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Dr. Sharon Pitcher Dr. Darlene Fewster Dr. Elizabeth Dicembre Dr. Gilda Martinez

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1 Dr. Sharon Pitcher spitcher@towson.edu Dr. Darlene Fewster dfewster@towson.edu Dr. Elizabeth Dicembre edicembre@towson.edu Dr. Gilda Martinez gmartinez@towson.edu ENGAGING STRUGGLING READERS OFTEN LEFT BEHIND IN LITERACY Towson, Maryland

2 Dr. Sharon Pitcher

3 Only 3 out of 10 US 8th graders are proficient readers. (Berman & Biancarosa, 2005) Approximately 8 million between 4th and 12th grade struggle to read on grade level. (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004) The Dismal Fog

4 Reading levels for 17 year olds have been on a downward trend for the last 30 years and only 3% of adult prisoners read at the proficient level (National Endowment of the Arts, 2007) Only 7 out of 10 students are actually finishing high school (Cities in Crisis, Swanson, 2008) 53% of all college students have to take remedial courses (Reading Next, 2004) More Bad News

5 In the City Near Us In 2004, only 34.6 students graduated in Balto. City, which was 47 out of 50 cities and was 47% lower than the surrounding suburban areas Crisis in the Cities Report

6 Improvement But Concerning American Diploma Project Network, 2007

7 Research Suggests If academic literacy instruction is to be effective, it must address issues of self-efficacy and engagement (Alvermann, 2001). Adolescents deserve…instruction that includes both skill development and motivation (IRA Adolescent Literacy Position Statement, 1999).

8 Decrease in motivation is #1 Lack of comprehension instruction State assessment do not lead to understanding of literacy problems Problems are ignored by teachers who read text aloud, use audiotapes or give students notes Barriers to Success Reading to Achieve: A Governors Guide to Adolescent Literacy

9 Consensus from Many Researchers We have to change the focus from trying to find a magic bullet. Resist the temptation to fix the learner and fix the learning condition to meet the needs of students. Teachers need to work in conditions that DO NOT DICTATE what they do. (Alvermann, 2003, 2004)

10 The Voices of Adolescents 825 Adolescents from Eight Sites: Maryland (Baltimore City Public Schools, Baltimore Parochial Schools, Montgomery County Public Schools) California Trinidad Pennsylvania (rural school district) New York Michigan Texas South Carolina

11 The Instrument - Adolescent Motivation to Read Survey 24 Question Survey24 Question Survey based on research, teacher validation, and three factor analysis Assesses three factors of motivation:ValueInstruction Self Concept

12 What Motivated Them the Most Opportunity to use computers during class time (86%) Choices of what they were reading in class and for homework (80.5%) Using computers to complete homework (76.7%) Teachers reading aloud (76.6%)

13 A Surprising Response They valued being taught reading strategies: reading strategies: Questioning (74.8%) Summarization (75%) Making Connections (72.7%) How to Use Different Part of Their Textbook (73.3%)

14 Self Concept As Readers They were most confident when reading on the computer. A larger percent (57%) did not feel they read as well as their friends. Many of the teachers that participated in our study were surprised at their students answers in this section.

15 Value of Reading Using the computer to stay in touch with others received the highest most favorable response (42.9% answered a great way to spend time and 21.6% answered an interesting way to spend time). Students enjoyed reading magazines and newspapers but did not share what they read with their friends. Most thought they would spend time reading as an adult (67%) and enjoyed receiving books as gifts (69.2) A majority (66.3%) found reading a book something they liked to do

16 What Adolescents With Low Reading Levels Really Need Comprehension Instruction Choice Technology Integration Opportunities to Share Americans adolescents need to be literate not only to succeed in school, but also to succeed in life(Berman & Biancarosa, 2005).

17 Comprehension Instruction What most teens really need. Strategies applied in real materials. Time to apply the strategies until individually internalized Relate the instruction to what they are doing now across all contexts and what they will do in the future. Process cannot be separated from content; they are one and the same. Strategy instruction is about teaching students how to tap into a deeper understanding of themselves as proficient learners (Santa, 2006, p. 470)

18 Choice Teen Space http://www.ipl.org/div/teen/browse/rw0000/#topofpage http://www.ipl.org/div/teen/browse/rw0000/#topofpage Teens Reading Online http://www.bookloons.com/HandHTML/Teens/readonline.html Why do they only have to read textbooks or anthologies? On-line resources make this easy and less expensive! Have you seen the American Reading Company materials?

