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Metadata & Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture

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Presentation on theme: "Metadata & Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture"— Presentation transcript:

1 Metadata & Taxonomies for a More Flexible Information Architecture
Information Architecture Summit March 16, 2002 Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

2 Outline What I’ll cover: Underlying themes: Metadata and IA.
Metadata schema. Vocabulary development. Underlying themes: Standards. Reality. Some IR (information retrieval) issues. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

3 What is Metadata? Metadata is structured data which describes the characteristics of a resource. It shares many similar characteristics to the cataloguing that takes place in libraries, museums and archives. Chris Taylor University of Queensland Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

4 Types & Functions of Metadata
Introduction to Metadata, Getty Information Institute Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

5 Confusing Terminology
Controlled vocabularies Subject Headings: traditionally employed in libraries to tag (index) the topics of books and other library materials Thesauri: traditionally employed in abstracting & indexing services to tag (index) the topics of journal articles and other scholarly material in a given subject area (e.g. medicine, engineering) Taxonomies: the classification of different organisms into mutually exclusive categories based on phylum  species Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

6 Levels of Control Taxonomies Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

7 Metadata & IA Users Business Context Content Determine how
target audience(s) search for and use information Content Users Business Context Identify patterns in content Determine how stakeholders want to organize &present their information Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

8 IA ‘Generations’ ‘Brochureware’ Pages served from database
Metadata-driven website CMS Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

9 Metadata in Metadata-Driven Websites
Author Title DocType Audience URL J. Jones xxxx White Paper Employees Metadata Records Content Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

10 Two Parts to Generating a Metadata Schema
Decisions about indexable parameters (attributes, aspects) of documents; this corresponds to fields in the database records. Decisions about the elements (terms, descriptors, subject headings, tags) that these fields contain. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

11 Two Possibilities Content already exists
Identify content that exists--content inventory. Most or all content does not exist Use ‘wish lists’ to identify desired content. To do content inventory, need to go to those who are going to develop, own, maintain content. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

12 Content Analysis Look for patterns, similarities:
logical--themes, sensitivity, specialization. physical--formats, dynamic vs. static (dated vs. rarely updated). Look for relationships--note connections between content (parent-child, sibling, dependencies. Begin to create groupings. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

13 Generating a Metadata Table
The beginning of a metadata-driven website. Determine the major indexable parameters or attributes for each major document type in your sample. Determine what major types of rules or general guidelines your indexing system will follow for each attribute. Create an X-by-Y table. Put indexable attributes on the X axis and the rules on the Y axis. Fill in the decisions you make about each rule application in the individual cells of the table. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

14 Metadata Table Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

15 User and Stakeholder Involvement
When organizing content, start with the content, generate the metadata, and then evaluate with users and stakeholders. When organizing entities (i.e. products, projects) where content is not the major focus, start with stakeholders and users to determine metadata. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

16 Identify Terms Published Reference Materials Content Users Experts
Thesauri, classification schemes, encyclopedias, dictionaries, glossaries, indexes. Content Representative sample of web site / intranet. Users Search log analysis, surveys, interviews. Experts Authors, subject experts. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

17 Organize Terms Define preferred terms.
Link synonyms and variants. Synonym Rings Group preferred terms by subject. Identify broader and narrower terms. Taxonomies / Hierarchies Identify related terms. Thesauri Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

18 Variant Terms Variant terms provide the user with entry
points into the vocabulary. Synonyms (same meaning): cats USE felines helicopters USE whirlybirds Lexical Variants (different word forms): paediatrics USE pediatrics BK USE Burger King Quasi-Synonyms (treated as equivalent): generic posting: beagle USE dog antonyms/continuum: wetness USE dryness Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

19 Term Specificity Assuming a good entry vocabulary, increased term specificity allows for improved precision without hurting recall (but costs grow fast). Vocabulary A Vocabulary B United States United States California San Diego Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

20 Compound Terms Article Title: “Software for Information Architects”
Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

21 Facets Facets of a Topic Facets of Documents Topic Things (entities)
Concepts Processes People Organizations Occupations etc. Topic Audience Intellectual Level Form Type Language Date Facets of a Topic Facets of Documents Aspects of Documents to Index Controlled Vocabular(ies) Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

