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Academic Scholarship and the Deep (or Invisible) Web Jessie Hey Intelligence, Agents, Multimedia Group and University of Southampton Libraries, University.

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Scholarship and the Deep (or Invisible) Web Jessie Hey Intelligence, Agents, Multimedia Group and University of Southampton Libraries, University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Scholarship and the Deep (or Invisible) Web Jessie Hey Intelligence, Agents, Multimedia Group and University of Southampton Libraries, University of Southampton, UK SIMS, Berkeley 3 rd Oct 2003

2 Where the Titanic sailed from Southampton Oceanography Centre National Oceanography Library

3 IAM Group - Electronics and Computer Science One of the largest groups of its kind, with over 80 researchers, IAM focuses on the design and application of computing systems for complex information and knowledge processing tasks. IAM is a world leader in the key technologies of agent- based computing, knowledge management, open hypermedia and pervasive computing and their application in the domains of digital libraries and grids

4 University of Southampton Libraries Pioneer of computer automation Archives: Wellington Palmerston Mountbatten even Textiles Renowned for Official Publications Printed collection Digital collection BOPCAS National Oceanography Library

5 Scope Developing academic scholarship Ultimate goal – improving tools to advance research 2 sides of the coin: Research discovery Research visibility

6 Exploiting the invisible and visible web Started exploring the key issues surrounding the hybrid library (combining the traditional and the digital) our surveys showed that the academic reader was more likely to be swayed by the power of Internet search engines to use these first and library provided search facilities second Our prototype search engine tailored to our local community thus contained an Internet search engine as well

7 GIGA – a Global Information Gatherng Agent

8 MALIBU and GIGA Searching the hybrid library Developing the MALIBU search engine (GIGA) An example Towards our vision

9 Creating the hybrid library To bring together a wide range of new alternative technologies plus the electronic products and services already in libraries, and the historical functions of our local, physical libraries, into well organised, accessible hybrid libraries (JISC circular 3/97)

10 Recent hybrid library statistics! Two extremes: Southampton libraries have 42,752m of shelving, of which 35,300m or 83% were occupied at the time of the measure. This is roughly equivalent to the distance from Southampton to Portsmouth. Southampton IAM group prints 10,000 pages every 3.5 weeks searching the web, using up a laser printer toner cartridge

11 Questionnaires to Humanities Staff All kind of resources used e.g.: E-journals, abstracts and microforms Radio and online newspapers Card catalogues and archives Librarians and students General and very specialised web resources

12 MALIBU search engine Developed from preprototype search engine for the Humanities supported by user and librarian testing and reviews of searching methods for paper and digital resources, both local and remote Modelling the hybrid library: Project MALIBU JMN Hey and A Wissenburg The New Review of Information and Library Research 1998 103-110

13 Search Agent Objectives To expand horizons for Humanities staff and students in a managed hybrid library environment Both to search relevant web based resources in addition to traditional catalogues And archives and other hidden databases in addition to the web To develop a prototype providing searching facilities across a selected no. of heterogeneous priority targets

14 A Global Information Gathering Agent Consists of a series of independent agents, which can communicate through a meta-agent Aim - flexible and efficient system Degree of user profiling – matching users at Oxford, Southampton and KCL Options to change targets searched and to work with results


16 Malibu's Search Agent Signup Welcome! Please provide the following information about yourself. This information will help the system to set up a personal user profile for you. Your First Name Your Surname Please provide a Password it will not be shown as you type Please enter your Password a second time Please give your e-mail address (optional) Your Department Your User Type Please click on "Submit" (below) when you are finished entering your information, or "Clear" to start again. An introductory profile is set up but can be amended

17 A Personal Profile eg in History might include: Book catalogues (Southampton and COPAC) JSTOR history and American journals Papers of Palmerston and Wellington (at Southampton) Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives (at Kings College, London) Refugee studies Catalogue (at Oxford) Survey of Jewish Archives (at Southampton) Google search engine Wilfred Owen Multimedia Digital Archive

18 The next stage of exploration The Southampton Reserve Collection has some 1st World War materials and some were digitized for a previous project in English and posted to a local site We want to look further afield: Southamptons WebCat JSTOR digitized History journals Perhaps other catalogues and archives A web search engine and different media