19 Computer Integration If they can do it with a pencil, they can do it better with a computer! The products can be word processed or a slide presentation as well as a a handwritten worksheet. Google Docs http://www.google.com/google-d-s/b1.html https://www.google.com/accounts/writely/en/docsslogo.gif Word processor, presentations, spreadsheets, email, and more!

20 Opportunities to Share Blogs Developing Presentations As a Team Literature Circles and Book Clubs Wikkis There is sense of honored voice (Santa, 2006, p. 468).

21 My Blog: Continuing PD Conversations with Sharon Pitcher http://sharonpitcherandassociates.wordpress.com Share what you are doing. Share websites that work for your students. Share concerns An annotated bibliography including all of the references used in this presentation is posted on my blog.

22 Fight for What Teens Need Americans adolescents need to be literate not only to succeed in school, but also to succeed in life (Berman & Biancarosa, 2005, p. 6). The proportion of students who are not engaged or motivated by their school experiences grows at every grade level and reaches epidemic proportions in high school (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004, p. 10). And Support Your Fight With Research!

23 Adolescents deserve… Acesss to a wide range of materials Instruction that includes both skill development and motivation Assessment that shows their strengths as well as needs Explicit instruction in comprehension strategies Reading specialists that help struggling readers Teachers who understand the complexity of adolescent readers needs and respect the differences. A family, community and country that provides opportunities to support them to achieve advanced levels of literacy so they can succeed in the world in which they live. Moore, D.W., Bean, T.W., Birdshaw, D. & Rycik, J. A. (1999). Adolescent literacy: A position statement. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

24 They need us… To connect to who they are and what they need to be. To fix the learning situations so they are engaged. To demand that school systems stop wasting money on quick fix, MAGIC BULLET programs and invest in teachers who respond to what adolescents really need. Invest money in trade books, magazines, and technology. And increased student ACHIEVEMENT will follow!

25 Students with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Darlene Fewster, Ed.D. Department of Special Education College of Education Towson University dfewster@towson.edu May 5, 2008 International Reading Association 53 rd Annual Conference Atlanta, Georgia

26 Try this and quickly… So lveall t he pro ble msbel ow. ho wma nyda ys a ret her ein awe eek? 1.25 plusonepo in t2 fivee quals? T h esky I sblu ean dtheg rass isg reen. Howmany sid esdo esasqu areh av e?

27 The Silent Epidemic: TBI Most common cause of death and disability in children and adults up to age 45 Occurs every 23 seconds Approximately 5.3 million Americans suffer some form of TBI disability 1.4 million Americans sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury each year 1 out of 500 children and adolescents will survive TBI that require hospitalization The number of people with TBI who are not seen in an emergency department or who receive no care is unknown.

28 What is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)? Caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a childs educational performance.

29 The Lobes of the Brain

30 The Frontal Lobe: Function higher-order functions planning and inhibition seat of working memory most recently evolved part of the brain human frontal lobe is far more developed than in other animals

31 Parietal Lobe: Functions Location for visual attention. Location for touch perception. Goal directed voluntary movements. Manipulation of objects. Integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single

32 Occipital Lobes: most posterior, at the back of the head Defects in vision (Visual Field Cuts). Difficulty with locating objects in environment. Difficulty with identifying colors (Color Agnosia). Production of hallucinations. Visual illusions - inaccurately seeing objects. Word blindness - inability to recognize words. Difficulty in recognizing drawn objects. Inability to recognize the movement of object (Movement Agnosia). Difficulties with reading and writing.

33 Temporal Lobes: Observed Problems Difficulty in recognizing faces (Prosopagnosia). Difficulty in understanding spoken words (Wernicke's Aphasia). Disturbance with selective attention to what we see and hear. Difficulty with identification of, and verbalization about objects. Short-term memory loss. Interference with long-term memory Increased or decreased interest in sexual behavior. Inability to categorize objects (Categorization). Right lobe damage can cause persistent talking. Increased aggressive behavior.

