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Boost Student Comprehension in Any Content Area: The Framing Routine Kara Krohn Education Program Consultant Iowa Department of Education Bureau of Teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "Boost Student Comprehension in Any Content Area: The Framing Routine Kara Krohn Education Program Consultant Iowa Department of Education Bureau of Teaching."— Presentation transcript:

1 Boost Student Comprehension in Any Content Area: The Framing Routine Kara Krohn Education Program Consultant Iowa Department of Education Bureau of Teaching and Learning Services

2 The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea Kara Krohn A women with multiple roles who enjoys life to the fullest. A wifeA motherAn educator husband, Barry ride Harleys Drake adjunct professor Trainer at Heartland AEA taught for 16 years golf married on the beach in St. Lucia daughter, Marah 2 step children, Jessica and Spencer Consultant, IA DE family dinners once a month Kara Krohn is busy women who balances her many roles with fun activities which often include her family.

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4 When I die, I hope it is during an in-service, the transition would be so subtle.

5 What will be covered today? What challenges do teachers and students face today? What is the Center for Research on Learning (CRL)? What is the Strategic Instruction Model (SIM)? What is the Framing Routine? Why would the Frame be beneficial for my students? What does a Frame look like in action? How can I make a Frame for my content?

6 The challenges our students face:

7 Cultural differences Economic issues Information Age Learning challenges Variety of text structures Find information quickly Perform on a variety of tests Study skills for all of it

8 Expectations of Students Read and analyze large amounts of information Listen to lectures and take notes Actively participate in discussions Complete a variety of types of assignments Express themselves in writing on assignments and tests Memorize and store information for tests Take a variety of types of tests

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12 Content Time Information Explosion/ Instructional Time Dilemma

13 How Times Have Changed From 1900 to 1910, we added nutrition immunization, and health to the list of school responsibilities.

14 From 1920 to 1940, we added vocational education the practical arts business education speech and drama half day kindergarten Phys. Ed. Including organized athletics, and school lunch programs Theres More

15 And More… In the 1960 s, we added Advanced Placement programs consumer education career education peace education leisure education, and recreation education

16 And more… In the 1980 s, the floodgates open, and we add keyboarding and computer education global education ethnic education multicultural/ non-sexist education English-as-a-second-language, and bilingual education early childhood education Jump Start, Early Start, Even Start, and Prime Start full day kindergarten pre-school programs for children at-risk after school programs for children of working parents alternative education in all its forms stranger/danger education anti-smoking education sexual abuse prevention education health and psychological services are expanded, and child abuse monitoring becomes a legal requirement for all teachers

17 And more… And finally, in the 1990 s, we have added HIV/AIDS education death education expanded computer and Internet education inclusion Tech Prep and School to work programs gang education (in urban centers) bus safety education bicycle safety education gun safety education And in most states we have not added a single minute to the school calendar in five decades!

18 The ________ Factor The single most important aspect of the success or failure in student achievement is the ________in that classroom. More than any other factor, it was found that the _______ can and will make the ultimate difference. (Pressley, Snow, Allington, 2001)

19 Content vs. Understanding "If it weren't for students impeding our progress in our race to the end of the term, we could certainly be sure of covering the material. The question, however, is not whether we as teachers can get to the end of the text or the end of the term, but whether our students are with us on that journey." Pat Cross, Director Classroom Research Project University of California, Berkley

20 Stop and Think… What is one thing that has resonated with you so far about the challenges and expectations of teachers and/or students in todays world? Share with a partner.

21 The Center for Research on Learning Founded in 1978 Mission: Dramatically improve the performance of at-risk adolescents through research-based interventions International training network $100+million in contracted R & D

22 The Big Picture (SIM)

23 Rigorous Standards Certified trainers only Appealing for teachers Valuable to students Powerful for low achievers Significant gains Transfers to other settings

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26 Student Improvement: Content Enhancement Routines

27 What is the Framing Routine? A visual device that: –Helps students learn, understand and recall key information and associate essential details –Helps student focus on the relationships between main ideas and details –Helps students summarize whats important –Can be used to take notes about a key topic

