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Taxonomy & Metadata / Information Architecture Consulting Amy J. Warner, Ph.D. Metadata & Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture Information.

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Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy & Metadata / Information Architecture Consulting Amy J. Warner, Ph.D. Metadata & Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture Information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taxonomy & Metadata / Information Architecture Consulting Amy J. Warner, Ph.D. Metadata & Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture Information Architecture Summit March 16, 2002 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

2 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.2 Outline What Ill cover: –Metadata and IA. –Metadata schema. –Vocabulary development. Underlying themes: –Standards. –Reality. –Some IR (information retrieval) issues.

3 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.3 What is Metadata? Metadata is structured data which describes the characteristics of a resource. It shares many similar characteristics to the cataloguing that takes place in libraries, museums and archives. Chris Taylor University of Queensland

4 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.4 Types & Functions of Metadata Introduction to Metadata, Getty Information Institute

5 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.5 Confusing Terminology Controlled vocabularies –Subject Headings: traditionally employed in libraries to tag (index) the topics of books and other library materials –Thesauri: traditionally employed in abstracting & indexing services to tag (index) the topics of journal articles and other scholarly material in a given subject area (e.g. medicine, engineering) –Taxonomies: the classification of different organisms into mutually exclusive categories based on phylum species

6 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.6 Levels of Control Taxonomies

7 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.7 Metadata & IA Content Users Business Context Identify patterns in content Determine how target audience(s) search for and use information Determine how stakeholders want to organize &present their information

8 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.8 IA Generations Brochureware Pages served from database Metadata-driven website CMS

9 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.9 Metadata in Metadata-Driven Websites Metadata Records Content J. Jones xxxx White Paper Employees Author Title DocType Audience URL

10 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.10 Two Parts to Generating a Metadata Schema Decisions about indexable parameters (attributes, aspects) of documents; this corresponds to fields in the database records. Decisions about the elements (terms, descriptors, subject headings, tags) that these fields contain.

11 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.11 Two Possibilities Content already exists –Identify content that exists--content inventory. Most or all content does not exist –Use wish lists to identify desired content. To do content inventory, need to go to those who are going to develop, own, maintain content.

12 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.12 Content Analysis Look for patterns, similarities: –logical--themes, sensitivity, specialization. –physical--formats, dynamic vs. static (dated vs. rarely updated). Look for relationships--note connections between content (parent-child, sibling, dependencies. Begin to create groupings.

13 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.13 Generating a Metadata Table The beginning of a metadata-driven website. Determine the major indexable parameters or attributes for each major document type in your sample. Determine what major types of rules or general guidelines your indexing system will follow for each attribute. Create an X-by-Y table. Put indexable attributes on the X axis and the rules on the Y axis. Fill in the decisions you make about each rule application in the individual cells of the table.

14 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.14 Metadata Table

15 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.15 User and Stakeholder Involvement When organizing content, start with the content, generate the metadata, and then evaluate with users and stakeholders. When organizing entities (i.e. products, projects) where content is not the major focus, start with stakeholders and users to determine metadata.

16 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.16 Identify Terms Published Reference Materials –Thesauri, classification schemes, encyclopedias, dictionaries, glossaries, indexes. Content –Representative sample of web site / intranet. Users –Search log analysis, surveys, interviews. Experts –Authors, subject experts.

17 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.17 Organize Terms Define preferred terms. Link synonyms and variants. Synonym Rings Group preferred terms by subject. Identify broader and narrower terms. Taxonomies / Hierarchies Identify related terms. Thesauri

18 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.18 Variant Terms Variant terms provide the user with entry points into the vocabulary. Synonyms (same meaning): cats USE felines helicopters USE whirlybirds Lexical Variants (different word forms): paediatrics USE pediatrics BK USE Burger King Quasi-Synonyms (treated as equivalent): generic posting: beagle USE dog antonyms/continuum: wetness USE dryness

19 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.19 Term Specificity Assuming a good entry vocabulary, increased term specificity allows for improved precision without hurting recall (but costs grow fast). Vocabulary AVocabulary B United StatesUnited States California San Diego

20 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.20 Compound Terms Article Title: Software for Information Architects

21 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.21 Facets Things (entities) Concepts Processes People Organizations Occupations etc. Topic Audience Intellectual Level Form Type Language Date etc. Facets of a Topic Facets of Documents Aspects of Documents to Index Controlled Vocabular(ies)

22 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.22 Facet Analysis Facets come from content inventory, intuition, and users. Break domain into logical categories or chunks based on how documents need to be managed (both for system and for search).