34 Traumatic versus Acquired Brain Injury Traumatic Open –Results in a penetrating wound to the brain Closed –Skull and protective tissue remain intact –Internal compression, stretching, or shearing Acquired Anoxic injuries Infections Strokes/vascular accidents Tumors Metabolic disorders Toxic products

35 How the Brain Can be Hurt

36 Primary & Secondary Impact

37 TBI Differs from Other Conditions Onset –After an injury rather than at birth Complexity –Student may have symptoms that mimic a variety of other conditions Prognosis –Many improve dramatically, especially in early stages as brain heals

38 Common Causes of Acquired Brain Injury Infants –Abuse –Neglect Toddlers & Preschoolers –Abuse –Falls

39 Common Causes of Acquired Brain Injury Early Elementary –Falls –Pedestrian motor vehicle accidents Late Elementary and Middle School –Pedestrian/bicycle accidents –Motor vehicle accidents –Sports High School –Motor vehicle accidents

40 Assessment/Diagnosis Medical (Glasgow Coma Scale) Neurological Scanning instruments (CAT scans, MRI) Tests of intellectual aptitude Adaptive Behavior Direct observations

41 Stages of Treatment Acute care Postacute care Outpatient rehabilitation School reentry

42 What Equipment Will You See When You Visit?

43 Cognitive Changes Attention Concentration Long-term memory Short-term memory Reasoning Problem-solving Slow processing Learning new information

44 Physical Changes Vision & hearing problems Speech and coordination of movement Stamina and endurance Balance, strength, equilibrium Motor function Eye-hand coordination

45 Linguistic Changes Expressive language returns relatively quickly Receptive and written language communication are often long-term impairments Aphasia- an inability to use language appropriately for a period after TBI

46 Personality Changes Struggles with new identity Often denies the existence of a new identity Emotionally may respond to new identity –Temper tantrums –Euphoria Disinhibition Lack of motivation Poor self-monitoring skills Poor coping skills Poor social skills

47 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Attention) Failure to follow directions Disrupted attention, fatigue, underarousal Lose attention with difficult tasks Perform poorly at new tasks

48 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Perception) Failure to interpret nonverbal signals Difficult finding things

49 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Memory and Learning) Failure to complete assignments Failure to bring materials to class May require large number of repetitions May need to be told to repeat information

50 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Organization) May unexpectedly move from topic to topic May lose things May work inefficiently May not profit from reviewing notes

51 Classroom Illustrations of Cognitive Problems (Reasoning and Abstract Thinking) May fail to generalize strategies to new situations May not profit from experience May do well on true- false and multiple- choice tests, but unable to answer essay questions May comprehend the information in a reading passage, but be unable to answer open-ended question requiring inferences May understand the facts in science class, but unable to formulate rules or generalization

52 Who Will Help After Brain Injury?

53 Strengthen Previous Learning by… 1.Building a bridge from the old to the new 2.Creating a framework for learning 3.Implementing functional practice with a purpose 4.Generalizing the learning to a new situation 5.Moving toward independence

54 The Transition Process from Rehabilitation:Concerns 1.When is the student really ready to reenter school-based program? 2.Where should the student initially be placed? 3.What comprises and IEP for a student with TBI?

55 Criteria for School Reentry Attend to task for 10-20 minutes Tolerate 20-30 minutes of classroom stimulation Function in a group of two or more Engage in meaningful communication Follow simple directions Give evidence of learning potential

56 What Educators Need to Know Influences on outcomes What environmental changes need to be made to help the student with TBI? What are the crucial transition issues in school reentry for students, parents, and the school? What developmental factors impact on a students recovery over time? What types of teaching-learning framework best combines current knowledge of the brain and brain injury?

57 Necessary Components for Educational Programs Component training –Direct remediation of deficits in basic cognitive processes (attention, memory, reasoning, processing speed) Compensatory training –Alterations in the environment (changes in expectations of others, use of cues and support from others, and physical alterations of space) Functional/integrative training –The application and generalization of cognitive skills in real- life settings (mastery of several settings)

58 Try these So lveall t he pro ble msbel ow. ho wma nyda ys a ret her ein awe eek? 1.25 plusonepo in t2 fivee quals? T h esky I sblu ean dtheg rass isg reen. Howmany sid esdo esasqu areh av e?

