Presentation on theme: "ENGAGING STRUGGLING READERS OFTEN LEFT BEHIND IN LITERACY"— Presentation transcript:
1Dr. Sharon Pitcher email@example.com ENGAGING STRUGGLING READERS OFTEN LEFT BEHIND IN LITERACYDr. Sharon PitcherDr. Darlene FewsterDr. Elizabeth DicembreDr. Gilda MartinezTowson, Maryland
2With Low Reading Levels What Do AdolescentsWith Low Reading LevelsNeed for EngagementDr. Sharon Pitcher
3The Dismal Fog Only 3 out of 10 US 8th graders are proficient readers. (Berman & Biancarosa, 2005)Approximately 8 million between 4th and 12th grade struggle to read on grade level.(Biancarosa & Snow, 2004)
4More Bad NewsReading levels for 17 year olds have been on a downward trend for the last 30 years and only 3% of adult prisoners read at the proficient level (National Endowment of the Arts, 2007)Only 7 out of 10 students are actually finishing high school (Cities in Crisis, Swanson, 2008)53% of all college students have to take remedial courses (Reading Next, 2004)
5Crisis in the Cities Report In the City Near UsIn 2004, only 34.6 students graduated in Balto. City, which was 47 out of 50 cities and was 47% lower than the surrounding suburban areasCrisis in the Cities Report
6Improvement But Concerning American Diploma Project Network, 2007
7Research Suggests“If academic literacy instruction is to be effective, it must address issues of self-efficacy and engagement” (Alvermann, 2001).“Adolescents deserve…instruction that includes both skill development and motivation” (IRA Adolescent Literacy Position Statement, 1999).
8Barriers to Success Decrease in motivation is #1 Lack of comprehension instructionState assessment do not lead to understanding of literacy problemsProblems are ignored by teachers who read text aloud, use audiotapes or give students notesReading to Achieve: A Governor’s Guide to Adolescent Literacy
9Consensus from Many Researchers We have to change the focus from trying to find a magic bullet.Resist the temptation to “fix” the learner and “fix” the learning condition to meet the needs of students.Teachers need to work in conditions that DO NOT DICTATE what they do.(Alvermann, 2003, 2004)
10The Voices of Adolescents 825 Adolescents from Eight Sites:Maryland (Baltimore City Public Schools, Baltimore Parochial Schools, Montgomery County Public Schools)CaliforniaTrinidadPennsylvania (rural school district)New YorkMichiganTexasSouth Carolina
11The Instrument - Adolescent Motivation to Read Survey 24 Question Survey based on research, teacher validation, and three factor analysisAssesses three factors of motivation:ValueInstructionSelf Concept
12What Motivated Them the Most Opportunity to use computers during class time (86%)Choices of what they were reading in class and for homework (80.5%)Using computers to complete homework (76.7%)Teachers reading aloud (76.6%)
13A Surprising Response They valued being taught reading strategies: Questioning (74.8%)Summarization (75%)Making Connections (72.7%)How to Use Different Part of Their Textbook (73.3%)
14Self Concept As Readers They were most confidentwhen reading on the computer.A larger percent (57%) did not feel they read as well as their friends.Many of the teachers that participated in our study were surprised at their students answers in this section.
15Using the computer to stay in touch with others received the highest most favorable response (42.9% answered a great way to spend time and 21.6% answered an interesting way to spend time).Students enjoyed reading magazines and newspapers but did not share what they read with their friends.Most thought they would spend time reading as an adult (67%) and enjoyed receiving books as gifts (69.2)Value of ReadingA majority (66.3%) found reading a book something they liked to do
16What Adolescents With Low Reading Levels Really Need Comprehension InstructionChoiceTechnology IntegrationOpportunities to Share“American’s adolescents need to be literate not only to succeed in school, but also to succeed in life”(Berman & Biancarosa, 2005).
17Comprehension Instruction What most teens really need.Strategies applied in real materials.Time to apply the strategies until individually internalizedRelate the instruction to what they are doing now across all contexts and what they will do in the future.“Process cannot be separated from content; they are one and the same”. Strategy instruction “is about teaching students how to tap into a deeper understanding of themselves as proficient learners” (Santa, 2006, p. 470)
18Choice Teen Space http://www.ipl.org/div/teen/browse/rw0000/#topofpage Teens Reading OnlineWhy do they only have to read textbooks or anthologies? On-line resources make this easy and less expensive!Have you seen the American Reading Company materials?
