Presentation on theme: "The University of Texas at Austin"— Presentation transcript:
1 The University of Texas at Austin Guided Writing and Mediational Talk: Scaffolding Struggling Readers in a Multi-age Small Group SettingLora W. DardenFairhope, AlabamaThe University of Texas at Austin
11 “Tensions occur in many families at the time a child enters school “Tensions occur in many families at the time a child enters school. For parents and the child it is a relatively sudden change. Many parents have an inner concern about some of the difficulties they think their children could encounter. For example they may fear physical attack, or criticism of the child. Some anticipate that the home will be criticized” (Clay, 1991, p. 55).
13 August of 2004 Parents divorced – joint custody Sacrifices in the name of schooling
14 August of 2004 Parents divorced – joint custody Sacrifices in the name of schoolingChildren enrolled in 1st, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 7th grades
15 Silent Illiteracy Took children shopping Saw interactions with environmental print (Cheerios, Tide, Oreos)Railroad – 4:30 am to 4:30 pm
16 Outdated Literacy Definitions Signing one’s nameCompleting 5 years of schoolingScoring at a certain grade level on a test of reading achievement
17 Literacy“Using printed and written information to function in society, to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential.”- National Center for Educational Statistics
18 Prose Literacy: Understand and use information from Editorials (contrasting views)News stories (locating information)Poems (inferring a theme)FictionInstructions (interpreting warranty information)- National Center for Educational Statistics
19 Document Literacy: Locate and use information contained in Job applications & payroll forms (entering appropriate information)Transportation schedules, tables & graphs (choosing an appropriate bus)Maps (locating a particular intersection)- National Center for Educational Statistics
20 Quantitative Literacy: Apply arithmetic operations either alone or sequentially, using numbers embedded in print materialsBalancing a checkbookFiguring a tipCompleting an order formDetermining amount of interest from a loan ad- National Center for Educational Statistics
21 Socio-constructivist Paradigm Learning is a social activityEngaging with othersEngaging with words on a pageKnowledge is co-constructed through talk with others engaged in common activitiesWe engage in more complex thought when working with others than we are capable of aloneCite Vygotsky
22 The Purpose in Mind…One of the critical aims of educating children “should be the induction of children into ways of using language for seeking, sharing and constructing knowledge…” (Mercer, Wegerif, & Dawes, 1999, p. 95).
23 Mediational TalkBased on Neil Mercer’s work on guidance strategies of learners through talk (Mercer, 2000)Add more info on Mercer from paper and look for citation on three types of talk
24 Mediational TalkMercer identified three types of talk found in learning interactionsCumulative – building positively, but uncriticallyExploratory – reasoning is visible, knowledge is made public, partners engage critically but constructively with one another’s ideasDisputational – disagreements, individual decision making
25 The Power of Mediational Talk Based on Neil Mercer’s work on guidance strategies of learners through talk (Mercer, 2000)Students used humor and gentle teasing to encourage one another and build a sense of communityTry to add some quotes that will show mediational talk
26 Gradual Release of Responsibility Guided WritingGradual Release of ResponsibilityHigh Support Conventions of Written LanguageCite from notes – Bruner is scaffolding but which person is gradual release – it is cited in the two people’s work from CA.Low Support Construction of Ideas
27 Obligation to Family & Authentic Literacy Time to be togetherCommitment to engage in real life literate activitiesOpportunities to connect home lives with school
28 Mediational Strategies Supporting one another at home (“doing school”) & choosing to engage in literacyAdding to their natural teaching abilities developed in “ranch life”Providing each other with scaffolding strategies
29 Grade Level Concepts 1st Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade Letter/sound knowledgeVowel patternsSentence boundariesFlexibility in writingConventions of writing (capitalization and punctuationPeer editing and revisionHeavier emphasis on conventional spelling and proofreadingWriter’s craftWord choicesSophisticated sentence constructionStylistic devices
30 Guided WritingLarge chart paper or Smart Board (visible to all)
34 Guided Writing Large chart paper or Smart Board (visible to all) Different color marker for each person (facilitates record keeping which person contributes what – teacher uses separate color)Practice paper so each person can try it out
37 Guided Writing Large chart paper or Smart Board (visible to all) Different color marker for each person (facilitates record keeping which person contributes what – teacher uses separate color)Practice paper so each person can try it outMessage constructed by children – common experience or research project
47 Opportunities for Mediational Language Use Practice pagesComparing alternatives with one anotherScaffolding through magnetic lettersLetter, transition, and sound boxesStudents always write from own lives – shared storytelling experiences
49 The Power of Mediational Talk Students made available to one another strategies they brought from their respective classroomsStudents began to take on and use the same meta-language that had been modeled for them during the lessons
50 The Power of Mediational Talk All three siblings held different “power positions” throughout the sessions, sharing strengths and areas of expertise with one anotherHumor was used to challenge one another to complete tasks that would have been impossible several months earlier
51 Exploratory TalkTori: What are we going to write for this story?Kyle: I don’t know. Come on, let’s go.Harry: [snickering at his brother and sister for not being able to make a decision]Kyle: I don’t know. Come on, tell us. [This comment is NOT being directed toward me.]