59 Information on TBI Brain Injury Association State affiliates

60 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) major concern to teachers and parents because of its prevalence and its adverse affects on children 2 million school-age students have ADHD 44% of student receiving special education services have ADHD

61 Gender Differences General Population 9.2% of males 2.9% of females Population with ADHD 27% ADHD-I 18% ADHD-H 55% ADHD-Combined

62 ADHD ADHD-H ADHD-I ADHD: Combined Subtype Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)

63 ADHD- Hyperactivity/Impulsivity The child must display six of the following symptoms often and fewer than six inattention symptoms. 1.Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat 2.Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected. 3.Runs about or climbs excessively in situations where it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults it may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) 4.Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly. 5.Is on the go or often acts as if driven by a motor 6.Talks excessively

64 ADHD- Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Impulsivity: 1.blurts out answers to questions before the questions have been completed 2.has difficulty waiting in lines or awaiting turns in games or group situations

65 ADHD-H (Hyperactive/Impulsive Subtype Excessive –motor activity –Verbal activity Identified around first grade- earlier than ADHD-I subtype (Nigg, 2001) Developmental task – inhibiting behavior

66 ADHD-H (Hyperactive/Impulsive Subtype Impulsivity –Delay aversion –Delay-requires stopping an action or activity –Overriding sense of impatience –Interrupts physical or verbal activity Interrupting is not simply a failure to inhibit, interrupting increases participation in conversation (i.e., gets verbal activity stimulation) and reduces time listening to others (i.e., avoids boredom).

67 ADHD: Inattentive Type 1.Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli 2.Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities 3.Often does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or her 4.Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities 5.often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, or toys)

68 ADHD: Inattentive Type 1.Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli 2.Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities 3.Often does not seem to listen to what is being said to him or her 4.Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities 5.often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school assignments, pencils, books, tools, or toys)

69 ADHD: Inattentive Type 1.Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks and play activities 2.Often does not follow through on instruction and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions) 3.Often avoids or strongly dislikes tasks (such as schoolwork or homework) that require mental effort 4.Often forgetful in daily activities

70 ADHD: DSM-IV Criteria Specify That Core Symptoms Must: Have had an onset no later than 7 years of age Be present in two or more situations (e.g., school, home) Have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level Cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning

71 Is there a simple test to diagnose ADHD? No; unfortunately, there is no simple test (like a blood test or a short written test) to determine whether someone has AD/HD. This is true of many medical conditions (for example, there is no "test" for a simple headache, yet anyone who has had a headache knows it's real!). Accurate diagnosis is made only by a trained clinician after an extensive evaluation. This evaluation should include ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms involved, a thorough physical examination, and a series of interviews with the individual (child or adult) and other key persons in the individual's life (for example, parents, spouse, teachers, and others).

72 IDEA and Section 504 Section 504 definition of a disability is much broader under Section 504 not all Section 504 students are protected under IDEA provides accommodations based on the child's disability and resulting weaknesses, but does not require academic improvement. IDEA All IDEA students are covered by Section 504 IEP, which is provided to students covered by IDEA, must be tailored to the child's unique needs and must result in educational benefit fewer procedural safeguards are offered to children and parents under Section 504 than under IDEA

73 Learning Problems and Co- Occurring Learning Disabilities Is ADHD a learning disorder? –High rates of co-occurring learning disabilities exist ADHD is not a learning disability but a behavioral problem (American Academy of Pediatrics, 1994).

74 Cognitive Abilities Are children with ADHD as intelligent as and as innovative as their peers? –Individual children fall across the full spectrum –Samples drawn from clinics report lowered IQs (7-15 points below comparison samples on standardized IQ tests)

75 Executive Function Planning and sequencing complex behavior Paying attention to several components at once Grasping the gist of a complex situation Resisting distraction and interference Inhibiting inappropriate responses Sustaining behavioral output for relatively prolonged periods

76 Problem Solving Attentional problems Working memory difficulties A.Spent less time in problem solving (several possible solutions) B.Used less efficient questions and strategies

77 Reading Difficulties Reading Comprehension –Working memory –Sustained attention

78 Classroom Accommodations Accommodate differences in their attentional style Establish academic priorities –Primary emphasis on engaged and productive time –Performance quality (accuracy and creativity) –Secondary goals- neatness, organization, length

79 What Works: Day planners and to-do lists are useful in keeping track of regularly scheduled tasks, projects and their deadlines, and appointments. Timers and alarms -- either through a clock, watch, PDA, or computer -- help keep the individual on track and on time. Attend to filing documents, processing daily mail, paying bills, and other mundane tasks on a daily basis.

