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Southampton Institutional Research Repository University Medical School Librarians Group (UMSLG) 7-8 July 2005 University of Edinburgh Pauline Simpson.

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Presentation on theme: "Southampton Institutional Research Repository University Medical School Librarians Group (UMSLG) 7-8 July 2005 University of Edinburgh Pauline Simpson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Southampton Institutional Research Repository University Medical School Librarians Group (UMSLG) 7-8 July 2005 University of Edinburgh Pauline Simpson

2 National Oceanography Centre, Southampton NOC is one of the worlds leading centres for research and education in marine and earth sciences, for the development of marine technology and for the provision of large scale infrastructure and support for the marine research community Joint Venture between Natural Environment Research Council and the University of Southampton Research-led multidisciplinary university: 20,000 students 5000 staff (3000 researchers)

3 Multidisciplinary University (20 schools) Engineering, Science and Mathematics Law, Arts and Social Sciences Medicine, Health and Life Sciences Centres/Institutes Joint Ventures Professional Services

4 Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences School of Biological Sciences School of Health Professions and Rehab Sciences School of Health Professions and Rehab Sciences School of Medicine School of Nursing and Midwifery School of Psychology Health Care Innovation Unit. Health Care Innovation Unit

5 Outline Open Access Context OA Routes : publishing and repositories Southampton case study

6 Open Access Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. OA should be immediate, rather than delayed, and OA should apply to the full-text, not just to abstracts or summaries. OA removes price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per- view fees) and permission barriers (most copyright and licensing restrictions). See JISC briefing paper on Open Access April 2005

7 Historical Context: Subversive Proposal (1994) 27 Jun 1994 Stevan Harnads Subversive Proposal leading to the open access vision for scholarly material ( Faustian Bargain with publishers – a price tag barrier to research) –Harnad, S. (1995) A Subversive Proposal. In: Ann Okerson & James O'Donnell (Eds.) Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: a Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. Washington, DC., Association of Research Libraries, June 1995. –In an ideal world of scholarly communication – all research should be freely available

8 But journals become more and more expensive (serials crisis) journals are the primary research publication channel journal publishing is dominated by commercial ventures Researchers write papers for journals (free or page charges!) Researchers transfer copyright to publishers (free) Researchers on Editorial Board (free) Researchers review papers (free) BUT Libraries pay huge subscriptions to publishers to access the paper(and electronic) and universities pay more than once: subscription, photocopying license and for study packs Or possibly they cannot afford the subscription

9 The Global Journals Problem Dissatisfaction with the current scholarly communication model Even the wealthiest institution cannot purchase access to all the information that all of its researchers require Site-licenses and consortia deals have helped, but mainly in the richest countries; though good examples of deals for developing countries (INASP) Many commercial publishers charge extra for online access – so causing more pressure on budgets

10 PROJECTED PERIODICAL PRICE INCREASES TO 2020 ( Blixrud 2002) 1774 % 1986-2000 Journal price inflation+291% Retail price index + 70% 1986-2000 Journal price inflation+291% Retail price index + 70%

11 The Situation Today – Dissatisfaction at All Levels Authors Their work is not seen by all their peers – they do not get the recognition they desire Despite subscriptions, they often have to pay page charges, colour figure charges, reprint charges, etc. Often the rights they have given up in exchange for publication mean there are things that they cannot do with their own work Readers They cannot view all the research literature they need – they are less effective Libraries Cannot satisfy the information needs of their users Society We all lose out if the communication channels are not optimal.

12 Solution – alter the research landscape Open Access to Research freely accessible, more visible, immediately available, free at the point of use 2 complementary routes –Open access journals No payment by author = open access or subscription Publishing model – author pays = OA –Open access archives or repositories Author deposit of full text of articles, conference papers, reports, theses, learning objects, multimedia etc. - Scoped by need

13 Open Access – gaining high level support Political Interest: – UK Science and Technology Committee Inquiry: Scientific Publications: Free for all? Jun 2004 (82 recommendations) Require that authors deposit a copy of their articles in their institutions repository within one month of publication. Review copyright and, provided it does not have a negative impact make it a condition of grant that authors retain copyright in their papers. Provide as part of research grants, monies to allow payment of charges for publication in Open Access journals Institutional Repositories –UK HEIs to set up IRs –Response – up to institutions –British Library to be supported to provide digital preservation

