Presentation on theme: "Guided Writing and Mediational Talk: Scaffolding Struggling Readers in a Multi-age Small Group Setting Lora W. Darden Fairhope, Alabama The University."— Presentation transcript:
Guided Writing and Mediational Talk: Scaffolding Struggling Readers in a Multi-age Small Group Setting Lora W. Darden Fairhope, Alabama The University of Texas at Austin
The Story Behind the Story 11 Siblings
The Story Behind the Story 6 - Public School A, B Students Some College
The Story Behind the Story 5 – Home Schooled Functionally Illiterate
Literacy Status Pop Culture: Tobi Keith, Jessica Simpson
Literacy Status Pop Culture: Tobi Keith, Jessica Simpson Tori Sibling Names – letters out of order Animal Names – letters out of order
Literacy Status Pop Culture: Tobi Keith, Jessica Simpson Tori Sibling Names – letters out of order Animal Names – letters out of order Kyle letter sound issues, reversals m - /ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ/ f - /ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ/ c - /ssssssssssss/ s - /ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ/
Literacy Status Pop Culture: Tobi Keith, Jessica Simpson Tori Sibling Names – letters out of order Animal Names – letters out of order Kyle letter sound issues, reversals m - /ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ/ f - /ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ/ c - /ssssssssssss/ s - /ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ ĕ/ Harry – did not know letters or sounds
The Strong (Weak) First Teach Hangman
Truth Discovered Oldest Sister - Oklahoma
Tensions occur in many families at the time a child enters school. For parents and the child it is a relatively sudden change. Many parents have an inner concern about some of the difficulties they think their children could encounter. For example they may fear physical attack, or criticism of the child. Some anticipate that the home will be criticized (Clay, 1991, p. 55).
August of 2004 Parents divorced – joint custody
August of 2004 Parents divorced – joint custody Sacrifices in the name of schooling
August of 2004 Parents divorced – joint custody Sacrifices in the name of schooling Children enrolled in 1 st, 3 rd, 4 th, 6 th, and 7 th grades
Silent Illiteracy Took children shopping Saw interactions with environmental print (Cheerios, Tide, Oreos) Railroad – 4:30 am to 4:30 pm
Outdated Literacy Definitions Signing ones name Completing 5 years of schooling Scoring at a certain grade level on a test of reading achievement
Literacy Using printed and written information to function in society, to achieve ones goals, and to develop ones knowledge and potential. - National Center for Educational Statistics
Prose Literacy: Understand and use information from Editorials (contrasting views) News stories (locating information) Poems (inferring a theme) Fiction Instructions (interpreting warranty information) - National Center for Educational Statistics
Document Literacy: Locate and use information contained in Job applications & payroll forms (entering appropriate information) Transportation schedules, tables & graphs (choosing an appropriate bus) Maps (locating a particular intersection) - National Center for Educational Statistics
Quantitative Literacy: Apply arithmetic operations either alone or sequentially, using numbers embedded in print materials Balancing a checkbook Figuring a tip Completing an order form Determining amount of interest from a loan ad - National Center for Educational Statistics
Socio-constructivist Paradigm Learning is a social activity –Engaging with others –Engaging with words on a page Knowledge is co-constructed through talk with others engaged in common activities We engage in more complex thought when working with others than we are capable of alone
The Purpose in Mind… One of the critical aims of educating children should be the induction of children into ways of using language for seeking, sharing and constructing knowledge… (Mercer, Wegerif, & Dawes, 1999, p. 95).
Mediational Talk Based on Neil Mercers work on guidance strategies of learners through talk (Mercer, 2000)
Mediational Talk Mercer identified three types of talk found in learning interactions –Cumulative – building positively, but uncritically –Exploratory – reasoning is visible, knowledge is made public, partners engage critically but constructively with one anothers ideas –Disputational – disagreements, individual decision making
The Power of Mediational Talk Based on Neil Mercers work on guidance strategies of learners through talk (Mercer, 2000) Students used humor and gentle teasing to encourage one another and build a sense of community
Guided Writing Gradual Release of Responsibility Low Support Construction of Ideas High Support Conventions of Written Language
Obligation to Family & Authentic Literacy Time to be together Commitment to engage in real life literate activities Opportunities to connect home lives with school
Mediational Strategies Supporting one another at home (doing school) & choosing to engage in literacy Adding to their natural teaching abilities developed in ranch life Providing each other with scaffolding strategies
Grade Level Concepts 1 st Grade3 rd Grade4 th Grade Letter/sound knowledge Vowel patterns Sentence boundaries Flexibility in writing Conventions of writing (capitalization and punctuation Peer editing and revision Heavier emphasis on conventional spelling and proofreading Writers craft Word choices Sophisticated sentence construction Stylistic devices
Guided Writing Large chart paper or Smart Board (visible to all)
Guided Writing Large chart paper or Smart Board (visible to all) Different color marker for each person (facilitates record keeping – which person contributes what – teacher uses separate color)
Guided Writing Large chart paper or Smart Board (visible to all) Different color marker for each person (facilitates record keeping which person contributes what – teacher uses separate color) Practice paper so each person can try it out
Early Practice Page
Advanced Practice Page
Guided Writing Large chart paper or Smart Board (visible to all) Different color marker for each person (facilitates record keeping which person contributes what – teacher uses separate color) Practice paper so each person can try it out Message constructed by children – common experience or research project
Opportunities for Mediational Language Use Practice pages
1 st Grader – End of Year
Opportunities for Mediational Language Use Practice pages Comparing alternatives with one another