52 Tori: I think mine is good because we started out with, “Three weeks after that…” L: Well, I mean, tell us, tell us why that adds to the story.Tori: It’s like we just got home. We just wrote about when we just got home, and then we need to tell about three weeks after we got home, Harry found a name.Kyle: Three weeks after…
53 L: What do you think though, about… what she’s bringing up is when you first read this, this, Harry, this tells that you were at Gina’s house and she brought you back, so this tells what happens right when you got home, but the information she wrote about reminds the reader now that well this isn’t happening right when we got home, it’s happening three weeks later. Does she have a good point?Kyle & Harry: Yes [sounding almost remorseful]Kyle: You like 3 and Harry likes 3
54 Kyle: Three week [he’s drawing attention to the fact she left the –s off weeks] Tori: It doesn’t matter [said very matter-of-factly] because I was going to just write a and then I remembered in the story.Tori: Do you know how to spell weeks Harry?
55 MilestonesThe children and I talked, and their goal is to be upstairs and reading by 7:40. They have agreed to get off the bus and go their separate ways in the hallway and then meet upstairs together. If you happen to see them traveling together in the hallway, it would be wonderful if you would “gently” encourage them to do so.
56 Milestones Celebration for Kyle 11-30-04 Celebration! During author's chair for anyone who wishes to share what they wrote in their journal Kyle read!This is a first. It was only one sentence but he was eager to read it and did a great job.MarieTrayce called and put Harry on the phone… first 100 on a spelling test!
57 MilestonesWe went to the library to check out “chapter books” for Tobi and Tyler and Hart checked out 4 Margaret Hillert books to read with me in the mornings.
59 The Eloquence of a Father Heightened sense of responsibilityWork ethic on ranchThere is always time to do the job right. We will help you if you need it, but it will be done well.Strategic modeling and opportunities to make mistakes under supportive environmentHonoring work ethicYou have made me so proud of you! What you have done is the true definition of a gentleman. You have worked day in and out to accomplish a very difficult task. Although you are not where you hoped to be, you gave it your all.
60 My joy rests in sitting back and watching the magic unfold My joy rests in sitting back and watching the magic unfold. Before me, squirming excitedly, more out of their seats than in, are three readers and writers who are very different people than the ones I met over a year ago. To quote their father, who knows them better than almost anyone…
61 “They entered your school in a bewildered state of mind, with nothing to their advantage other than the hunger for the wisdom you had to share with them… Within their first few months under your guidance and care, I witnessed a significant change in each of them. Their doubts and uncertainties slowly dissipated before my eyes. Replaced with Confidence, Self-esteem and Enthusiasm. Not only did I witness the change in their school work, but in their overall activities as well. The negatives of the subconscious mind being replaced with Positive thoughts is an action no parent should ever take for granted.”
62 ResourcesCashdan, A. (1976) ‘Who teaches the child to read.’ In J. Merrit, New Horizons in Reading (pp ).Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Clay, M. (1991). Becoming literate: The construction of inner control. Hong Kong: Heinemann.Clay, M. (1993). Reading recovery: A guidebook for teachers in training. Hong Kong: Heinemann.Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G.S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann.Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G.S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers grades 3-6: Teaching comprehension, genre,and content literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Gibbs, J. (2001). Tribes (TLC): A new way of learning and being together. Windsor, CA: Center SourceSystems.Gregory, E. (2002). Sibling support. Literacy Today, (7)31, 22.Gregory, E. (2004). ‘Invisible’ teachers of literacy: collusion between siblings and teachers in creatingclassroom cultures. Literacy, 38(2),Mercer, N. (2000). Words and minds: How we use language to think together. New York: Routledge.Mercer, N., Wegerif, R., & Dawes, L. (1999). Children’s talk and the development of reasoningin the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 25,National Center for Educational Statistics (1992). National Assessment of Adult Literacy. December 6, 2005,Pahl, K. & Kelly, S. (2005). Family literacy as a third space between home and school: Some case studies ofpractice, Literacy, July 2005, 91-96Pavri, S., Bentz, J., Bradley, J., & Corso, L. (2005) ‘Me amo leer’ reading experiences in a central illinoissummer migrant education programme. Language, Literture, and Curriculum, 18(2), ppWilliams, A. & Gregory, E. (2001). Siblings bridging literacies in multilingual contexts. Journal of research inreading, (24) 3, pp