14 Open Access – gaining high level support US Congress working with National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop new access policy (Feb 2005) – Copies of all papers reporting research funded by NIH ($28 billion) will be deposited in PubMed Central by date specified by the author as soon as possible after acceptance of final peer reviewed manuscript ( and within 12 months of the publisher's official date of final publication) Approximately 60,000 papers each year will be made freely available

15 Open Access – gaining high level support The Wellcome Trust announced (May 2005) that from 1st October 2005, all papers from new research projects must be deposited in PubMed Central or a UK PubMed Central – once it has been formed - within 6 months of publication. Looking for partners to set up UK PubMed Central £400 million producing 3500 papers per year (PubMed Central Feb 2000 - )

16 Reflects the view of 8 research councils (28 Jun 2005) Mandate Research Grants awarded from 1 October 2005 will require grant holders to copy any resultant published journal articles or conference proceedings in an appropriate e-print repository either institutional or thematic Subject to copyright and licensing arrangements Wherever possible at or around the time of publication No obligation to set up a repository where none exists at present Will allow applicants to include predicted cost of publication in author-pays journals in fEC project costings

17 RCUK Next steps RCUK Position Statement published on the RCUK website on 28 June 2005 Remains a consultative document until 31 August 2005 while: The remaining HEI responses are collected Formal comments from the British Library are awaited RCUK engages in detailed dialogue with the Learned Societies on a possible future role for them in the peer review process Continue in a wider grouping to address other concerns eg Preservation

18 Open access – gaining high level support Funders indicate commitment to open access through endorsement Howard Hughes & Andrew Mellon Foundations in USA fund OA/IR Projects –Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access 2003 Germany: Fraunhofer Society, Wissenschaftsrat, HRK, Max Planck Society, Leibniz Association, Helmholtz Association, German Research Foundation, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband France: CNRS, INSERM Austria: FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds Belgium: Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen) Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation

19 Open Access – gaining high level support Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development …an optimum international exchange of data, information and knowledge contributes decisively to the advancement of scientific research and innovation and …open access will maximise the value derived from public investment in data collection efforts. *** 30+ nations have signed

20 Declarations on Open Access Peter Suber - Timeline of the Open Access Movement - The IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (Max Planck) (Oct 2003) Now nearly 50 signatories Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (Jun 2003) Buenos Aires British Columbia Scotland (2005) 16 Universities and Research Orgs Russell Group (UK Universities) 2005 Budapest Open Access Initiative Feb 2002 (Soros Open Society)

21 Budapest Open Access Initiative 2002 Open Society Institute (George Soros) offered funding to achieve Two complementary strategies: Self-Archiving: Scholars should be able to deposit their refereed journal articles in open electronic archives which conform to Open Archives Initiative standards - OAI Metadata Harvesting Protocol which creates potential for interoperability between Repositories by enabling metadata from a number of archives to be collected together in one searchable database. Open-Access Journals: Journals will not charge subscriptions or fees for online access. Instead, they should look to other sources to fund peer-review and publication (e.g., publication charges)

22 Open Access Journals Ideally Peer reviewed articles Accessed online without charge No author/page charges Publishers model –No Author payment = subscription (toll) access –Author pays – open access BioMed Central - $500 per article Public Library of Science - $1500 National Academy Of Sciences - $1000 American Institute of Physics - $2000 European Geosciences Union - $20 per page

23 Theory Into Practice - Open Access Journals PLoS Biology (launched October 2003) and PLoS Medicine (launched October 2004) BioMed Central (published 4500+ papers) and now cited in ISI journals building Impact Factors New Journal of Physics Indian Academy of Sciences (Learned Society) has made their 11 journals available free online Lund Directory of Open Access Journals – over 1641 peer review open access journals (



26 The alternative : Repositories ( open archives, e-Print archives) JISC Report Delivery, Management and Access Model for e-Prints and open access journals … (Jul 2004) makes distinction - e-Print Archives = material in journals; e-Print Repositories = grey literature and other data as well as published journal materials Digital collections of research output placed there by their authors, either before or after publication: What are the essential elements? Institutionally, subject or nationally defined: Content generated by the community Scholarly content:, published articles, books, book sections, preprints and working papers, conference papers, enduring teaching materials, student theses, data-sets, etc. Cumulative & perpetual: preserve ongoing access to material Interoperable & open access: free, online, global