19Computer IntegrationIf they can do it with a pencil, they can do it better with a computer! The products can be word processed or a slide presentation as well as a a handwritten worksheet.Google Docshttps://www.google.com/accounts/writely/en/docsslogo.gifWord processor, presentations, spreadsheets, , and more!
20Opportunities to Share BlogsDeveloping Presentations As a TeamLiterature Circles and Book ClubsWikkis“There is sense of honored voice” (Santa, 2006, p. 468).
21My Blog: Continuing PD Conversations with Sharon Pitcher Share what you are doing.Share websites that work for your students.Share concernsAn annotated bibliography including all of the references used in this presentation is posted on my blog.
22Fight for What Teens Need “American’s adolescents need to be literate not only to succeed in school, but also to succeed in life” (Berman & Biancarosa, 2005, p. 6).“The proportion of students who are not engaged or motivated by their school experiences grows at every grade level and reaches epidemic proportions in high school” (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004, p. 10).And Support Your Fight With Research!
23Adolescents deserve…Acesss to a wide range of materialsInstruction that includes both skill development and motivationAssessment that shows their strengths as well as needsExplicit instruction in comprehension strategiesReading specialists that help struggling readersTeachers who understand the complexity of adolescent readers’ needs and respect the differences.A family, community and country that provides opportunities to support them to achieve advanced levels of literacy so they can succeed in the world in which they live.Moore, D.W., Bean, T.W., Birdshaw, D. & Rycik, J. A. (1999). Adolescent literacy: A position statement. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
24And increased student ACHIEVEMENT will follow! They need us…To connect to who they are and what they need to be.To fix the learning situations so they are engaged.To demand that school systems stop wasting money on quick fix, MAGIC BULLET programs and invest in teachers who respond to what adolescents really need. Invest money in trade books, magazines, and technology.And increased student ACHIEVEMENT will follow!
25Students with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Darlene Fewster, Ed.D.Department of Special EducationCollege of EducationTowson UniversityMay 5, 2008International Reading Association 53rd Annual ConferenceAtlanta, Georgia
26Try this and quickly… So lveall t he pro ble msbel ow. ho wma nyda ys a ret her ein awe eek?1.25 plusonepo in t2 fivee quals?T h esky I sblu ean dtheg rass isg reen.Howmany sid esdo esasqu areh av e?
27The Silent Epidemic: TBI Most common cause of death and disability in children and adults up to age 45Occurs every 23 secondsApproximately 5.3 million Americans suffer some form of TBI disability1.4 million Americans sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury each year1 out of 500 children and adolescents will survive TBI that require hospitalizationThe number of people with TBI who are not seen in an emergency department or who receive no care is unknown.
28What is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)? Caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
30The Frontal Lobe: Function higher-order functionsplanning and inhibitionseat of working memorymost recently evolved part of the brainhuman frontal lobe is far more developed than in other animals
31Parietal Lobe: Functions Location for visual attention.Location for touch perception.Goal directed voluntary movements.Manipulation of objects.Integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single
32Occipital Lobes: most posterior, at the back of the head Defects in vision (Visual Field Cuts).Difficulty with locating objects in environment.Difficulty with identifying colors (Color Agnosia).Production of hallucinations.Visual illusions - inaccurately seeing objects.Word blindness - inability to recognize words.Difficulty in recognizing drawn objects.Inability to recognize the movement of object (Movement Agnosia).Difficulties with reading and writing.
33Temporal Lobes: Observed Problems Difficulty in recognizing faces (Prosopagnosia).Difficulty in understanding spoken words (Wernicke's Aphasia).Disturbance with selective attention to what we see and hear.Difficulty with identification of, and verbalization about objects.Short-term memory loss.Interference with long-term memoryIncreased or decreased interest in sexual behavior.Inability to categorize objects (Categorization).Right lobe damage can cause persistent talking.Increased aggressive behavior.
