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Open Access and Repositories Pauline Simpson National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK ASFA Board Meeting 08 Oct 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Open Access and Repositories Pauline Simpson National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK ASFA Board Meeting 08 Oct 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Open Access and Repositories Pauline Simpson National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK ASFA Board Meeting 08 Oct 2005

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3 National Oceanography Centre, Southampton NOC is one of the worlds leading centres for research and education in marine and earth sciences, for the development of marine technology and for the provision of large scale infrastructure and support for the marine research community University of Southampton Research-led multidisciplinary university: 20,000 students 5000 staff (3000 researchers)

4 Outline Open Access Open Access Scholarly Communication Scholarly Communication OA Support OA Support Solutions – Publishing and Repositories Solutions – Publishing and Repositories Repository Development Repository Development Some specifics Some specifics Building on Institutional Repositories Building on Institutional Repositories Contributing to the Knowledge Cycle Contributing to the Knowledge Cycle

5 Open Access What is it? What is it? Call for free, unrestricted access on the public internet to the literature that scholars give to the world without expectation of payment. Can be freely used for research, teaching and other purposes Call for free, unrestricted access on the public internet to the literature that scholars give to the world without expectation of payment. Can be freely used for research, teaching and other purposes Should be immediate, rather than delayed, and OA should apply to the Should be immediate, rather than delayed, and OA should apply to the full-text, not just to abstracts or summaries. full-text, not just to abstracts or summaries. Why? Why? Widen dissemination, accelerate research, enrich education, share learning among rich & poor nations, enhance return on taxpayer investment in research. Widen dissemination, accelerate research, enrich education, share learning among rich & poor nations, enhance return on taxpayer investment in research. How? How? By using existing funds to pay for dissemination, not access. By using existing funds to pay for dissemination, not access. By removing price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per-view By removing price barriers (subscriptions, licensing fees, pay-per-view fees) and permission barriers (most copyright and licensing restrictions). fees) and permission barriers (most copyright and licensing restrictions). See JISC briefing paper on Open Access April 2005 See JISC briefing paper on Open Access April

6 First Call for Open Access to Research 27 Jun 1994 Stevan Harnads Subversive Proposal leading to the open access vision for scholarly material 27 Jun 1994 Stevan Harnads Subversive Proposal leading to the open access vision for scholarly material ( Faustian Bargain with publishers – a price tag barrier to research) ( Faustian Bargain with publishers – a price tag barrier to research) Harnad, S. (1995) A Subversive Proposal. Harnad, S. (1995) A Subversive Proposal. In: Ann Okerson & James O'Donnell (Eds.) Scholarly Journals at In: Ann Okerson & James O'Donnell (Eds.) Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: a Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. the Crossroads: a Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. Washington, DC., Association of Research Libraries, June Washington, DC., Association of Research Libraries, June – In an ideal world of scholarly communication – all research should be freely available -

7 But journals are still becoming more and more expensive (serials crisis) journals are the primary research publication channel journals are the primary research publication channel journal publishing is dominated by commercial ventures journal publishing is dominated by commercial ventures Researchers write papers for journals (free or page charges!) Researchers write papers for journals (free or page charges!) Researchers transfer copyright to publishers (free) Researchers transfer copyright to publishers (free) Researchers on Editorial Board (free) Researchers on Editorial Board (free) Researchers review papers (free) Researchers review papers (free)BUT Libraries pay huge subscriptions to publishers to access the paper (and electronic) and universities pay more than once: subscription, photocopying license and for study packs Libraries pay huge subscriptions to publishers to access the paper (and electronic) and universities pay more than once: subscription, photocopying license and for study packs Or possibly they cannot afford the subscription Or possibly they cannot afford the subscription

8 PROJECTED PERIODICAL PRICE INCREASES TO 2020 (Blixrud 2002) Journal price inflation +291% Retail price index + 70% Journal price inflation +291% Retail price index + 70% 1774% Dissatisfaction with the current scholarly communication model Even the wealthiest institution cannot purchase access to all the information that all of its researchers require Site-licenses and consortia deals have helped, but mainly in the richest countries; though good examples of deals for developing countries (INASP) Many commercial publishers charge extra for online access – so causing more pressure on budgets

9 Open Access – Appeals to all the major stakeholders To the funders of research – both as a public service and as an increased return on their investment in research To the funders of research – both as a public service and as an increased return on their investment in research To the authors – it gives wider dissemination and impact To the authors – it gives wider dissemination and impact To readers – it gives them access to all primary literature, making the To readers – it gives them access to all primary literature, making the most important research tool more powerful most important research tool more powerful To editors and reviewers – they feel their work is more valued To editors and reviewers – they feel their work is more valued To the libraries –it allows them to meet the information needs of their To the libraries –it allows them to meet the information needs of their users users To the institutions – it increases their presence and prestige To the institutions – it increases their presence and prestige To small and society publishers – it gives them a survival strategy and To small and society publishers – it gives them a survival strategy and fits with their central remit fits with their central remit