27 Repository benefits For the Individual Provide a central archive of their work Increase the dissemination and impact of their research Acts as a full CV and research reporting tool For the Institution Increases visibility and prestige Acts as an advertisement to funding sources, potential new faculty and students, etc. For Society Provide access to the worlds research Ensures long-term preservation of institutes academic output

28 Repository Choices Institutions Departments Disciplines Long term projects Funding Agencies Conferences Publishers Personal National International ( Internet Archive – Universal ) Data Archives Institutional Archives Registry Directory of Open Access Repositories – Lund University and Nottingham University UK



31 Discipline based repositories Early e-Print services subject based and hosted by a single institution. Rely on distributed researchers remotely depositing their papers using the self archiving protocol –ArXiv (Los Alamos now at Cornell) (1991) set up by Paul Ginsparg and Richard Luce for high energy physics community ( now physics incl Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Math, Computing Science and nonlinear science). Despite success of Los Alamos and others - RePec (Economics), Cogprints (Cognitive Psychology), Mathematics, etc – varying success by other subject communities (Chemistry Preprints Server finished)

32 Institutional Repositories contents of these archives are created and stored locally in an archive specific to and limited to one institution. 2000 - Complementary model - Offering both self archiving and mediated archiving to researchers –Institutions can provide the supporting technical, organisational and cultural infrastructure –Direct interest in exposing their research output –Promote the institutions research profile

33 National Repositories Service Provider (national aggregator) EPrints UK – harvesting from all UK repositories (enhancing metadata using OCLC Automated Subject Classification protocol and name authority service)


35 Centralised: regionally- or nationally-organised, or subject-based contents are created in individual member institutions which upload to one centralised one DARE, the Dutch Digital Academic Archives This is a collaborative venture between all Dutch universities ( ODINPubAfrica = National, Subject repository for the ocean data and information community in Africa. Deposits to one central repository )

36 OAI Gateway Specification – Static Repository Institutions that do not have an OAI repository can utilise the newly developed OAI gateway specification. This development is intended to lower the barriers to making metadata available through the OAI. It works on the basic principle that metadata can be encoded in an XML file (conforming to a specific schema) and mounted of a standard web site, e.g. an authors or institutions home page. This file is known as a static repository. The URL of the static repository can be registered with an entity known as a static repository gateway. The gateway reads the metadata file and incorporates it into a fully compliant OAI-PMH service that can subsequently respond to OAI requests. The idea is that metadata can be made available from standard web sites and Incorporated into an OAI environment.

37 Repositories: a truly global movement Australian National University ARROW Project - Au$12 million Canada – CARL Project (DEST) Netherlands – DARE Project (SURF) Hong Kong University Humboldt University in Berlin Max Planck Society Utrecht, Lund, MIT, CalTech, Library of Congress UK – JISC FAIR Project - UK – Glasgow, Nottingham, Edinburgh, Southampton, Oxford, Cambridge, Bristol ….. nb. Led by Librarians

38 UK Context HEFCE / JISC Focus on Access to Institutional Resources (FAIR) 2002 - 2005 –To support the disclosure of institutional assets: To support access to and sharing of institutional content within Higher Education and Further Education and to allow intelligence to be gathered about the technical, organisational and cultural challenges of these processes … Inspired by the vision of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) that digital resources can be shared between organisations based on a simple mechanism allowing metadata about these resources to be harvested into services

39 ? why INSTITUTIONAL Repositories Subject or project repositories often linked to an individual or a group – can be transitory - collection at risk eg. Paul Ginsparg to Cornell Institutions take responsibility for –Centralising a distributed activity –Framework and Infrastructure –Permanence that can sustain changes –Stewardship of digital assets –Preservation –Provide central digital showcase for the research, teaching and scholarship of the institution

40 UK Context - FAIR JISC FAIR Programme August 2002 - £3 million on 14 projects Clusters: Museums and Images e-Prints e-theses IPR Institutional portals (New Call for Digital Repositories Proposals in Feb & Jun 2005)