3 rd & 4 th Grader – End of Year
Opportunities for Mediational Language Use Practice pages Comparing alternatives with one another Scaffolding through magnetic letters
Magnetic Letter Scaffolding where eerwh Checked in text Scrambled and unscrambled Covered and written
Opportunities for Mediational Language Use Practice pages Comparing alternatives with one another Scaffolding through magnetic letters Letter, transition, and sound boxes
Elkonin Boxes D.B. Elkonin – Russian Psychologist sheep sound boxes transition boxes letter boxes sheep s he p sheep
Opportunities for Mediational Language Use Practice pages Comparing alternatives with one another Scaffolding through magnetic letters Letter, transition, and sound boxes Students always write from own lives – shared storytelling experiences
The Power of Mediational Talk Students made available to one another strategies they brought from their respective classrooms Students began to take on and use the same meta-language that had been modeled for them during the lessons
The Power of Mediational Talk All three siblings held different power positions throughout the sessions, sharing strengths and areas of expertise with one another Humor was used to challenge one another to complete tasks that would have been impossible several months earlier
Tori: What are we going to write for this story? Kyle: I dont know. Come on, lets go. Harry: [snickering at his brother and sister for not being able to make a decision] Kyle: I dont know. Come on, tell us. [This comment is NOT being directed toward me.] Exploratory Talk
Tori: I think mine is good because we started out with, Three weeks after that… L: Well, I mean, tell us, tell us why that adds to the story. Tori: Its like we just got home. We just wrote about when we just got home, and then we need to tell about three weeks after we got home, Harry found a name. Kyle: Three weeks after…
L: What do you think though, about… what shes bringing up is when you first read this, this, Harry, this tells that you were at Ginas house and she brought you back, so this tells what happens right when you got home, but the information she wrote about reminds the reader now that well this isnt happening right when we got home, its happening three weeks later. Does she have a good point? Kyle & Harry: Yes [sounding almost remorseful] Kyle: You like 3 and Harry likes 3
Kyle: Three week [hes drawing attention to the fact she left the –s off weeks] Tori: It doesnt matter [said very matter- of-factly] because I was going to just write a and then I remembered in the story. Tori: Do you know how to spell weeks Harry?
Milestones The children and I talked, and their goal is to be upstairs and reading by 7:40. They have agreed to get off the bus and go their separate ways in the hallway and then meet upstairs together. If you happen to see them traveling together in the hallway, it would be wonderful if you would gently encourage them to do so.
Milestones Celebration for Kyle Celebration! During author's chair for anyone who wishes to share what they wrote in their journal Kyle read! This is a first. It was only one sentence but he was eager to read it and did a great job. Marie Trayce called and put Harry on the phone… first 100 on a spelling test!
Milestones We went to the library to check out chapter books for Tobi and Tyler and Hart checked out 4 Margaret Hillert books to read with me in the mornings.
The Eloquence of a Father Heightened sense of responsibility Work ethic on ranch –There is always time to do the job right. We will help you if you need it, but it will be done well. –Strategic modeling and opportunities to make mistakes under supportive environment Honoring work ethic –You have made me so proud of you! What you have done is the true definition of a gentleman. You have worked day in and out to accomplish a very difficult task. Although you are not where you hoped to be, you gave it your all.
My joy rests in sitting back and watching the magic unfold. Before me, squirming excitedly, more out of their seats than in, are three readers and writers who are very different people than the ones I met over a year ago. To quote their father, who knows them better than almost anyone…
They entered your school in a bewildered state of mind, with nothing to their advantage other than the hunger for the wisdom you had to share with them… Within their first few months under your guidance and care, I witnessed a significant change in each of them. Their doubts and uncertainties slowly dissipated before my eyes. Replaced with Confidence, Self-esteem and Enthusiasm. Not only did I witness the change in their school work, but in their overall activities as well. The negatives of the subconscious mind being replaced with Positive thoughts is an action no parent should ever take for granted.
Resources Cashdan, A. (1976) Who teaches the child to read. In J. Merrit, New Horizons in Reading (pp ). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Clay, M. (1991). Becoming literate: The construction of inner control. Hong Kong: Heinemann. Clay, M. (1993). Reading recovery: A guidebook for teachers in training. Hong Kong: Heinemann. Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G.S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G.S. (2001). Guiding readers and writers grades 3-6: Teaching comprehension, genre, and content literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Gibbs, J. (2001). Tribes (TLC): A new way of learning and being together. Windsor, CA: Center Source Systems. Gregory, E. (2002). Sibling support. Literacy Today, (7)31, 22. Gregory, E. (2004). Invisible teachers of literacy: collusion between siblings and teachers in creating classroom cultures. Literacy, 38(2), Mercer, N. (2000). Words and minds: How we use language to think together. New York: Routledge. Mercer, N., Wegerif, R., & Dawes, L. (1999). Childrens talk and the development of reasoning in the classroom. British Educational Research Journal, 25, National Center for Educational Statistics (1992). National Assessment of Adult Literacy. December 6, 2005, Pahl, K. & Kelly, S. (2005). Family literacy as a third space between home and school: Some case studies of practice, Literacy, July 2005, Pavri, S., Bentz, J., Bradley, J., & Corso, L. (2005) Me amo leer reading experiences in a central illinois summer migrant education programme. Language, Literture, and Curriculum, 18(2), pp Williams, A. & Gregory, E. (2001). Siblings bridging literacies in multilingual contexts. Journal of research in reading, (24) 3, pp