10 Open Access – policy development Political Interest: UK Science and Technology Committee Inquiry: UK Science and Technology Committee Inquiry: Scientific Publications: Free for all? 2004 Scientific Publications: Free for all? 2004 Recommended that UK funding bodies should: Recommended that UK funding bodies should: Require that authors deposit a copy of their articles in their Require that authors deposit a copy of their articles in their institutions repository within one month of publication. institutions repository within one month of publication. Review copyright and, provided it does not have a negative impact Review copyright and, provided it does not have a negative impact make it a condition of grant that authors retain copyright make it a condition of grant that authors retain copyright in their papers. in their papers. Provide as part of research grants, monies to allow Provide as part of research grants, monies to allow payment of charges for publication in Open Access payment of charges for publication in Open Access journals. journals.

11 Open Access – policy development Political Interest : US Congress working with National Institutes US Congress working with National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop new access policy (Feb 2005) of Health (NIH) to develop new access policy (Feb 2005) Copies of all papers reporting research funded by NIH requested to be Copies of all papers reporting research funded by NIH requested to be deposited in PubMed Central within six months of deposited in PubMed Central within six months of publication publication Approximately 60,000 papers each year will be made freely Approximately 60,000 papers each year will be made freely available available

12 Open Access – policy development The Wellcome Trust announced (May 2005) that from 1st October 2005, all papers from new research projects must be deposited in PubMed Central or a UK PubMed Central – once it has been formed - within 6 months of publication. Looking for partners to set up UK PubMed Central £400 million producing 3500 papers per year (PubMed Central Feb )

13 Position Statement reflects the view of 8 research councils £3.5 bn (28 Jun 2005) £3.5 bn (28 Jun 2005)Mandate Research Grants awarded from ?1 October 2005? will require Research Grants awarded from ?1 October 2005? will require grant holders to copy any resultant published journal articles grant holders to copy any resultant published journal articles or conference proceedings in an appropriate e-print repository or conference proceedings in an appropriate e-print repository either institutional or thematic either institutional or thematic Subject to copyright and licensing arrangements Subject to copyright and licensing arrangements Wherever possible at or around the time of publication Wherever possible at or around the time of publication No obligation to set up a repository where none No obligation to set up a repository where none exists at present exists at present Will allow applicants to include predicted cost of publication in author-pays journals in fEC project costings Will allow applicants to include predicted cost of publication in author-pays journals in fEC project costings

14 Open Access - policy development for data Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development Economic, and Social Development …an optimum international exchange of data, information and knowledge contributes decisively to the advancement of scientific research and innovation and …open access will maximise the value derived from public investment in data collection efforts. …an optimum international exchange of data, information and knowledge contributes decisively to the advancement of scientific research and innovation and …open access will maximise the value derived from public investment in data collection efforts. *** 30+ nations have signed Working Party on Information Economy Dec 2004

15 Open Access – gaining funders support Funders indicated commitment to open access through seed funding and endorsement: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Andrew Mellon, Open Society Institute and JISC UK JISC UK Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access 2003 (50 + signatories) Berlin Declaration in Support of Open Access 2003 (50 + signatories) Germany: Fraunhofer Society, Wissenschaftsrat, HRK, Max Planck Society, Leibniz Association, Helmholtz Association, German Research Foundation, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband German Research Foundation, Deutscher Bibliotheksverband France: CNRS, INSERM Austria: FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds Belgium: Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen) Vlaanderen) Greece: National Hellenic Research Foundation

16 Declarations supporting Open Access [ Peter Suber - Timeline of the Open Access Movement - The IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation The IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation India, Australia, China, Africa, USA … India, Australia, China, Africa, USA … Buenos Aires, British Columbia Buenos Aires, British Columbia Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (Jun 2003) Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (Jun 2003) Scotland (2005) 16 Universities and Research Orgs Scotland (2005) 16 Universities and Research Orgs Russell Group (UK Universities) 2005 Russell Group (UK Universities) 2005 Budapest Open Access Initiative Feb 2002 (Soros Open Society Institute) Budapest Open Access Initiative Feb 2002 (Soros Open Society Institute)

17 Budapest Declaration on Open Access 2002 Two Complementary Solutions Budapest Declaration on Open Access 2002 Two Complementary Solutions Open Access Repositories articles, conference papers, reports, theses, learning objects, multimedia etc. deposited in open electronic archives/repositories which conform to Open Access Repositories articles, conference papers, reports, theses, learning objects, multimedia etc. deposited in open electronic archives/repositories which conform to Open Archives Initiative (OAI) standards (OAI-PMH allows Open Archives Initiative (OAI) standards (OAI-PMH allows a single gateway to search and access many repositories) a single gateway to search and access many repositories) Open-Access Journals: Journals will not charge subscriptions or fees for online access. Instead, they should look to other sources to fund peer-review and publication (e.g., publication charges) Open-Access Journals: Journals will not charge subscriptions or fees for online access. Instead, they should look to other sources to fund peer-review and publication (e.g., publication charges)

