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Michael L. Shaw Maria May Professor of Literacy Reading Specialist

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Presentation on theme: "Michael L. Shaw Maria May Professor of Literacy Reading Specialist"— Presentation transcript:

1 Closing the Achievement Gap: It Takes a Lot More Than the National Reading Panel’s “Big Five”
Michael L. Shaw Maria May Professor of Literacy Reading Specialist Education Cherry Lane El. School St. Thomas Aquinas Ph.D. Candidate College Fordham University

2 Objectives Understand that closing the achievement gap must include instructional approaches at school and classroom levels that go beyond the focuses of the National Reading Panel Report. Introduce a variety of research-based instructional approaches and strategies that increase motivation and achievement. Create a commitment to work with colleagues to assess school strengths and needs in order to develop initiatives to “beat the odds.”

3 Why Do We Have An Achievement Gap?
Learners have not had access at home or the community to the types of literacy experiences we value in school: Listening to stories; reading together with family members; reading to family members; reading independently; talking about books; writing thoughts, ideas, and feelings. Learners lack the knowledge base needed for reading and writing: Lack of extensive prior knowledge about the world; lack of automatic sight word knowledge; lack of extensive vocabulary knowledge; lack of phonemic awareness and ability to decode. Learners have not had “highly qualified teachers” who understand how to effectively teach reading and writing skills and strategies.

4 Why Do We Have An Achievement Gap?
Schools lack adequate resources to provide extensive texts, support materials, and access to technology. Learners are English language learners who have not yet had English language experiences in oral and written communication. Learners who lack motivation because they find reading and writing frustrating and not meaningful in their lives.

5 National Reading Panel Report Focuses: Necessary, But Not Sufficient
Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension (Measured by recall, question answering, summarization)

6 What Else is Needed Knowledgeable School/District Leaders
Macro Level Schoolwide Commitment to Excellence Micro Level Exemplary Classroom Instruction Building a Collaborative Professional Community That Includes Supervisors, Teachers, Support Staff, Family, Community

7 Research Methodology Extensive Literature Review
On-Site Studies of Schools That “Beat the Odds” Funded by a Teacher Leader Quality Partnership Grant (Title III) and a St. Thomas Aquinas Faculty Development Grant Experiences from the St. Thomas Aquinas College Reading Clinic, Cherry Lane Elementary School, and On-Site Interventions in Bronx, New York and East Ramapo Central School District (A New York State Designated High- Needs District in Rockland County, NY)

8 We Know What Works at the Building and District Levels
Educational leaders who: ►Are knowledgeable in literacy instruction and create a schoolwide vision ►Build professional communities where faculty, staff, parents, and community are committed to shared responsibilities ►Set high standards for all students…and scaffold to support successful learning

9 We Know What Works at the Building and District Levels
►Provide ongoing professional development ►Provide time for LARGE blocks of literacy instruction across the curriculum with minimal interruptions ►Establish budget priorities that maximize personnel for instructional support, provide small classes, and provide text-rich classrooms. ►Establish a systematic assessment system to monitor progress and inform instruction.

10 We Know What Works at the Building and District Levels
►Establish K-12 benchmarks for student achievement that are based on grade-by-grade standards that are developed by teams of teachers ►Develop active parent involvement programs ►Establish Extended Day instruction to increase instructional time ►Provide literacy coaches and mentor teachers who are reading specialists.

11 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level
“Effective, powerful, and balanced reading instruction from knowledgeable teachers is the key to successful early reading achievement.” Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement The Reading Teacher, March 2001, Vol 54, No. 6

12 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level
This is true at all levels, but closing the achievement gap requires MORE.

13 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level
Keys For Success: ►Implementing Cambourne’s Conditions For Learning (1995) ●Immersion (All Day/Every Day Involvement in Authentic Literacy Experiences Across the Curriculum) ●Demonstration (Modeling) ●Expectation (High Standards) ●Responsibility (Student Reflection) ●Approximation (Recognizing Errors as Windows Into Strengths and Needs for Instruction) ●Use (Time for Applied Practice Through the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model [Pearson & Gallagher, 1983) ●Response (Specific Feedback) ●Engagement (Learners Find Meaning, They Envision Success Through Effort, They are Supported by Teachers)

14 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level
Teachers Create a Culture of Learning That Focuses on: ►Creating a Print-Rich Environment ►Building a Community of Learners ►Language Acquisition ►Rich Dialogue and Accountable Talk ►BIG IDEAS Beyond the Text ►Authentic Literacy ►Building on Funds of Knowledge (Moll, 2002) Students Bring to School Learning ► Modeling, Modeling, Modeling

15 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level
►Teaching Into Independence (Gradual Release of Responsibility, Pearson & Gallagher, 1983) ►Teaching Essential Reading Strategies and Skills (Before Reading, During Reading, After Reading) ►Using Ongoing Assessment to Plan Instruction and Monitor Progress ►Emphasizing Metacognition…Students Reflecting on Their Learning ►Creating Strong School/Home Connections ►Creating a Strong Writing Program ►Embedding Test Prep Into the Reading Workshop ►Celebrating: Recognizing Effort and Achievement

16 Taking Charge: Reaching and Teaching Readers Who Struggle

17 Taking Charge: Reaching and Teaching Readers Who Struggle

18 Taking Charge: Reaching and Teaching Readers Who Struggle - Keys For Success at the Classroom Level
Motivation and Empowerment Strong Focus on Strategy Instruction Teaching Thoughtful Literacy Ongoing Assessment and Feedback Student Metacognition

19 Explicit Strategy Instruction: Before Reading Strategies
Activate Prior Knowledge Sample Text (Picture Walk, Examine Text Organization and Features) Predict (Think Like You Were the Author) Form Purpose for Reading: Identifying Author’s Purpose/ BIG Idea (“What Lesson Did the Author Teach You?”)/ Learning Information Note That Author’s Message/Big Idea/Lesson Often Comes at the End of the Text.