28 How is the FRAME different than a web?

29 Are wealthy people more valuable? Rich were given priority over poor for spaces on lifeboats A great disaster can cause society to examine its values and practices so improvements can be made to save future lives Newspaper article: Titanic largest and fastest, so its probably unsinkable Titanic lessons from a disaster When a myth is treated as a truth, people fool selves Lesson: Dont believe it because somebody said it Builders began to believe the myth; took short-cuts Owners liked unsinkable idea, so they encouraged people to believe it Used cheaper steel (thin & brittle, 1 hull) so ship would not cost as much Lesson: Safety always produces greatest profit in the long run Fewer lifeboats = more attractive ship = more people buying tickets Fastest ship = more tickets sold = taking great risks in ice burg zone Putting profit over safety = great loss of life Lesson: All human life is equally valuable, regardless of wealth Cabins closest to deck = most expensive = rich reach lifeboats 1st Many of the poorer people were locked below so they couldnt escape how a great ship sinking led to important lessons that changed. society © 2004 Edwin Ellis

30 So what? What is important to understand about this? is about … Titanic lessons from a disaster how a great ship sinking led to important lessons that changed society Putting profit over safety = great loss of life Are wealthy people more valuable? When a myth is treated as a truth, people fool selves Newspaper article: Titanic largest and fastest, so its probably unsinkable Owners liked unsinkable idea, so they encouraged people to believe it Builders began to believe the myth; took short-cuts Lesson: Dont believe it because somebody said it Used cheaper steel (thin & brittle, 1 hull) so ship would not cost as much Fewer lifeboats = more attractive ship = more people buying tickets Fastest ship = more tickets sold = taking great risks in ice burg zone Lesson: Safety always produces greatest profit in the long run Cabins closest to deck = most expensive = rich reach lifeboats 1st Rich were given priority over poor for spaces on lifeboats Many of the poorer people were locked below so they couldnt escape Lesson: All human life is equally valuable, regardless of wealth A great disaster can cause society to examine its values and practices so improvements can be made to save future lives Which would you rather have? © 2004 Edwin Ellis

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32 So what? What is important to understand about this? is about … Americas involvement in world affairs Road to War War of 1812 Protecting American Neutrality Expansion of sea trade with other nations American ships attacked by France & Great Britain Embargo Act Non-intercourse Act War hawks promote nationalism Native Americans relations worsen as settlers move westward Battle of Tippecanoe War declared against Great Britain War hawks desire to control Canada British burn Washington, D.C. Andrew Jacksons Victory in New Orleans Treaty of Ghent © 2004 Edwin Ellis

33 So what? What is important to understand about this? is about … Foreign policy Americas involvement in world affairs Road to War War of 1812 Protecting American Neutrality Expansion of sea trade with other nations American ships attacked by France & Great Britain Embargo Act Non-intercourse Act War hawks promote nationalism Native Americans relations worsen as settlers move westward Battle of Tippecanoe War declared against Great Britain War hawks desire to control Canada British burn Washington, D.C. Andrew Jacksons Victory in New Orleans Treaty of Ghent First time the US truly started acting like an independent country that refused to be abused by other countries. © 2004 Edwin Ellis

34 Supporting Research Researched intended for intermediate and secondary classes Teachers can learn the routine easily Student learning gains were observed by teachers and researchers. Students writing fluency increased dramatically. Students wrote on average 96 more words on post-test writing tasks; ideation significantly more coherent; mechanical errors reduced significantly.

35 Supporting Research Results were achieved when teachers: –received 2-3 hours of instruction –discussed the routine with colleagues –spent the necessary time to plan and use it –taught students how to use the routine –used the routine regularly over time

36 The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea

37 Linking Steps 1.F ocus on the topic 2.R eveal the main ideas 3.A nalyze the details 4.M ake a so what statement 5.E xtend understanding

38 The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea Kara Krohn A women with multiple roles who enjoys life to the fullest. A wife a mother an educator husband, Barry Married on beach, St.Lucia Golf Ride Harleys taught for 16 years Heartland AEA Drake adjunct professor Consultant, IA DE daughter, Marah 2 step children, Jessica & Spencer Family dinners 1X a month Kara Krohn is busy women who balances her many roles with fun activities which often include her family.

39 Our turn (We do) Read the article entitled Sleep. When you are finished please look at me. We will then co-construct a frame.

40 people need good sleep to be healthy Getting 8 hours of good sleep with both NREM & REM each night is necessary for our physical and mental health. Sleep Most need 8 hours Most get 7 hours 1/3 of Americans Get 6 hours Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Less alert, tired - Accidents-car, space shuttle Valdez, Chernobyl Loss of $ due to illness And accidents in workplace Illness - colds, flu amounttypes Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea

41 Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair amount types The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea 1.F ocus on the topic: The name of the key topic being studied.

