Presentation on theme: "Michael L. Shaw Maria May Professor of Literacy Reading Specialist"— Presentation transcript:
1 Closing the Achievement Gap: It Takes a Lot More Than the National Reading Panel’s “Big Five” Michael L. Shaw Maria MayProfessor of Literacy Reading SpecialistEducation Cherry Lane El. SchoolSt. Thomas Aquinas Ph.D. CandidateCollege Fordham University
2 ObjectivesUnderstand that closing the achievement gap must include instructional approaches at school and classroom levels that go beyond the focuses of the National Reading Panel Report.Introduce a variety of research-based instructional approaches and strategies that increase motivation and achievement.Create a commitment to work with colleagues to assess school strengths and needs in order to develop initiatives to “beat the odds.”
3 Why Do We Have An Achievement Gap? Learners have not had access at home or the community to the types of literacy experiences we value in school: Listening to stories; reading together with family members; reading to family members; reading independently; talking about books; writing thoughts, ideas, and feelings.Learners lack the knowledge base needed for reading and writing: Lack of extensive prior knowledge about the world; lack of automatic sight word knowledge; lack of extensive vocabulary knowledge; lack of phonemic awareness and ability to decode.Learners have not had “highly qualified teachers” who understand how to effectively teach reading and writing skills and strategies.
4 Why Do We Have An Achievement Gap? Schools lack adequate resources to provide extensive texts, support materials, and access to technology.Learners are English language learners who have not yet had English language experiences in oral and written communication.Learners who lack motivation because they find reading and writing frustrating and not meaningful in their lives.
5 National Reading Panel Report Focuses: Necessary, But Not Sufficient Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsVocabularyFluencyComprehension (Measured by recall, question answering, summarization)
6 What Else is Needed Knowledgeable School/District Leaders Macro Level Schoolwide Commitment to ExcellenceMicro Level Exemplary Classroom InstructionBuilding a Collaborative Professional Community That Includes Supervisors, Teachers, Support Staff, Family, Community
7 Research Methodology Extensive Literature Review On-Site Studies of Schools That “Beat the Odds” Funded by a Teacher Leader Quality Partnership Grant (Title III) and a St. Thomas Aquinas Faculty Development GrantExperiences from the St. Thomas Aquinas College Reading Clinic, Cherry Lane Elementary School, and On-Site Interventions in Bronx, New York and East Ramapo Central School District (A New York State Designated High- Needs District in Rockland County, NY)
8 We Know What Works at the Building and District Levels Educational leaders who:►Are knowledgeable in literacy instruction and create a schoolwide vision►Build professional communities where faculty, staff, parents, and community are committed to shared responsibilities►Set high standards for all students…and scaffold to support successful learning
9 We Know What Works at the Building and District Levels ►Provide ongoing professional development►Provide time for LARGE blocks of literacy instruction across the curriculum with minimal interruptions►Establish budget priorities that maximize personnel for instructional support, provide small classes, and provide text-rich classrooms.►Establish a systematic assessment system to monitor progress and inform instruction.
10 We Know What Works at the Building and District Levels ►Establish K-12 benchmarks for student achievement that are based on grade-by-grade standards that are developed by teams of teachers►Develop active parent involvement programs►Establish Extended Day instruction to increase instructional time►Provide literacy coaches and mentor teachers who are reading specialists.
11 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level “Effective, powerful, and balanced reading instruction from knowledgeable teachers is the key to successful early reading achievement.”Center for the Improvement of Early Reading AchievementThe Reading Teacher, March 2001, Vol 54, No. 6
12 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level This is true at all levels, but closing the achievement gap requires MORE.
13 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level Keys For Success:►Implementing Cambourne’s Conditions For Learning (1995)●Immersion (All Day/Every Day Involvement in Authentic Literacy Experiences Across the Curriculum)●Demonstration (Modeling)●Expectation (High Standards)●Responsibility (Student Reflection)●Approximation (Recognizing Errors as Windows Into Strengths and Needs for Instruction)●Use (Time for Applied Practice Through the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model [Pearson & Gallagher, 1983)●Response (Specific Feedback)●Engagement (Learners Find Meaning, They Envision Success Through Effort, They are Supported by Teachers)
14 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level Teachers Create a Culture of Learning That Focuses on:►Creating a Print-Rich Environment►Building a Community of Learners►Language Acquisition►Rich Dialogue and Accountable Talk►BIG IDEAS Beyond the Text►Authentic Literacy►Building on Funds of Knowledge (Moll, 2002) Students Bring to School Learning► Modeling, Modeling, Modeling
15 We Know What Works at the Classroom Level ►Teaching Into Independence (Gradual Release of Responsibility, Pearson & Gallagher, 1983)►Teaching Essential Reading Strategies and Skills (Before Reading, During Reading, After Reading)►Using Ongoing Assessment to Plan Instruction and Monitor Progress►Emphasizing Metacognition…Students Reflecting on Their Learning►Creating Strong School/Home Connections►Creating a Strong Writing Program►Embedding Test Prep Into the Reading Workshop►Celebrating: Recognizing Effort and Achievement
16 Taking Charge: Reaching and Teaching Readers Who Struggle
17 Taking Charge: Reaching and Teaching Readers Who Struggle
18 Taking Charge: Reaching and Teaching Readers Who Struggle - Keys For Success at the Classroom Level Motivation and EmpowermentStrong Focus on Strategy InstructionTeaching Thoughtful LiteracyOngoing Assessment and FeedbackStudent Metacognition
19 Explicit Strategy Instruction: Before Reading Strategies Activate Prior KnowledgeSample Text (Picture Walk, Examine Text Organization and Features)Predict (Think Like You Were the Author)Form Purpose for Reading: Identifying Author’s Purpose/ BIG Idea (“What Lesson Did the Author Teach You?”)/ Learning InformationNote That Author’s Message/Big Idea/Lesson Often Comes at the End of the Text.