20 Explicit Strategy Instruction: During Reading Strategies
Stop-and-Think to Summarize, Predict, Identify Important Information, Generate Questions, Make Connections, Think About important Ideas Figure out Unknown Words to Support Understanding Create Sensory Images (Visualize, Hear Dialogue, Feel, Smell, Taste) Self-Monitor for Meaning/Reread for Understanding Focus on the Important Big Idea at the End of the Text

21 Explicit Strategy Instruction: After Reading Strategies
Personally Respond to the Reading Experience Retell/Summarize Identify Author’s Intended Message(s) (Themes/“Big Ideas”…Life Lessons) Make Connections to Self, the World, Other Experiences Evaluate the Qualities of the Text (Does the Text Earn an Award?) Generate Questions (“I Wonder…”) Extend Reading Through More Reading, Writing, Oral Discussion, Art, Drama, Research/ Technology Reflect on Learning Create School/Home Connections

22 Similarities and Differences Between Teaching All Readers and Teaching Struggling Readers Emphasis for All Readers Goals: Success, Achievement, Enjoyment High Standards and Expectations...Achievable Challenges Principles That Guide Instruction...Building Effective “Habits of Mind” Creating a Supportive Learning Environment Using Assessment to Guide Instruction and Texts

23 Similarities and Differences Between Teaching All Readers and Teaching Struggling Readers Emphasis for All Readers Immersing Learners in Purposeful Engagements with Literacy Across the Curriculum Throughout the Day...Large Blocks of Time Building School/Home Connections and Encouraging Extensive Reading Outside School Thoughtful Discussions Around Texts...The Best Reading Instruction Flows on a Sea of Rich Discussion Thoughtful Reading/Writing Connections...Writing to Deepen Understanding Ownership and Independence

24 Special Needs for Readers Who Struggle in Order to Close the Achievement Gap
Building Motivation, Self-Esteem, Confidence, Empowerment, Ownership, Sense of Success...Affirming the Reading Experience to Drive Engagement Building Background Knowledge, Including Vocabulary More Explicit Instruction and Demonstrations of What Good Readers Do More Immediate “Payoffs” for Effort Through Affirming Human Response

25 Special Needs for Readers Who Struggle in Order to Close the Achievement Gap
More Authentic Practice...Repeated Reading (e.g., Reader’s Theater) More Careful Text Choices for Guided Reading to Ensure Success Adaptation of Difficult Texts and Assignments; Providing Choice More Explicit and Purposeful Guiding to Scaffold for Success ...Supplying Essential Support More Explicit, Embedded Word Study Linked to Assessed Needs

26 Special Needs for Readers Who Struggle in Order to Close the Achievement Gap
More Small-Group Shared Reading and Guided Reading Instruction More 1:1 Reading Conferences That Link Careful Assessment (Kid Watching) with specific feedback, discussion, and reflection (“What Did You Do That Good Readers Do? What Do You Need To Practice?”) More Opportunities to Respond to Texts Through Oral Discussion, Writing, Art, Drama

27 Insights from Teachers Who Are Helping Students “Beat the Odds”
The First Steps are Getting to Know All About Our Students and Building Trust It is Essential to Use Ongoing, Authentic, Multiple Assessments to Guide Planning, Monitor Progress, and Communicate Information to Children and Parents I Have Clear Short-Term and Long-Term Goals for Each Student Based on Assessments and I communicate Those Goals to My Students. This Enables Me to Prioritize Instruction Early Intervention is Essential

28 Insights from Teachers Who Are Helping Students “Beat the Odds”
Celebrate the “Small Things” Explicitly Demonstrate and Model Every Reading and Writing Strategy Many Times Working With Parents is Essential… and Worth the Effort The Most important Learning Takes Place in My 1:1 Conferences Use the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (Pearson & Gallagher, 1987)

29 Selected Research Supports
Motivation and Engagement (Cambourne, 1995; Gambrell, 1996; Guthrie, 2003) Strategies for “Thoughtful Literacy” that go Beyond the Text (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997; Allington, 2001) Teaching into Independence (Vygotsky, 1978; Pearson and Gallagher, 1983) Teaching English Language Learners and Building on Funds of Knowledge that Students Bring to Literacy Learning (IRA, 2001; Moje, 2000; Moll, 2003)

30 Selected Research Supports
Schools That “Beat the Odds (Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, 2001) Access to Literacy and School/Home Connections (Neumann, 2003) Student Reflection/Metacognition (Rumelhart, 1980; Paris, Lipson, & Wixon, 1994) Using Assessment to Guide Instruction Through Flexible Groupings and Differentiated Instruction (IRA, 2000; Becoming a Nation of Readers, 1985)


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