41 FAIR - ePrints Cluster Sharing experiences : SHERPA: broader - Consortium of University Research Libraries – filling archives and joint infrastructure ( some 20 universities led by Nottingham University) HaIRST: A testbed for Scotland for harvesting Institutional resources led by Strathclyde University (includes 10 FE colleges) Daedalus : Glasgow University ePrints-UK :harvesting UK e-Print archives (E-Theses led by Robert Gordon University & Theses Alive led by Edinburgh University and RoMEo worked within this cluster) TARDis: Targeting Academic Resources for Deposit and Dissemination

42 TARDis built on Southampton visions EPrints software had been created at School of Electronics and Computer Science (ECS), Southampton to enable the self archive vision ECS already used the software for a publications database – now a sustainable repository National Oceanography Centre was an early adopter of e-Prints culture Resulting TARDis Project is the collaboration of The University Library, School of Electronics and Computer Science, and Information Systems Services alongside academics as one institution

43 TARDis : Targeting Academic Resources for Deposit and Dissemination – activities Investigating practical ways in which university research output can be made more freely available - more accessible, more rapidly – as a fundamental building block of e-Research Creating an IR model - Southampton University Research e-Prints (e-Prints Soton) Refining Software -feeding back into pioneering EPrints software, good citation and information management practice experimenting with best balance of assisted deposit and fast track ( functionality, fields, interface) Supporting ease of use for depositors of different backgrounds with a wide variety of research output – essential ingredient, working closely with schools(found that depends so much on publication culture and working practices ) – identifying barriers

44 TARDis evolution to e-Prints Soton Original intent to provide secure storage for the full text of Southampton research output (including post refereed pre published versions of papers deposited by researchers) Feedback: from our advocacy, pilot and full service was that e-Prints Soton would provide maximum benefit if the service also assisted researchers with time consuming research metrics Evolved to hybrid publications database for all research output with full text where available

45 e-Prints Soton evolution: aiming for full moon at midnight 3 41 2

46 Environmental Audit - assessing current practice

47 Institutional Repository – Advocacy Advocacy needs to be intensive, constant : enthusiast with network and presentation and debating skills, sensitive to organization/school culture Medicine –Already use web pages –Already use PubMed –Already have their own publications database –Download –Require sophistication of software before depositing Authentication, versioning –Only refereed articles Open access journal article discussion (BioMed) –RAE driver Nursing and Midwifery –Keyed in 4 years data within a month

48 Institutional Repositories – author surveys JISC/OSI Journal Authors Survey (3000 researchers) –69% would deposit in IR if required by employer –3% would not be prepared to do so –66% thought archiving in IR important –60% thought publishers should allow it –75% authors not familiar with IRs – advocacy needed! SOUTHAMPTON SURVEY –93% prefer mediated deposit!! Researchers have many concerns : Discipline differences workload, status quo; content quality control; authentication, versioning control and of course Copyright

49 Institutional Repository – Copyright (incl IPR) Rapidly changing publishers attitudes - moving goalposts! Traditionally authors sign over copyright, whether they own it or not! As a guide traditional copyright agreements have not allowed authors to: –Reuse an article as a chapter in a book –Revise or adapt an article –Distribute an article to colleagues –Reproduce copies of an article for teaching purposes –Self archive/make available an article in an repository –But now 76% of journals allow deposit in institutional repositories – places to check Publishers Copyright policies database –Publishers who permit self archiving – dynamic search Journals Copyright Policies



52 Policy into Practice (1) The Name! Mandatory Use – dovetailing with present working practices Scope - What to deposit - all Research Output, excluding learning objects or administrative documents (at present). Current research or legacy? Who can Deposit – what size of footprint? Database - one for ease of maintenance (Nottingham x 2; Glasgow x 3) Software – multiple choices - OSI Directory of IR Software Essential technical support : customization, functionality Deposit Options – we offer choice : self, assisted and fast track deposit Mandatory Metadata fields – document dependent - sufficient for citation but too many = barrier to deposit Metadata quality – all data is validated. Institutional responsibility requires quality data. QA is labour intensive – what level? Submitted data often poor

53 Policy into Practice (2) Value Added – e-journal URL and abstract Full Text v Record – policy linked to Southampton needs, requests for copies Import Records – from subject repositories - arXiv, PubMed Central - from in house publication databases File Formats – accept a variety – discipline specific, but thinking about easy dissemination versus preservation. File Conversion - Word into pdf, but wish to add conversion tools to interface with guidance for depositors Digitization – offer scanning for illustrations not held electronically if text deposited Preservation - secure storage is offered.