80 What Works: Color-code file folders, textbooks, binders, etc. Children will find this useful in keeping materials for different subjects organized. Designate specific areas for things like books, calculators, and other items that can be easily misplaced. Break down large, seemingly overwhelming projects or tasks into smaller, manageable steps.

81 Accommodations and Interventions 1.Frequent breaks 2.Red overlays or colored highlighting at the end of passages 3.Interesting stories that relate to students interest 4.Story maps that include characters, setting, conflicts, major events, and outcomes 5.Self-monitoring of attention 6.Encourage self-talking and other active responses 7.Silent reading of self-selected books

82 Information on ADHD National Resource Center on AD/HD Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 8181 Professional Place, Suite 150 Landover, MD 20785 1-800-233-4050 www.help4adhd.org Please also visit the CHADD Web site at www.chadd.org.

83 Dr. Sharon Pitcher Dr. Elizabeth Dicembre

84 Our Goal To provide administrators and teachers opportunities to learn about the newest research in literacy instruction and provide the materials to do some of the suggestions Every event was like Christmas – teachers came away with many presents to make literacy possible for struggling readers in their classes.

85 Components of the Project the First Year Two-day Summer Institute School Visits Professional Books for Teachers Use in Each School Funded by Baltimore City Public School Systems Title 1 Office For 15 Non-Public Schools-Catholic Schools

86 Components of the Project the Second Year Innovative Professional Development Test Taking Strategies and Resources to Support Teachers to Meet the Needs of Struggling Readers - Professional Study Day Unique Parent Involvement PackageUnique Parent Involvement Package Funded by Baltimore City Public School Systems Title 1 Office For 26 Non-Public Schools 17 Catholic Schools and 9 Private Schools

87 Innovative Professional Development School VisitsSchool Visits - Individualized to Meet the Needs of the School Principal Summer InstitutePrincipal Summer Institute - Provided ideas and materials to involve more parents of struggling readers in their schools. Teacher Summer Institute - Workshops on topics suggested by teachers and administrators in the schools

88 School Visits Professional development on school chosen topics. Walk-throughs with administration Provided schools with extra professional books on topics the teachers expressed interest in

89 Principals Summer Institute Centered on increasing parent involvementCentered on increasing parent involvement DVDs for the school:DVDs for the school: Words that Cook: Reading Starts with Interests* Words that Cook: Reading Relationships* IRAs Read to Me Video*IRAs Read to Me Video* *All three are available on IRAs Website

90 Teachers Summer Institutes Centered on: Practical strategies Choice of sessions Each teacher received: Professional books Hands on materials to use with struggling readers Additionally, some teachers received: Trade books Software Bins and materials for literacy centers

91 Middle School Topics Covered Comprehension Vocabulary Motivation Test Taking Skills Some samples of the handouts are included in your packet.

92 Professional Study Day Test Taking Strategies and Resources to Support Teachers to Meet the Needs of Struggling Readers Lexia Comprehensive Reading Test for each school to provide a research proven technology for continual assessment of these students which the schools we visited lacked Multisensory strategies to support struggling learners in reading and math Research-based, proven successful strategies to change achievement We shared some of the incredible successes we have all witnessed in the T.U. Reading Clinic to demonstrate what works! A middle school test-taking bookmark is included in your packet.

93 Unique Parent Involvement Package Developed materials that could easily be used to reach many. Maximizing funds to develop school- based resources that can touch the literacy lives of families far beyond the time of our contract.

94 Parent Involvement Binder Bookmarks that could easily be shared with parents. Family bingo cards, family literacy activities Website information Parent letters, forms, information sheets, meeting agendas All materials were put on a CD so the schools and teachers could personalize them.

95 Professional Books Provided Schools and Teachers Some books included: Revisit, Reflect, Retell Guided Comprehension: A Teaching Model for Gr. 3-8 Teaching Vocabulary: 50 Creative Strategies K-12 Words Their Way The Reading Teacher's Book of Lists Snapshots Strategies That Work Supporting Struggling Readers and Writers The Vocabulary-Enriched Classroom: Practices for Improving the Reading Performance of All Students in Grades 3 and Up

96 So, to return to the IRA Adolescent Literacy Position Statement, We tried to provide the schools with… Acesss to a wide range of materials Instruction that includes both skill development and motivation Assessment that shows their strengths as well as needs Explicit instruction in comprehension strategies Teachers who understand the complexity of adolescent readers needs and respect the differences. A family, community and country that provides opportunities to support them to achieve advanced levels of literacy so they can succeed in the world in which they live. Our contract did not have funds to provide reading specialists that help struggling readers but as reading specialists ourselves, we provided as much resource as we could.

