Presentation on theme: "Promoting Literacy in Elementary Classes When Students Don’t Speak English Allison Cummings Deborah Sams Sevier County Schools ELAP Program."— Presentation transcript:
1 Promoting Literacy in Elementary Classes When Students Don’t Speak English Allison Cummings Deborah Sams Sevier County Schools ELAP Program
2 When Students Don’t Speak English Promoting Literacyin Elementary ClassesWhen Students Don’t Speak EnglishAllison Cummings KindergartenELAP TeacherDeborah SamsESL TeacherSevier County Schools
3 Anticipation Guide Part One: Exploring Theory Part Two: Strategies and PracticesPart Three: A Make and Take Session!
4 Objectives Gain an awareness of second language acquisition Empathize with English Language Learners (ELLs)Make instructional decisions with ELLs in mindDiscover new ways to promote literacy in elementaryclassrooms
5 The Menu Activity Take your menu. Select 6 things on the menu. Write your order.Send one person from your table to‘pick up’ the orders.Enjoy!
6 The Menu Activity Discussion Questions How did you feel during this activity?What strategies would have improved comprehension?What did you learn?
7 A Few Myths of Second Language Acquisition Answer the following statements as True or False1. Middle and high school students learn second languages more quickly and easily than primary students.2. Second language learners will acquire academic English faster if they speak English at home.3. Once students can speak English, they are ready to undertake the academic tasks of the mainstream classroom.4. Student should be strongly encouraged to speak English from the first day of class.
8 The Silent PeriodWhen children are in a new country and faced with a new language, they may not speak for a long time---6 months being normal. There is a reluctance to speak because they are building competence by listening though comprehensible input.Krashen, 1985
9 Stevick, 1977; Krashen & Terrell, 1983; Krashen, 1985. The Affective FilterOccurs when the learner is…UnmotivatedLacking in self confidenceAnxiousOn the defensiveFearful that their weaknesswill be revealedWhen there is a possibility of failureThe learner needs to be open to ‘input’ . The affective filter is a mental block that prevents learners from acquiring languageThis occurs when the learner is unmotivated, lacking in self confidence, anxious, on the defensive, when they consider the class to reveal where their weakness will be revealed, and the possibility of failure. The filter is down and learning is easier when the learner is not concerned with failure, considers themselves to be a member of the group speaking the target language,Stevick, 1977; Krashen & Terrell, 1983; Krashen, 1985.
10 Building Background Knowledge Don’t just rely on definitionsUse words aloud frequentlyUse visual representations(pictures, mental pictures, act it out, etc.)Require multiple exposures to the wordsStudents should discuss words, use words,and play with the wordsMarzano, 2005
11 BICS and CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (social language)Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency(academic language)Cummins, J. ,1991
12 BICS Social situations Day-to-day language Used on the playground, in the lunch room, on the school bus, at parties, playing sports and talking on the telephoneContext embeddedNot very cognitively demandingThe language required is not specializedDevelops within six months to two yearsCummins,1991
13 CALP Academic learning Listening, speaking, reading, and writing about contentEssential for success in schoolELLs need time and supportAbout 5-7 years, but with no prior schooling 7-10 yearsIt includes skills such as comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, and inferringInformation is read in a textbook or presented by the teacherAcademic language tasks are context reducedCognitively demandingCummins,1991
14 Dumfrase NeededThe bogo also recognizes the need to invest more in cucio themselves, 40 percent of which now lack basic sumwalz. Ligachev said cicio for 28 million monus will be frazequack by the year 2006, and that capital expenditures in blocka will increase drastically.8 unknown wordsAbout 80% known words.Source: Gickling E.,& Thompson,V. (1992) Curriculum based assessment: A naturalistic guide to reading and mathematics instruction.Workshop presented at the Council for Exceptional Children, Baltimore.
