps -Venn diagrams -Films (GEOFF and my geology class comparison) -Field trips -Vocab. Word wall -Concrete objects 117

118 Resources: FIND OUT WHAT THEY ARE! Other students? ESOL teachers?
Adult volunteers? Mentor programs? Translation services? 118

119 Useful References: Center for Applied Linguistics
Classroom Instruction that Works, by Jane Hill and Kathleen Flynn Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (2nd Edition), by Adrienne L. Herrell and Michael L. Jordan Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers (4th Edition), by Suzanne F. Peregoy and Owen F. Boyle Teachers for English Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) 119


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