97 Dr. Gilda Martinez

98 Myths or Realities About ELL? 1.Most ELL children were born outside of the U.S. 2.Learning a second language is entirely different from learning ones own native language. 3.Once ELL children speak reasonably fluently, their problems are likely to be over in school.

99 Top Languages in the World : LanguageApprox. number of speakers 1.Chinese (Mandarin)1,075,000,000 2.English514,000,000 3.Hindustani 496,000,000 4.Spanish425,000,000 5.Russian275,000,000 6.Arabic256,000,000 7.Bengali215,000,000 8.Portuguese194,000,000 9.Malay-Indonesian176,000,000 10.French129,000,000 http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/june/BahasaIndonesia.html

100 Top Languages in the U.S. (There are 176 languages spoken.) National Virtual Translation Center http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/index.html 1.English215,423,557 2.Spanish28,101,052 3.Chinese2,022,143 4.French1,643,838 5.German1,383,442 6.Tagalog1,224,241 7.Vietnamese1,009,627 8.Italian1,008,370 9.Korean894,063 10.Russian706,242

101 Terminology ESOL ESL LEP L2 *ELL

102 Length of Time to Achieve English Proficiency: 1-2 years (Conversational or BICS) 5-7 Years (Academic or CALP)

103 1 st Language Acquisition: Learned at home Learned by young children Learned to communicate to loved ones Largely an unconscious process Not much time pressure Must learn developmental concepts as well as language

104 Similarities between 1 st and 2 nd Language Acquisition: Errors indicate learning is taking place Learn certain aspects of language in a relatively predicable order Understands more than he can say

105 First days… Pronounce the students name correctly Learn a few phrases in his language Show respect Provide a buddy Plan interactive activities Find out his interests

106 Questions to teach Beginning and Intermediate English Speakers Point to/show me Yes/no Either/or What, where, when How Why

107 Document: Native language spoken Prior school attended in U.S. (if any) Was English studied in his native country? What strengths does the student have? (art, math, etc.)

108 Potential checklist to use: Relies on interpreter Gets assistance from teacher Asks you to repeat Uses facial expressions, points, gestures Draws pictures Writes thoughts on paper Repeats Speaks carefully

109 Collaborative Groups: Buddy system –To learn daily routines Writing response –Provides an audience, immediate response to writing Literature circles –Helps use background knowledge and value individual responses

110 Selecting Reading Materials: Help students discover values and functions in written language Allow writing for various purposes Take in account cultural backgrounds and background knowledge

111 Characteristics of Texts that Support Reading Comprehension: Predictable Represent culture Represent similar experiences Visuals support text Interesting/imaginative Natural language

112 Characteristics of Texts that Support Reading Comprehension: Predictable Represent culture Represent similar experiences Visuals support text Interesting/imaginative Natural language

113 Reading Non-Fiction: Build background knowledge Teach essential vocabulary Set a purpose for reading Ask questions before, during, and after the reading to enhance comprehension

114 Strategies to Use with ELL Students: Wait time Before/During/After Reading Strategies Visual Scaffolds (pictures) Read Alouds Thematic Instruction Journaling Message Boards

115 Thematic Units: Use them whenever possible… –It helps ELL students know what you are talking about –They can make connections

116 Thematic Unit on Cultural Backgrounds: ABC Book Family Tree Maps Research Travel Brochures International Recipe Book Multicultural Corner

117 Work on Strengths…Think MI: Bodily/Kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Musical Visual/Spatial Naturalistic

118 Resources: FIND OUT WHAT THEY ARE! Other students? ESOL teachers? Adult volunteers? Mentor programs? Translation services?

119 Useful References: Center for Applied Linguistics http://www.cal.org/index.html Classroom Instruction that Works, by Jane Hill and Kathleen Flynn Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (2 nd Edition), by Adrienne L. Herrell and Michael L. Jordan Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers (4 th Edition), by Suzanne F. Peregoy and Owen F. Boyle Teachers for English Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/index.asp


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