19 Amend profile to search relevant databases Southampton WebCat Oxfords OLIS catalogue COPAC (The union catalogue of the Consortium of University Research Libraries. Free bibliographic information on over 6 million titles) Google search engine JSTOR history journals Papers of Senior UK Defence Personnel (catalogue launched in Southampton June 2000) Wilfred Owen Multimedia Digital Archive Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives (at Kings College, London) And rank by priority

20 Researching the 1 st world war trenches Some marked records from a Southampton GIGA search (saved or emailed): Wilfred Owen Archive at Oxford Audio of daily routine in front line trenches Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archive (KCL) Sketches showing layout of trenches Google Search Engine Trenches on the Web – reference library Oxford OLIS Catalogue Lads: love poetry of the trenches compiled 1998 Southampton catalogue In the trenches of Stalingrad pub. 1948 NB No matches in JSTOR journals or Southampton online archives this time

21 Following on: The Wilfred Owen Multimedia Digital Archive looks useful – so click on the information button What does it comprise? Virtually all of Owens original MSS for his war poetry, from various sources 18 issues of The Hydra 20 Photos of Owen A selection of letters Owen wrote during his war service Official records related to Owen from PRO Selection of general material from war (photos, audio, video), from IWM archives Relevant current day video & photographic material Other contemporary material (e.g. postcards)

22 Exploring in depth Explore a few resources: 1. ahew4 Audio of Smell of trenches. by L. J. Hewitt ahew4 2. amci1 Audio of Trench life. Shaving and washing by T. W. McIndoe amci1 3. aoxl12 Audio of Daily routine in front line trenches. St by H. Oxley aoxl12 4. aoxl18 Audio of Sanitary arrangements in trenches. by H. Oxley aoxl18 5. aoxl5 Audio of Journey to front line at Ypres Salient, by H. Oxley aoxl5 Link to the database for more detailed context based searching

23 And from our web search engine: An Internet History of the Great War one of the best online resources for teaching and learning about the First World War." Scout Report for Social Sciences 8-Nov-1997 Scout Report for Social Sciences

24 A useful exemplar Investigated the impact of the search engine and its place within the users and librarys information landscape Analysed advantages and disadvantages of technical model Some conclusions: Can allow for easy distributed development But may need to accept less than full features – use as a pointer Major challenge of database subscriptions and features not remaining constant

25 Vision – to plug in new agents as databases become available or in demand eg free Eprints software being made available from our IAM group to institutions and departments to self archive scholarly research literature (modelled on Los Alamos preprint archive) Could then add a database to search very recent work as well as traditionally published work together

26 The ideas of GIGA look forward to: Having your own intelligent agent (your virtual hybrarian) to exploit to the full well organised and accessible libraries Whether far afield or on your doorstep Tests have shown users are enthusiastic to discover new resources and recommend new resources for inclusion

27 Now many similar examples of searching choices including the web

28 And search engines on similar principles eg Copernic: a broader version of the academic GIGA Copernic Agent Professional provides specialized search categories that delve more deeply into the Web. Imagine what you are missing! Copernic Agent Professional lets you create your own customized search categories using available engines. You can mix categories and engines to create your perfectly targeted search category. You can also create a list of your favorite categories for quick access to them.

29 Aiding Academic Scholarship Research discovery Guiding exploration of resources –both visible and potentially invisible Lets move on to: Research visibility Making research visible up front Working with standards e.g. OAI Working with world wide information community Working with policy Working with authors

30 Open? Open = freely accessible - open access journals and/or Open = interoperable - Open Archives Initiative (OAI)

31 Crisis in Scholarly Communication new alternate models Open Access Journals Open Archive Initiative

32 Open Access Journals the worldwide movement to disseminate scientific and scholarly research literature online, free of charge and free of unnecessary licensing restrictions. Open access is barrier-free and cost-free access to the use of information Open access is NOT cost-free publication - costs still have to be met but in a new way Open access is NOT low-quality publication Open access is NOT vanity publication Open access is a new way of managing scholarly publishing with a new economic model


34 Changing the economic model Essential feature : payment is for publication not for access Peer-review still in place to ensure quality Publication payment can come either from author or from research funding agency (many authors already pay more in page charges or colour charges than open access is likely to cost) Open access favours small society publishers (publication costs likely to be lower) Enables commercial publishers to continue albeit with lower profit levels BUT transition to new model difficult for publishers