34Traumatic versus Acquired Brain Injury OpenResults in a penetrating wound to the brainClosedSkull and protective tissue remain intactInternal compression, stretching, or shearingAcquiredAnoxic injuriesInfectionsStrokes/vascular accidentsTumorsMetabolic disordersToxic products
37TBI Differs from Other Conditions OnsetAfter an injury rather than at birthComplexityStudent may have symptoms that mimic a variety of other conditionsPrognosisMany improve dramatically, especially in early stages as brain heals
38Common Causes of Acquired Brain Injury InfantsAbuseNeglectToddlers & PreschoolersFalls
39Common Causes of Acquired Brain Injury Early ElementaryFallsPedestrian motor vehicle accidentsLate Elementary and Middle SchoolPedestrian/bicycle accidentsMotor vehicle accidentsSportsHigh School
40Assessment/Diagnosis Medical (Glasgow Coma Scale)NeurologicalScanning instruments (CAT scans, MRI)Tests of intellectual aptitudeAdaptive BehaviorDirect observations
41Stages of Treatment Acute care Postacute care Outpatient rehabilitationSchool reentry
43Cognitive Changes Attention Concentration Long-term memory Short-term memoryReasoningProblem-solvingSlow processingLearning new information
44Physical Changes Vision & hearing problems Speech and coordination of movementStamina and enduranceBalance, strength, equilibriumMotor functionEye-hand coordination
45Linguistic Changes Expressive language returns relatively quickly Receptive and written language communication are often long-term impairmentsAphasia- an inability to use language appropriately for a period after TBI
46Personality Changes Disinhibition Lack of motivation Struggles with newidentityOften denies the existence of a new identityEmotionally may respond to new identityTemper tantrumsEuphoriaDisinhibitionLack of motivationPoor self-monitoring skillsPoor coping skillsPoor social skills
47Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Attention) Failure to follow directionsDisrupted attention, fatigue, underarousalLose attention with difficult tasksPerform poorly at new tasks
48Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Perception) Failure to interpret nonverbal signalsDifficult finding things
49Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Memory and Learning) Failure to complete assignmentsFailure to bring materials to classMay require large number of repetitionsMay need to be told to repeat information
50Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Organization) May unexpectedly move from topic to topicMay lose thingsMay work inefficientlyMay not profit from reviewing notes
51Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Reasoning and Abstract Thinking) May fail to generalize strategies to new situationsMay not profit from experienceMay do well on true-false and multiple-choice tests, but unable to answer essay questionsMay comprehend the information in a reading passage, but be unable to answer open-ended question requiring inferencesMay understand the facts in science class, but unable to formulate rules or generalization
53Strengthen Previous Learning by… Building a bridge from the old to the newCreating a framework for learningImplementing functional practice with a purposeGeneralizing the learning to a new situationMoving toward independence
54The Transition Process from Rehabilitation:Concerns When is the student really ready to reenter school-based program?Where should the student initially be placed?What comprises and IEP for a student with TBI?
55Criteria for School Reentry Attend to task for minutesTolerate minutes of classroom stimulationFunction in a group of two or moreEngage in meaningful communicationFollow simple directionsGive evidence of learning potential
56What Educators Need to Know Influences on outcomesWhat environmental changes need to be made to help the student with TBI?What are the crucial transition issues in school reentry for students, parents, and the school?What developmental factors impact on a student’s recovery over time?What types of teaching-learning framework best combines current knowledge of the brain and brain injury?
57Necessary Components for Educational Programs Component trainingDirect remediation of deficits in basic cognitive processes (attention, memory, reasoning, processing speed)Compensatory trainingAlterations in the environment (changes in expectations of others, use of cues and support from others, and physical alterations of space)Functional/integrative trainingThe application and generalization of cognitive skills in real-life settings (mastery of several settings)
58Try these So lveall t he pro ble msbel ow. ho wma nyda ys a ret her ein awe eek?1.25 plusonepo in t2 fivee quals?T h esky I sblu ean dtheg rass isg reen.Howmany sid esdo esasqu areh av e?