20 Explicit Strategy Instruction: During Reading Strategies Stop-and-Think to Summarize, Predict, Identify Important Information, Generate Questions, Make Connections, Think About important IdeasFigure out Unknown Words to Support UnderstandingCreate Sensory Images (Visualize, Hear Dialogue, Feel, Smell, Taste)Self-Monitor for Meaning/Reread for UnderstandingFocus on the Important Big Idea at the End of the Text
21 Explicit Strategy Instruction: After Reading Strategies Personally Respond to the Reading ExperienceRetell/SummarizeIdentify Author’s Intended Message(s) (Themes/“Big Ideas”…Life Lessons)Make Connections to Self, the World, Other ExperiencesEvaluate the Qualities of the Text (Does the Text Earn an Award?)Generate Questions (“I Wonder…”)Extend Reading Through More Reading, Writing, Oral Discussion, Art, Drama, Research/ TechnologyReflect on LearningCreate School/Home Connections
22 Similarities and Differences Between Teaching All Readers and Teaching Struggling Readers Emphasis for All ReadersGoals: Success, Achievement, EnjoymentHigh Standards and Expectations...Achievable ChallengesPrinciples That Guide Instruction...Building Effective “Habits of Mind”Creating a Supportive Learning EnvironmentUsing Assessment to Guide Instruction and Texts
23 Similarities and Differences Between Teaching All Readers and Teaching Struggling Readers Emphasis for All ReadersImmersing Learners in Purposeful Engagements with Literacy Across the Curriculum Throughout the Day...Large Blocks of TimeBuilding School/Home Connections and Encouraging Extensive Reading Outside SchoolThoughtful Discussions Around Texts...The Best Reading Instruction Flows on a Sea of Rich DiscussionThoughtful Reading/Writing Connections...Writing to Deepen UnderstandingOwnership and Independence
24 Special Needs for Readers Who Struggle in Order to Close the Achievement Gap Building Motivation, Self-Esteem, Confidence, Empowerment, Ownership, Sense of Success...Affirming the Reading Experience to Drive EngagementBuilding Background Knowledge, Including VocabularyMore Explicit Instruction and Demonstrations of What Good Readers DoMore Immediate “Payoffs” for Effort Through Affirming Human Response
25 Special Needs for Readers Who Struggle in Order to Close the Achievement Gap More Authentic Practice...Repeated Reading (e.g., Reader’s Theater)More Careful Text Choices for Guided Reading to Ensure SuccessAdaptation of Difficult Texts and Assignments; Providing ChoiceMore Explicit and Purposeful Guiding to Scaffold for Success ...Supplying Essential SupportMore Explicit, Embedded Word Study Linked to Assessed Needs
26 Special Needs for Readers Who Struggle in Order to Close the Achievement Gap More Small-Group Shared Reading and Guided Reading InstructionMore 1:1 Reading Conferences That Link Careful Assessment (Kid Watching) with specific feedback, discussion, and reflection (“What Did You Do That Good Readers Do? What Do You Need To Practice?”)More Opportunities to Respond to Texts Through Oral Discussion, Writing, Art, Drama
27 Insights from Teachers Who Are Helping Students “Beat the Odds” The First Steps are Getting to Know All About Our Students and Building TrustIt is Essential to Use Ongoing, Authentic, Multiple Assessments to Guide Planning, Monitor Progress, and Communicate Information to Children and ParentsI Have Clear Short-Term and Long-Term Goals for Each Student Based on Assessments and I communicate Those Goals to My Students. This Enables Me to Prioritize InstructionEarly Intervention is Essential
28 Insights from Teachers Who Are Helping Students “Beat the Odds” Celebrate the “Small Things”Explicitly Demonstrate and Model Every Reading and Writing Strategy Many TimesWorking With Parents is Essential… and Worth the EffortThe Most important Learning Takes Place in My 1:1 ConferencesUse the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model (Pearson & Gallagher, 1987)
29 Selected Research Supports Motivation and Engagement (Cambourne, 1995; Gambrell, 1996; Guthrie, 2003)Strategies for “Thoughtful Literacy” that go Beyond the Text (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997; Allington, 2001)Teaching into Independence (Vygotsky, 1978; Pearson and Gallagher, 1983)Teaching English Language Learners and Building on Funds of Knowledge that Students Bring to Literacy Learning (IRA, 2001; Moje, 2000; Moll, 2003)
30 Selected Research Supports Schools That “Beat the Odds (Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, 2001)Access to Literacy and School/Home Connections (Neumann, 2003)Student Reflection/Metacognition (Rumelhart, 1980; Paris, Lipson, & Wixon, 1994)Using Assessment to Guide Instruction Through Flexible Groupings and Differentiated Instruction (IRA, 2000; Becoming a Nation of Readers, 1985)