42 Sleep Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea F ocus on the topic: IS ABOUT STATEMENT A brief explanation of what the key topic is about.

43 Sleep Most need 8 hours Most get 7 hours 1/3 of Americans Get 6 hours Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea R eveal the main ideas: The main ideas behind the key topic. -subtopics -brief phrases of the key topic -items that are sequentially related

44 people need good sleep to be healthy Sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea A nalyze the details: Details that are essential for students to know and remember about each main idea.

45 Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Illness - colds, flu amount types Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea A statement designed to help students connect what is really critical to understand about the unit of study. M ake a So What? statement:

46 Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Less alert, tired - Accidents-car, space shuttle Valdez, Chernobyl Loss of $ due to illness And accidents in workplace Illness - colds, flu amount types Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea Teacher facilitates the evaluation of the new information with the students and intentionally guides students to connect all the pieces of information in the Frame. E xtend understanding:

47 people need good sleep to be healthy Getting 8 hours of good sleep with both NREM & REM each night is necessary for our physical and mental health. Sleep Most need 8 hours Most get 7 hours 1/3 of Americans Get 6 hours Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Less alert, tired - Accidents-car, space shuttle Valdez, Chernobyl Loss of $ due to illness And accidents in workplace Illness - colds, flu amounttypes Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea EXAMPLE- EXTEND UNDERSTANDING: How does the AMOUNT of sleep a person gets effect the TYPES of sleep attained each night?

48 people need good sleep to be healthy Getting 8 hours of good sleep with both NREM & REM each night is necessary for our physical and mental health. Sleep Most need 8 hours Most get 7 hours 1/3 of Americans Get 6 hours Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Less alert, tired - Accidents-car, space shuttle Valdez, Chernobyl Loss of $ due to illness And accidents in workplace Illness - colds, flu amount types Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea EXAMPLE- EXTEND UNDERSTANDING: Which of these factors has the greatest impact on students? family members? businesses? Rank order them in terms of MOST-to-LEAST impact

49 people need good sleep to be healthy Getting 8 hours of good sleep with both NREM & REM each night is necessary for our physical and mental health. Sleep Most need 8 hours Most get 7 hours 1/3 of Americans Get 6 hours Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Less alert, tired - Accidents-car, space shuttle Valdez, Chernobyl Loss of $ due to illness And accidents in workplace Illness - colds, flu amount types Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea EXAMPLE- EXTEND UNDERSTANDING: Write an article for the school newspaper that explains how good sleep can increase a students academic and extra-curricular performance levels.

50 Remember… The Frame Routine helps students… –develop a more thorough understanding of important information associated with key topics and main ideas. –learn the information because it is a concrete representation of abstract ideas. –to focus on the relationships between main ideas and details as well as among several main ideas. –become strategic learners, capable of creatively and effectively processing information.

51 To be successful… The Frame Routine must be… –explicitly introduced to students –used regularly –adapted to meet unique needs –integrated over time with other routines – an interactive device all students can construct –designed for students to use independently

52 FRAMING ROUTINE Get Ready! Get Set! Go! Win!

53 GET READY! Choosing when to use the routine: –Typically used to understand a considerable body of content that has particular significance within the unit of study –Any time students need to understand the organization or structure of information and the relationships between those pieces of information

54 Collect ideas and materials… Think about a topic/concept you teach… –Jot down the key/main ideas –Add the essential details needed –Consider ideas for extending student learning

55 Construct a Draft Design or find a frame that best fits your information

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66 Your turn- You do Alone or with a partner(s) Select a topic or content area to develop a frame on Possible ideas: Your building, Reality TV shows, beer, sports, one about you …

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68 Sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea F ocus on the topic - Significant event or time period - A famous person -Key, important large idea

69 Sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea Add the Is about … statement Provides a brief explanation or paraphrase of the overall topic Captures the gist of the whole lesson Should be in easily understood language why people need good sleep to be healthy.

70 Sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea why people need good sleep to be healthy. R eveal the Main ideas Ask yourself: A year from now, if my students only remember (three) things about this topic, what should they be? amount type effects of lack of sleep -Components of an idea -Reasons why things happen -Significance of a famous person -Important ages, stages, phrases -Characteristics of a process

71 Sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea people need good sleep to be healthy. amount type effects of lack of sleep A nalyze the Essential Details Should be the information that is absolutely necessary to know in order to understand the main idea Helps students focus on what is important to remember Does not include trivia!