59Information on TBIBrain Injury AssociationState affiliates
60Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) major concern to teachers and parents because of its prevalence and its adverse affects on children2 million school-age students have ADHD44% of student receiving special education services have ADHD
61Gender Differences General Population 9.2% of males 2.9% of females Population with ADHD27% ADHD-I18% ADHD-H55% ADHD-Combined
62ADHDADHD ADHD-H ADHD-I ADHD: Combined Subtype Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
63ADHD-Hyperactivity/Impulsivity The child must display six of the following symptoms often and fewer than six inattention symptoms.Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seatLeaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.Runs about or climbs excessively in situations where it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults it may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness)Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly.Is “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor”Talks excessively
64ADHD-Hyperactivity/Impulsivity blurts out answers to questions before the questions have been completedhas difficulty waiting in lines or awaiting turns in games or group situations
65ADHD-H (Hyperactive/Impulsive Subtype Excessivemotor activityVerbal activityIdentified around first grade-earlier than ADHD-I subtype (Nigg, 2001)Developmental task – inhibiting behavior
66ADHD-H (Hyperactive/Impulsive Subtype ImpulsivityDelay aversionDelay-requires stopping an action or activityOverriding sense of impatienceInterrupts physical or verbal activityInterrupting is not simply a failure to inhibit, interrupting increases participation in conversation (i.e., gets verbal activity stimulation) and reduces time listening to others (i.e., avoids boredom).
67ADHD: Inattentive Type Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuliOften fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activitiesOften does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or herOften has difficulty organizing tasks and activitiesoften loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, or toys)
68ADHD: Inattentive Type Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuliOften fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activitiesOften does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or herOften has difficulty organizing tasks and activitiesoften loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, or toys)
69ADHD: Inattentive Type Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks and play activitiesOften does not follow through on instruction and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)Often avoids or strongly dislikes tasks (such as schoolwork or homework) that require mental effortOften forgetful in daily activities
70ADHD: DSM-IV Criteria Specify That Core Symptoms Must: Have had an onset no later than 7 years of ageBe present in two or more situations (e.g., school, home)Have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental levelCause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning
71Is there a simple test to diagnose ADHD? No; unfortunately, there is no simple test (like a blood test or a short written test) to determine whether someone has AD/HD. This is true of many medical conditions (for example, there is no "test" for a simple headache, yet anyone who has had a headache knows it's real!).Accurate diagnosis is made only by a trained clinician after an extensive evaluation. This evaluation should include ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms involved, a thorough physical examination, and a series of interviews with the individual (child or adult) and other key persons in the individual's life (for example, parents, spouse, teachers, and others).
72IDEA and Section 504 Section 504 definition of a disability is much broader under Section 504not all Section 504 students are protected under IDEAprovides accommodations based on the child's disability and resulting weaknesses, but does not require academic improvement. IDEAAll IDEA students are covered by Section 504IEP, which is provided to students covered by IDEA, must be tailored to the child's unique needs and must result in educational benefitfewer procedural safeguards are offered to children and parents under Section 504 than under IDEA
73Learning Problems and Co-Occurring Learning Disabilities Is ADHD a learning disorder?High rates of co-occurring learning disabilities exist“ADHD is not a learning disability but a behavioral problem” (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994).
74Cognitive AbilitiesAre children with ADHD as intelligent as and as innovative as their peers?Individual children fall across the full spectrumSamples drawn from clinics report lowered IQs (7-15 points below comparison samples on standardized IQ tests)
75Executive Function Planning and sequencing complex behavior Paying attention to several components at onceGrasping the gist of a complex situationResisting distraction and interferenceInhibiting inappropriate responsesSustaining behavioral output for relatively prolonged periods
76Problem Solving Attentional problems Working memory difficulties Spent less time in problem solving (several possible solutions)Used less efficient questions and strategies
77Reading Difficulties Reading Comprehension Working memory Sustained attention
78Classroom Accommodations Accommodate differences in their attentional styleEstablish academic prioritiesPrimary emphasis on engaged and productive timePerformance quality (accuracy and creativity)Secondary goals- neatness, organization, length
79What Works:Day planners and to-do lists are useful in keeping track of regularly scheduled tasks, projects and their deadlines, and appointments.Timers and alarms -- either through a clock, watch, PDA, or computer -- help keep the individual on track and on time.Attend to filing documents, processing daily mail, paying bills, and other mundane tasks on a daily basis.
80What Works:Color-code file folders, textbooks, binders, etc. Children will find this useful in keeping materials for different subjects organized. Designate specific areas for things like books, calculators, and other items that can be easily misplaced.Break down large, seemingly overwhelming projects or tasks into smaller, manageable steps.