35 Documenta Mathematica This journal is free of charge (electronic). Printed volumes are available for a low price. Geometry & Topology Publication is in electronic format completely free to individuals with papers appearing a few days after acceptance. Low-priced paper copy is available. Public Library of Science and BioMed Central Examples of Open Access Journals and Publishers

36 Public Library of Science non-profit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. PLoS Biology out Oct 2003 PLoS Medicine 2004

37 BioMed Central 90+ open access journals business model is to charge authors $500 per article and then make the content available free to readers JISC agreement with BioMed Central 1/7/03 Up to 80,000 medical and clinical researchers at 180 universities will now be able to publish their work at no charge in any of BioMed Central's extensive range of online medical journals. The costs of peer review will continue to be borne by individual academics or their institutions. The JISC deal will benefit authors from UK Higher Education Institutions, who will no longer have to pay their own author charges.

38 Work published with BioMed Central by researchers at University of Southampton Research article Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from the region of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, an area of commercial mining interest Lambshead PJD, Brown CJ, Ferrero TJ, Hawkins LE, Smith CR, Mitchell NJ BMC Ecology 2003, 3:1 (9 January 2003) [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles] Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from the region of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, an area of commercial mining interestAbstractFull textPDFPubMedRelated articles Review Mitotic death: a mechanism of survival? A review Erenpreisa J, Cragg MS Cancer Cell International 2001, 1:1 (23 November 2001) [Abstract] [Full Text] [PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles] Mitotic death: a mechanism of survival? A reviewAbstractFull TextPDFPubMedRelated articles Research article Cost-utility of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in unstable coronary artery disease Nicholson T, McGuire A, Milne R BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2001, 1:2 (15 October 2001) [Abstract] [Full text] [PDF] [PubMed] [Related articles] Cost-utility of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in unstable coronary artery diseaseAbstractFull textPDFPubMedRelated articles Oral presentation Recruiting and supporting consumers in prioritising research topics Royle J, Oliver S BMC Meeting Abstracts: 9th International Cochrane Colloquium 2001, 1:op014 (26 August 2001) [Abstract] Recruiting and supporting consumers in prioritising research topicsAbstract Oral presentation Pathways to evidence based reproductive healthcare in developing countries Geyoushi B, Stones W BMC Meeting Abstracts: 9th International Cochrane Colloquium 2001, 1:op048 (26 August 2001) [Abstract] Pathways to evidence based reproductive healthcare in developing countriesAbstract

39 Directory of Open Access Journals Compiled by Lund University 2003 The directory only contains fulltext, open access scientific and scholarly journals that use an appropriate quality control system to guarantee the content >520 journal titles (Apr 03 = 480) All peer reviewed Increasing coverage by ISI Agriculture and Food SciencesAgriculture and Food Sciences Arts and Architecture Biology and LifeArts and ArchitectureBiology and Life SciencesSciences Business and Economics Chemistry Earth and EnvironmentalBusiness and EconomicsChemistryEarth and Environmental SciencesSciences Health SciencesHistory and Archaeology Languages andHealth SciencesHistory and ArchaeologyLanguages and LiteraturesLiteratures Law and Political Science Mathematics and statisticsLaw and Political ScienceMathematics and statistics Philosophy and ReligionPhilosophy and Religion Physics and Astronomy Social SciencesPhysics and AstronomySocial Sciences Technology and Engineering

40 Crisis in Scholarly Communication new alternate models Open Access Journals Open Archive Initiative

41 Open Archives Subject based e-Print archives (centred on author deposit) Pioneering example is ArXiv set up by Paul Ginsparg at Los Alamos in 1991ArXiv Successful in limited subject areas Free EPrints Software developed at Southampton to encourage more self archiving (JISC funding) Open Archive Initiative software standards developed to enable cross searching (OAI-PMH) Alternate models proposed based on institutional research output

42 JISC FAIR programme in the UK Focus on Access to Institutional Resources Inspired by the vision of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) that digital resources can be shared between organisations based on a simple mechanism allowing metadata about these resources to be harvested into services To support the disclosure of institutional assets: To support access to and sharing of institutional content within Higher Education and Further Education and to allow intelligence to be gathered about the technical, organisational and cultural challenges of these processes …

43 FAIR Programme £3 million on 14 projects starting August 2002 Clusters: Museums and Images E-Prints E-theses IPR Institutional portals

44 UK Focus on Access to Institutional Resources – e-Prints TARDis: Targeting Academic Resources for Deposit and dISclosure TARDis SHERPA: broader - Consortium of Research Libraries – filling archives and joint infrastructure SHERPA HaIRST: A testbed for Scotland HaIRST ePrints-UK :harvesting UK e-Print archives ePrints-UK

45 TARDis HEFCE – JISC Programme - Focus on Access to Institutional Resources (FAIR) £196,000 Aug 2002 – Jan 2005 (30 months) Cross University collaboration: University Library School of Electronics and Computer Sciences Information Systems and Services Academic Community!