72 Nothing in education is so astonishing as the amount of ignorance it accumulates in the form of inert facts. Henry Adams

73 Essential details:List on Frame and test Clarifying details: Dont list/dont test Cultural trivia: List on Frame and test Esoteric trivia: Dont list/dont test Queen of Spain financed trip in order to spread Christian gospel Columbus was Italian, but couldnt get Italy to finance trip Martin Pizon, captain and owner of Pinta, tried to beat Columbus back to Spain & claim credit Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria (Santa Maria sank) Columbus discovers the New World Main idea Essential details Essential detail Clarifying detail Cultural expected trivia Specialized or esoteric trivia

74 people need good sleep to be healthy Sleep Most need 8 hours Most get 7 hours 1/3 of Americans Get 6 hours Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Less alert, tired - Accidents-car, space shuttle Valdez, Chernobyl Loss of $ due to illness And accidents in workplace Illness - colds, flu amount types Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea May be an overall summary May connect the topic to a real-world context or to a problem to be understood or solved May identify applications or implications of the topic Getting 8 hours of good sleep with both NREM & REM each night is necessary for our physical and mental health. M ake a So what? statement

75 people need good sleep to be healthy Getting 8 hours of good sleep with both NREM & REM each night is necessary for our physical and mental health. Sleep Most need 8 hours Most get 7 hours 1/3 of Americans Get 6 hours Non-rapid eye movement Body growth/repair Rapid eye movement Restores brain Need both kinds to Be healthy NREM = most time 75% REM = 25% time Puts people at risk (you and others) Less alert, tired - Accidents-car, space shuttle Valdez, Chernobyl Loss of $ due to illness And accidents in workplace Illness - colds, flu amount types Effects of lack of sleep The FRAME Routine Key Topic Main idea is about… So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Essential details Main idea Essential details Main idea Extend understanding of the information!!

76 Extend Understanding Prioritize main ideas and/or details and discuss –Most/least important to understanding –Most/least impact on people/event –Most/least controversial –Most/least understood –Most/least surprising

77 Extend Understanding… Speculate what might have happened if… –Changed the sequence of events –Never happened –Could change one thing

78 Extend Understanding… Forecast, predict, or anticipate –What happened next –How did people react to it

79 Extend Understanding… Connect to other main ideas –What do the main ideas have in common with each other? –How are they related to previous ideas? –How are they related to past experiences? –How will this impact your life?

80 GET SET!! Introduce the Frame Routine to your students for the first time: –Set expectations for students –Model –Co-construct

81 GO!! Making the Frame Routine a regular part of your instruction –Expect it to be used correctly and completely –Vary the use of the routine –Slowly release responsibility to students –Always facilitate the extend understanding step –Regularly evaluate/reflect on effectiveness

82 WIN!! The teachers who make the biggest difference in education today are those who are committed to a process of continual professional growth and development. The challenges of the teaching profession are enormous.The key to addressing them, in large measure, is in the hands of teachers who are willing to try new ways of teaching and reaching students. (Edwin Ellis)

83 Teachers win… Improved student learning of content ideas Efficient manipulation of information Organized and purposeful lessons System of collegial support Confidence as routine becomes effective Increased rigor and relevance of curriculum

84 Students win… Confidence in learning power Improved grades Relevance/value in learning concepts Critical thinking skills improve Efficient manipulation of information

85 Beware of the pitfalls 1.Frames dont have to be prepared before class. 2.Students dont need to be involved in construction. 3.Students will automatically see the advantages of using a Frame. 4.If I dont get it right the first time, I wont ever get it.

86 Vary the routine Brainstorm activity KEW routine Anticipation guide Fill-in-the-blanks Framing themes Post-instruction construction Guess what?

87 Key Topic Main idea Main idea Main idea Main idea So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Key Topic The Framing Routine Main idea F ocus on the Topic Main idea Main idea M ake a So What Statement Main idea E xtend Understanding Main idea A nalyze Details Main idea R eveal Main Ideas is about… a two dimensional graphic organizer that allows the teacher to display important info related to a targeted key topic. Essential details Essential details Essential details Essential details Essential details Name the topic/explain it Intro main idea Specify/discuss essential details Generate a So What Facilitate eval of new info Overview of how ideas are related Discuss non- essentials May rank importance by #s Examine how topic is related to unit Students reflect on connections Activate prior knowledge Provide rationale for learning The Framing Routine helps teachers visually organize important information for and with students.

88 Thank you!!! ???


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