81Accommodations and Interventions Frequent breaksRed overlays or colored highlighting at the end of passagesInteresting stories that relate to student’s interestStory maps that include characters, setting, conflicts, major events, and outcomesSelf-monitoring of attentionEncourage self-talking and other active responsesSilent reading of self-selected books
82Information on ADHDNational Resource Center on AD/HD Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 8181 Professional Place, Suite 150 Landover, MDPlease also visit the CHADD Web site at
83Meeting the Needsof Struggling Readersin Non-Public SchoolsDr. Sharon PitcherDr. Elizabeth Dicembre
84Our GoalTo provide administrators and teachers opportunities to learn about the newest research in literacy instruction and provide the materials to do some of the suggestionsEvery event was like Christmas – teachers came away with many presents to make literacy possible for struggling readers in their classes.
85Components of the Project the First Year Two-day Summer InstituteSchool VisitsProfessional Books for Teachers’ Use in Each SchoolFunded byBaltimore City Public School System’s Title 1 OfficeFor 15 Non-Public Schools-Catholic Schools
86Components of the Project the Second Year Innovative Professional DevelopmentTest Taking Strategies and Resources to Support Teachers to Meet the Needs of Struggling Readers - Professional Study DayUnique Parent Involvement PackageFunded byBaltimore City Public School System’s Title 1 OfficeFor 26 Non-Public Schools17 Catholic Schools and 9 Private Schools
87Innovative Professional Development School Visits - Individualized to Meet the Needs of the SchoolPrincipal Summer Institute - Provided ideas and materials to involve more parents of struggling readers in their schools.Teacher Summer Institute - Workshops on topics suggested by teachers and administrators in the schools
88School Visits Professional development on school chosen topics. Walk-throughs with administrationProvided schools with extra professional books on topics the teachers expressed interest in
89Principals’ Summer Institute Centered on increasing parent involvementDVDs for the school:Words that Cook: Reading Starts with Interests*Words that Cook: Reading Relationships*IRA’s Read to Me Video**All three are available on IRA’s Website
90Teachers’ Summer Institutes Centered on:Practical strategiesChoice of sessionsEach teacher received:Professional booksHands on materials to use with struggling readersAdditionally, some teachers received:Trade booksSoftwareBins and materials for literacy centers
91Middle School Topics Covered ComprehensionVocabularyMotivationTest Taking SkillsSome samples of the handouts are included in your packet.
92Professional Study Day Test Taking Strategies and Resources to Support Teachers to Meet the Needs of Struggling ReadersLexia Comprehensive Reading Test for each school to provide a research proven technology for continual assessment of these students which the schools we visited lackedMultisensory strategies to support struggling learners in reading and mathResearch-based, proven successful strategies to change achievementWe shared some of the incredible successes we have all witnessed in the T.U. Reading Clinic to demonstrate what works!A middle school test-taking bookmark is included in your packet.
93Unique Parent Involvement Package Developed materials that could easily be used to reach many.Maximizing funds to develop school-based resources that can touch the literacy lives of families far beyond the time of our contract.
94Parent Involvement Binder Bookmarks that could easily be shared with parents.Family bingo cards, family literacy activitiesWebsite informationParent letters, forms, information sheets, meeting agendasAll materials were put on a CD so the schools and teachers could personalize them.
95Professional Books Provided Schools and Teachers Some books included:Revisit, Reflect, RetellGuided Comprehension: A Teaching Model for Gr. 3-8Teaching Vocabulary: 50 Creative Strategies K-12Words Their WayThe Reading Teacher's Book of ListsSnapshotsStrategies That WorkSupporting Struggling Readers and WritersThe Vocabulary-Enriched Classroom: Practices for Improving the Reading Performance of All Students in Grades 3 and Up
96So, to return to the IRA Adolescent Literacy Position Statement , We tried to provide the schools with…Acesss to a wide range of materialsInstruction that includes both skill development and motivationAssessment that shows their strengths as well as needsExplicit instruction in comprehension strategiesTeachers who understand the complexity of adolescent readers’ needs and respect the differences.A family, community and country that provides opportunities to support them to achieve advanced levels of literacy so they can succeed in the world in which they live.Our contract did not have funds to provide reading specialists that help struggling readers but as reading specialists ourselves, we provided as much resource as we could.
97English Language Learners Reaching and TeachingEnglish Language LearnersDr. Gilda Martinez
98Myths or Realities About ELL? Most ELL children were born outside of the U.S.Learning a second language is entirely different from learning one’s own native language.Once ELL children speak reasonably fluently, their problems are likely to be over in school.