15 A Common Teaching Sequence Read the textAnswer the questionsDiscuss the materialDo the applications/expansionsSometimes we shouldteach the text backwards
16 Principles Which Help ELLs Succeed in School Increase comprehensibilityIncrease interactionIncrease thinking skills
17 Check vocabulary before lessons for … Key termsWords with multiple meaningsCognatesAdvanced vocabularyIdioms and figurative languageComplex grammar structuresAdapted from Calderon, August, Slavin, Duran, Madden, &Cheunget, 2005By Arguelles 2008
18 Instructional Routine IntroduceWrite and say the word/ have students repeat itExplainUse a ‘student friendly’ explanationShow picture/demonstrateProvide sample sentencesEngage students in activities/elaborationMonitor understandingRevisit words over timeFrom Arguelles 2008
19 Less effective strategies “ Does anyone know what ____means?”Look it up in the dictionary.Then, copy it into a sentence.Copying words several times each.Activities that don’t capture deep processing(crosswords, word search, fill in the blanks, etc))Rote memorization.Teaching words in isolation.Passive reading.Adapted from Arguelles 2008
20 Accommodations and Modifications Add…A copy of notesExamplesWord banksAudio booksA dictionaryAssign a buddyVisualsAllow extra timeLimit…Limit the number of questionsLimit the length of responseLimit reading requirement
21 Differentiating Instruction for English Language Learners View ELLs as a resource; draw on personal experienceUse concrete objects/visuals to reinforce verbal content (hands-on demonstration)Focus on a limited number of vocabulary words and concepts in each lessonLimit the amount of information an ELL student needs to learn
22 Use graphic organizers Teach reading strategiesUse both oral & written modalities frequentlyUse cooperative learning techniquesSubstitute alternative text(s)Substitute alternative assignments
23 Test students in concrete terms Allow brief answers instead of full sentencesModify assessment tools as necessaryAllow use of a bilingual dictionary OR English/English dictionary
24 Ideas for Adapting Texts (especially for higher elementary grades and beyond) Give language chunks to use in writingBrainstorm vocabulary and themes (in small groups, if possible)Use graphic organizers to gather facts (use in sentences when possible)Show ELLs good writing models for their grade levelFor editing, choose one skill to work on and pair them with a partnerHaynes, 2007
25 Adapting Text (cont.)Teacher written summary of content (the ESL summary)Give vocabulary words with simple definitionsStudents can make vocabulary flash cards and study themStudents can find words in the ESL summary, highlight them, then write a sentence with each wordMake vocabulary matching activities with word banks for student practiceHaynes, 2007
26 Summarizing Text for ELLs Use controlled vocabularySimplify sentence structureDefine vocabulary words in context (when possible)Identify and highlight main ideasUse cloze activities (paragraphs with ‘fill in the blank’ format)Haynes, 2007
27 Recipe for Structured and Predictable Lessons 1. Chapter summary2. Vocabulary page3. Vocabulary matching4. Cloze activitiesHaynes, 2007
28 Reading Strategies Best Practices and Good Ideas Part TwoReading StrategiesBest Practicesand Good Ideas
29 Read! Read! Read! Books + Access to libraries + Allowing student choice in books+ Providing time to read books________________________________= Keys to developing literacyKrashen, 1985, 2001, 2004, 2007
34 Read Aloud and Interactive Storybook Readings engage children with bookshelp students explore language and literacyhelp develop ideas of text ‘words’ and ‘letters’important for ELLS who may have little experience with storybooksdevelop appreciation of textshare the joy of readingmotivate children to learn to read themselves.Holdaway, 1979; Martinez et al., 1989; Snow and Tabors, 1993In Snow, C., Burns, M.& Griffin, P. (1998)
35 Snow, C., Burns, M. S., and Griffin, P. (Eds.), (1998). Big Booksare large enough to share with a large group or entire classperfect to read with ‘finger wands’can help teach directionality of printhelp students become familiar with text and repetitive featuresmake it easier to compare words in textallow student to hunt for letters, sounds, sight words, rhyming words, etc.Snow, C., Burns, M. S., and Griffin, P. (Eds.), (1998).
36 Predictable and Repetitive Books allow students to predict a storyteach students to use pictures to support readingoffer a perfect way for students to practice handling booksMartinez et al., 1989
38 Model academic language I know/ believe/findI agree/disagreeI expect/learn/thinkIt seems that...How do you say…?How do you write…?Where can I find…?Girard, 2003Teachers are the number one language model for students; therefore, teachers should model academic language.
39 How well do you know these words? pedanticeruditeIf you don’t know the word, color it red. If you are not sure, color it orange, and if you know it, color it green.bookFrom Arguelles 2008
40 More ideas to support reading instruction… books on tapedramatic play/puppet theatercomputer-based reading, writing, andstorybook activitiesboard gameschildren's magazinesindividual and group projectsSnow, C., Burns, M. S., and Griffin, P., 1998
43 Use graphic organizers and thinking maps NewcomersBears can swim. Bears have fur.IntermediateBears have claws and teeth to help them eat nuts.AdvancedBerries and nuts supply bears with food so they can hibernate all winter.8Newcomers can organize and write basic sentences. Intermediate students can combine 2 ideas into one sentence, while more advanced students can practice condensing ideas into more academic phrasing.From Arguelles 2008
48 Enjoy teaching your English language learners! Deborah SamsESL TeacherSevier County SchoolsSevierville, TennesseeDoctoral StudentIUP Comp/TESOL programIndiana University of PennsylvaniaAllison CummingsKindergarten / ELAP(English Language Acquisition Program)Sevier County SchoolsSevierville, Tennessee
49 ReferencesCummins, J. (1991) Language Development and Academic Learning.Haynes, J. (2007). Getting Started with English Language Learners: How Educators Can Meet the Challenge.ASCD.Holdaway, Don The foundations of literacy. New Hampshire: Heineman. 232 pagesKrashen, S.D. & Terrell, T.D. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. London: Prentice Hall Europe.Krashen, Stephen. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. New York: Longman Press.Krashen, S Do teenagers like to read? Yes! Reading Today 18(5): 16Krashen, S The Power of Reading. Westport, CONN: Libraries Unlimited and Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Krashen, S Literacy Network News, Spring, 2007, page 7 (Literacy Network of Greater Los Angeles)Snow, C., Burns, M. S., and Griffin, P. (Eds.), (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.