46 Aim: to set up a sustainable Southampton e- Print archive e-Prints Soton Enhancing our version of software Feeding into EPrints software – future versions To gain content – full text documents Offering a mediated service in parallel Making easier to deposit Advocacy Project target – 2000 Pilot with 2 schools in progress

47 TARDIS Targeting Academic Research for Deposit and Disclosure Towards a sustainable e-Print service for Southampton research Multidisciplinary collections with views for communities Extended model with mediated deposit Input to design of the software to match institutional repositories needs

48 How to get institutional archives off the ground Looking at departmental practice – environmental assessment Modifying aspects of software relevant to working on a broader front Incorporating good library practice Involving HCI lecturer e.g. Submission process Publication types Format of output Involving other librarians and other e-Print archives

49 What are e-Prints? e-Prints are: electronic copies of any research output journal articles, book chapters, conference papers etc even multimedia they may include unpublished manuscripts and papers prepared for publication (as copyright allows) Also broader and narrower definitions: Academic output - Nottingham Peer-reviewed – Stevan Harnad An e-Print archive is an internet based repository of such digital scholarly publications which can provide immediate and free worldwide access benefiting both author and reader

50 Collection policy defined to be broad research output of University researchers

51 Why deposit your research in e-Prints Soton? To make your research more visible and available in electronic form To promote your work and that of other academics within your community at the University of Southampton To use it as a secure store for your research publications - which can help you to respond to the many requests for full text and publication data To contribute to national and global initiatives which will ensure an international audience for your latest research (other universities are developing their own archives which, together, will be searchable by global search tools)

52 How researchers make research available currently though the university web site Survey Central record of University research output not maintained. Retrospective central research publications listings collated from individual departments and made available on the web (University Research Report) Snapshot departmental recording practices Minimal to highly structured Variety of methods looked at web sites – personal and schools Example web site


54 Current practice at example departments

55 Local needs identified / wider issues Bibliographic records and full text Input publication data only once Help with file formats Integrating current records Import/export to other archives Satisfy variety of demands for publication records Copyright (Romeo project) Secure storage Quality control Peer review Workload Visibility Citation impact


57 Massaging deposit process in TARDIS

58 Policy maker involvement Benefits of an institutional repository: Raises profile of institution Manages digital institutional research assets Supports Research output measures e.g. RAE, research report funding agency requirements Endorse, encourage new deposits Encourage authors to amend copyright transfer

59 Upcoming UK Policy level event JISC seminar: Global Access to UK Research: Removing the barriers 20 November 2003 Universities UK, Woburn House, London

60 Can add additional text to copyright "I hereby transfer to all rights to sell or lease the text (on-paper and on-line) of my paper. I retain the right to distribute it for free for scholarly/scientific purposes, in particular, the right to self-archive it publicly online on the World Wide Web. The author/s hereby assert their moral rights in accordance with the UK Copyright Designs and Patents Act (1988)."

61 How can we start to integrate with school practice? Non-linear dynamics of a nematic liquid crystal in the presence of a shear flow E. Vicente Alonso, A.A. Wheeler and T.J. Sluckin Proc. Roy. Soc. A. 459, 195-220 (2003) [reprint] also pdf, ps and hardcopy [reprint] table=applied&uid=40618960c732ac68a7b5cf574a759ecc table=applied&uid=40618960c732ac68a7b5cf574a759ecc e_alonso_et_al_03.pdf e_alonso_et_al_03.pdf

62 A national vision – e-Prints + data + e- learning

63 Research visibility contributing to Research discovery – all becomes visible Local views – GIGA style services -- distributed searching? Global views – harvesting to search services Leading to research enhancement

64 Thank you from across the world more information Electronics and Computer Science – University of Southampton Focus on Access to Institutional Resources (FAIR) programme And soon e-Prints Soton and other UK archives and services joining with international initiatives to make research more visible and interactive

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