22 Facet Analysis Facets come from content inventory, intuition, and users. Break domain into logical categories or chunks based on how documents need to be managed (both for system and for search). Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

23 Polyhierarchy Strict Hierarchies Polyhierarchies
Each term appears in only one place in the hierarchy. Essential for placement of physical objects. Polyhierarchies Terms cross-listed in multiple categories Accepts complex nature of reality. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

24 Polyhierarchy Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
Compound terms needed to manage 6 million documents in Medline. High level of pre-coordination forces polyhierarchy. Terms may have more than one BT. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

25 Facets, Coordination, Specificity
Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

26 Semantic Relationships
Equivalence: Use/Used For (USE/UF) Leads from variants to preferred e.g., prams: USE baby carriages Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

27 Semantic Relationships
Hierarchical: Broader Term/Narrower Term (BT/NT) Types Generic (class/species, inheritance) Vertebrata NT Amphibia Whole-Part (associative unless exclusive) Ear NT Vestibular Apparatus Instance (proper name) Seas NT Mediterranean Sea Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

28 Semantic Relationships
Associative: Related Term (RT, See Also) Non-hierarchical and non-equivalent Relation should be “strongly implied” e.g., hammers RT nails Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

29 Associative Relationships
Field of Study and Object of Study: Forestry RT Forests Process and its Agent: Temperature Control RT Thermostat Concepts and their Properties: Poisons RT Toxicity Action and Product of Action: Weaving RT Cloth Concepts Linked by Causal Dependence: Bereavement RT Death Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

30 Leveraging the Thesaurus
User Interface: Generate browsable indexes (site-wide, sub-site, specialized authority lists). Enable Field-Specific Searching (filters, zones, sorting). Support personalization (map profile to vocabulary). Behind the Scenes: Enable efficient content management. Support decentralized tagging. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

31 Uses of Metadata-Driven Website
Routing Search Navigation Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

32 Routing Document Stream Metadata Filter Document Subset
From Individual Contributors or Syndication Service Profile or Filter Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

33 Generalizations about Routing
Can be ‘push’ or ‘pull’. Can be driven by various metadata elements (e.g., audience, topic, etc.). May have both internal and external metadata schemes to consider; mapping may be an important issue. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

34 Searching Searching User Query Databases Document Subset http://….
Metadata Records Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

35 Epicurious.com Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

36 Epicurious, First Facet
Browse > Picnics Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

37 Epicurious.com Facets Main Ingredients Season/Occasion Cuisine
Beans, Beef, Berries, Cheese, Chocolate, Citrus, Dairy, Eggs, Fish, Fruits, Garlic, Ginger, Grains, Greens, Herbs, Lamb, Mushrooms, Mustard, Nuts, Olives, Onions, Pasta, Peppers, Pork, Potatoes, Poultry, Rice, Shellfish, Tomatoes, Vegetables Christmas, Easter, Fall, Fourth of July, Hanukkah, New Years, Picnics, Spring, Summer, Superbowl, Thanksgiving, Valentine's Day, Winter Cuisine Course/Dish African, American, Asian, Caribbean, Eastern European, French, Greek, Indian, Italian, Jewish, Mediterranean, Mexican, Middle Eastern, Scandinavian, Spanish Appetizers, Bread, Breakfast, Brunch, Condiments, Cookies, Desserts, Hors D'oeuvres, Main Dish, Salads, Sandwiches, Sauces, Side Dish, Snacks, Soup, Vegetables Preparation Method Advance, Bake, Broil, Fry, Grill, Marinade, Microwave, No Cook, Poach, Quick, Roast, Sauté, Slow Cook, Steam, Stir Fry Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

38 Epicurious, Second Facet
Browse > Picnics > Poultry Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

39 Integration of Search and Browse
Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

40 Integration of Search and Browse
Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

41 Amazon.com Advanced Search
Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

42 Generalizations about Search & Navigation
The relationship between the metadata and search engine capabilities is crucial. Controlled vocabulary and keyword searching are often both enabled. Navigation and search are often both provided as complements to each other. Amy J. Warner, Ph.D.

43 Contact: Amy J. Warner, Ph.D. Questions?? warneramyj@yahoo.com


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