54 Legal Issues Deposit Agreement and User Agreement Legal documents? Acceptance by click or proceeding through - Withdrawal of records - Quality assurance - not of content appoint editors within research groups - IPR Important to link with your Legal Affairs Office

55 Policy into Practice - lessons Choose optimum time to introduce - Southampton restructuring Interface aesthetics - look and feel is important Metadata quality is a huge issue Assisted deposit is time consuming Sophisticated software functionality expectations by researchers Need Champions within your organization ….. Dedicated Technical, Advocacy & Admin support

56 Institutional Repository – support Staff Support / Maintenance (2-3 FTE) - Technical Upgrades, interface, functionality –Information Managers Advocacy, copyright advice, metadata guidance (School Liaison Librarians) –Administrative Metadata validation, workflows, documentation, quality assurance ( Institutional Repository implies guarantee of quality) Nb. Researcher self deposit is the goal

57 Feedback: Perceived benefits to University, Schools and Researchers Secure storage of publications –including also theses and dissertations, technical reports Links to projects and web pages Research reporting Interdisciplinary research University profile School and discipline visibility Researcher profile Full text content freely accessible link to learning and teaching Increased citations Articles freely available online are more highly cited. For greater impact and faster scientific progress, authors and publishers should aim to make research easy to access Nature, Volume 411, Number 6837, p. 521, 2001 Steve Lawrence Online or Invisible?

58 Achieving a slower but more sustainable model – the TARDis road To achieve the original vision we are moving around the clock face Collaborating with academics to provide tailored valued services for different disciplines (needing extra functionality) Aided by a fast moving shared international movement All rising to great place is by a winding stair Francis Bacon 3 41 2

59 Southampton Press Release 15 Dec 2004 'We see our Institutional Repository as a key tool for the stewardship of the University's digital research assets,' said Professor Paul Curran, Deputy Vice-Chancellor of the University. 'It will provide greater access to our research, as well as offering a valuable mechanism for reporting and recording it. University funded service managed by the University Library

60 Researchers want to provide one record For many purposes ….. External and internal visibility

61 Showing benefit of high profile Global Web Search Engines - indexed by Google and Google Scholar and SCOPUS …

62 Global repository search – OAIster now partnered with Yahoo

63 Link to personal web pages – auto update

64 Share the glory (interdisciplinary papers) and sell your book too

65 Secure storage and visibility – branding for a research group

66 Adding more functionality with Latest feeds – by web site and screen at entrance

67 Screen in foyer – is my paper there?

68 Hot off the screen

69 RAE management potential Simpson, Pauline and Hey, Jessie (2005) Forward in time: TARDis and the RAE. JISC Inform, No. 8, p.16.

70 Select your Research Assessment Exercise choices

71 Add measures of esteem

72 Data available to Head of School New JISC Project to design RAE module for use within EPrints and DSpace software

73 Then (2002) and Now (2005) Open Access little known –High level support –Open access publishing –Open access repositories Authors non acceptance –surveys Copyright transfer –License to Publish Publishers –Changing policies –New publishing models Software, few options –Multiple, open source Funders no support –Mandate deposit

74 Scholarly knowledge cycle – a national vision - today: e-Prints + data + e-learning When data and documents will be linked automatically and easily accessible They will be an integral part of the academic work space just as the World Wide Web is today The Web will acquire meaning and become the Semantic Web Open Archive protocols and metadata standards are a part of this journey

75 Next phase includes building on TARDis (sequel) TARDis completed its transition to invisibility early in 2005 –PRESERV (Preservation Services for EPrints) - partnering with National Archives File Format Registry (PRONOM) and the British Library –CLADDIER (Citation, Location and Deposition in Discipline and Institutional Repositories) Linking e-Research. – partnering CCLRC, Reading, NERC –GRADE (Geospatial Repositories …) – partnering EDINA Back to the Future !!

76 Pauline Simpson (ps THANK YOU

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