99Top Languages in the World: Language Approx. number of speakersChinese (Mandarin) 1,075,000,000 English 514,000,000 Hindustani 496,000,000 Spanish 425,000,000 Russian 275,000,000 Arabic 256,000,000 Bengali 215,000,000 Portuguese 194,000,000 Malay-Indonesian 176,000,000French 129,000,000
100Top Languages in the U.S. (There are 176 languages spoken.) English 215,423,557Spanish 28,101,052Chinese 2,022,143French 1,643,838German 1,383,442Tagalog 1,224,241Vietnamese 1,009,627Italian 1,008,370Korean 894,063Russian 706,242National Virtual Translation Center
102Length of Time to Achieve English Proficiency: 1-2 years (Conversational or BICS)5-7 Years (Academic or CALP)
1031st Language Acquisition: Learned at homeLearned by young childrenLearned to communicate to loved onesLargely an unconscious processNot much time pressureMust learn developmental concepts as well as language
104Similarities between 1st and 2nd Language Acquisition: Errors indicate learning is taking placeLearn certain aspects of language in a relatively predicable orderUnderstands more than he can say
105First days… Pronounce the student’s name correctly Learn a few phrases in his languageShow respectProvide a buddyPlan interactive activitiesFind out his interests
106Questions to teach Beginning and Intermediate English Speakers Point to/show meYes/noEither/orWhat, where, whenHowWhy
107Document: Native language spoken Prior school attended in U.S. (if any)Was English studied in his native country?What strengths does the student have? (art, math, etc.)
108Potential checklist to use: Relies on interpreterGets assistance from teacherAsks you to repeatUses facial expressions, points, gesturesDraws picturesWrites thoughts on paperRepeatsSpeaks carefully
109Collaborative Groups: Buddy systemTo learn daily routinesWriting responseProvides an audience, immediate response to writingLiterature circlesHelps use background knowledge and value individual responses
110Selecting Reading Materials: Help students discover values and functions in written languageAllow writing for various purposesTake in account cultural backgrounds and background knowledge
111Characteristics of Texts that Support Reading Comprehension: PredictableRepresent cultureRepresent similar experiencesVisuals support textInteresting/imaginativeNatural language
112Characteristics of Texts that Support Reading Comprehension: PredictableRepresent cultureRepresent similar experiencesVisuals support textInteresting/imaginativeNatural language112
113Reading Non-Fiction: Build background knowledge Teach essential vocabularySet a purpose for readingAsk questions before, during, and after the reading to enhance comprehensionText structures- -problem/solution-cause/effect-compare/contrast-story elements-setting, characters, etc.Do: Kringlejop activity113
114Strategies to Use with ELL Students: Wait timeBefore/During/After Reading StrategiesVisual Scaffolds (pictures)Read AloudsThematic InstructionJournalingMessage BoardsTHEMATIC - Try to at least connect with the ESOL teacher114
115Thematic Units: Use them whenever possible… It helps ELL students know what you are talking aboutThey can make connections115
116Thematic Unit on Cultural Backgrounds: ABC BookFamily TreeMapsResearchTravel BrochuresInternational Recipe BookMulticultural Corner116
117Work on Strengths…Think MI: Bodily/KinestheticIntrapersonalInterpersonalLinguisticLogical/MathematicalMusicalVisual/SpatialNaturalisticThink about areas you feel comfortable in.Make sure to work on areas you are not comfortable in…in your class. You could have students who feel better working in those areas.You want your students to feel success. Example: me ice-skating…I never went back!For visual…which is ESSENTIAL FOR ELL:-Pictures-Maps-Venn diagrams-Films (GEOFF and my geology class comparison)-Field trips-Vocab. Word wall-Concrete objects117
118Resources: FIND OUT WHAT THEY ARE! Other students? ESOL teachers? Adult volunteers?Mentor programs?Translation services?118
119Useful References: Center for Applied Linguistics Classroom Instruction that Works, by Jane Hill andKathleen FlynnFifty Strategies for Teaching English LanguageLearners (2nd Edition), by Adrienne L. Herrelland Michael L. JordanReading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: AResource Book for K-12 Teachers (4th Edition),by Suzanne F. Peregoy and Owen F. BoyleTeachers for English Speakers of OtherLanguages (TESOL)119