23 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.23 Polyhierarchy Strict Hierarchies –Each term appears in only one place in the hierarchy. –Essential for placement of physical objects. Polyhierarchies –Terms cross-listed in multiple categories – Accepts complex nature of reality.

24 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.24 Polyhierarchy Compound terms needed to manage 6 million documents in Medline. High level of pre-coordination forces polyhierarchy. Terms may have more than one BT. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

25 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.25 Facets, Coordination, Specificity

26 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.26 Semantic Relationships Equivalence: –Use/Used For (USE/UF) –Leads from variants to preferred e.g., prams: USE baby carriages

27 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.27 Semantic Relationships Hierarchical: –Broader Term/Narrower Term (BT/NT) Types –Generic (class/species, inheritance) Vertebrata NT Amphibia –Whole-Part (associative unless exclusive) Ear NT Vestibular Apparatus –Instance (proper name) Seas NT Mediterranean Sea

28 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.28 Semantic Relationships Associative: –Related Term (RT, See Also) –Non-hierarchical and non-equivalent –Relation should be strongly implied e.g., hammers RT nails

29 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.29 Associative Relationships Field of Study and Object of Study: –Forestry RT Forests Process and its Agent: –Temperature Control RT Thermostat Concepts and their Properties: –Poisons RT Toxicity Action and Product of Action: –Weaving RT Cloth Concepts Linked by Causal Dependence: –Bereavement RT Death

30 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.30 Leveraging the Thesaurus User Interface: –Generate browsable indexes (site-wide, sub-site, specialized authority lists). –Enable Field-Specific Searching (filters, zones, sorting). –Support personalization (map profile to vocabulary). Behind the Scenes: –Enable efficient content management. –Support decentralized tagging.

31 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.31 Uses of Metadata-Driven Website Routing Search Navigation

32 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.32 Routing Document StreamMetadata FilterDocument Subset From Individual Contributors or Syndication Service Profile or Filter

33 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.33 Generalizations about Routing Can be push or pull. Can be driven by various metadata elements (e.g., audience, topic, etc.). May have both internal and external metadata schemes to consider; mapping may be an important issue.

34 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.34 Searching User QueryDatabasesDocument Subset Metadata Records

35 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.35

36 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.36 Epicurious, First Facet Browse > Picnics

37 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.37 Facets Beans, Beef, Berries, Cheese, Chocolate, Citrus, Dairy, Eggs, Fish, Fruits, Garlic, Ginger, Grains, Greens, Herbs, Lamb, Mushrooms, Mustard, Nuts, Olives, Onions, Pasta, Peppers, Pork, Potatoes, Poultry, Rice, Shellfish, Tomatoes, Vegetables Main Ingredients African, American, Asian, Caribbean, Eastern European, French, Greek, Indian, Italian, Jewish, Mediterranean, Mexican, Middle Eastern, Scandinavian, Spanish Cuisine Advance, Bake, Broil, Fry, Grill, Marinade, Microwave, No Cook, Poach, Quick, Roast, Sauté, Slow Cook, Steam, Stir Fry Preparation Method Christmas, Easter, Fall, Fourth of July, Hanukkah, New Years, Picnics, Spring, Summer, Superbowl, Thanksgiving, Valentine's Day, Winter Season/Occasion Appetizers, Bread, Breakfast, Brunch, Condiments, Cookies, Desserts, Hors D'oeuvres, Main Dish, Salads, Sandwiches, Sauces, Side Dish, Snacks, Soup, Vegetables Course/Dish

38 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.38 Epicurious, Second Facet Browse > Picnics > Poultry

39 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.39 Integration of Search and Browse

40 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.40 Integration of Search and Browse

41 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.41 Advanced Search

42 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.42 Generalizations about Search & Navigation The relationship between the metadata and search engine capabilities is crucial. Controlled vocabulary and keyword searching are often both enabled. Navigation and search are often both provided as complements to each other.

43 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.43 Contact: Amy J. Warner, Ph.D. Questions??

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