18 Open Access Journals Ideally: Peer reviewed articles Peer reviewed articles Accessed online without charge Accessed online without charge No author/page charges No author/page charges Publishers model No Author payment = subscription (toll) access and perhaps later OA No Author payment = subscription (toll) access and perhaps later OA Author pays = open access Author pays = open access BioMed Central - $500 per article BioMed Central - $500 per article Public Library of Science - $1500 Public Library of Science - $1500 National Academy Of Sciences - $1000 National Academy Of Sciences - $1000 American Institute of Physics - $2000 American Institute of Physics - $2000 European Geosciences Union - $20 per page European Geosciences Union - $20 per page

19 Open Access Publishing – making the transition A number of traditional publishers are transforming their closed access journals into open access journals: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Oxford University Press Company of Biologists American Physiological Society Entomological Society of America Journal of Experimental Botany American Society of Limnology and Oceanography European Geophysical Union

20 European Geosciences Union – OA convert Geophysical Research Abstracts (open access) Geophysical Research Abstracts (open access) Geophysical Research Abstracts Geophysical Research Abstracts Advances in Geosciences (open-access) Advances in Geosciences (open-access) Advances in Geosciences Advances in Geosciences Annales Geophysicae (open-access after 1 year) Annales Geophysicae (open-access after 1 year) Annales Geophysicae Annales Geophysicae Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics (open-access) Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics (open-access) Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Biogeosciences (open-access) Biogeosciences (open-access) Biogeosciences Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (open-access) Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (open-access) Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (open-access) Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (open-access) Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (open-access) Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (open-access) Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics NEW - Ocean Science (open-access) NEW - Ocean Science (open-access) Ocean ScienceOcean Science (EGU open-access = free-of-charge, online access of any article immediately after its publication on www )

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22 University Initiatives Univ. Arizona: J. Insect Science Univ. Arizona: J. Insect Science Univ. Bielefeld: Documenta Mathematica Univ. Bielefeld: Documenta Mathematica Univ. California: eScholarship Univ. California: eScholarship Columbia Univ: Earthscape Columbia Univ: Earthscape Cornell Univ/Duke Press: Project Euclid Cornell Univ/Duke Press: Project Euclid Univ. Warwick: Geometry & Topology Publications Univ. Warwick: Geometry & Topology Publications Independent startups Evolutionary Ecol. Research. Evolutionary Ecol. Research. Internet Journal of Chemistry Internet Journal of ChemistryHybrids BioOne BioOne Journal of Insect Science SPARC Scholary Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition Lund Directory of Open Access Journals – over 1763 peer review open access journals

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26 The alternative : Repositories (Open archives, e-Print archives) Digital collections that preserve and provide access to the intellectual output of an institution. [ placed there by their authors, either before or after publication] What are the essential elements? Institutionally, subject or nationally defined: Content Institutionally, subject or nationally defined: Content generated by the community generated by the community Scholarly content:, published articles, books, book sections, preprints Scholarly content:, published articles, books, book sections, preprints and working papers, conference papers, enduring teaching and working papers, conference papers, enduring teaching materials, student theses, data-sets, etc. materials, student theses, data-sets, etc. Cumulative & perpetual: preserve ongoing access to material Cumulative & perpetual: preserve ongoing access to material Interoperable & open access: free, online, global Interoperable & open access: free, online, global

27 Repository Development ArXiV (from 1991 at Los Alamos now at Cornell) for high energy physics community (incl Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Math, Computing Science and Nonlinear Science). Despite success of ArXiV and others - RePEc (Economics), Despite success of ArXiV and others - RePEc (Economics), Cogprints (Cognitive Psychology), Mathematics, etc – varying Cogprints (Cognitive Psychology), Mathematics, etc – varying success by other subject communities (Chemistry Preprints success by other subject communities (Chemistry Preprints Server now finished) Server now finished) 2000 onwards complementary implementation of Institutional 2000 onwards complementary implementation of Institutional repositories fuelled by project funding eg Mellon Foundation, repositories fuelled by project funding eg Mellon Foundation, Howard Hughes, Open Society Institute, JISC UK FAIR Howard Hughes, Open Society Institute, JISC UK FAIR Programme and powered by the Information Community Programme and powered by the Information Community 2002 = 112 (Southampton Subject Categorization Survey) 2005 = 466 (from Institutional Archives Registry)

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29 Truly global movement

30 Increasing numbers – Repository choices Subject - arXiv, Cogprints, RePEC, Subject - arXiv, Cogprints, RePEC, Institutional – Southampton, Glasgow, Nottingham (SHERPA), MBA UK, WHOI Institutional – Southampton, Glasgow, Nottingham (SHERPA), MBA UK, WHOI National - DARE (all universities in the Netherlands), Scotland, British Library (proposal) National - DARE (all universities in the Netherlands), Scotland, British Library (proposal) National / Subject - ODINPubAfrica National / Subject - ODINPubAfrica International - Internet Archive Universal, OAIster International - Internet Archive Universal, OAIster Regional - White Rose UK Regional - White Rose UK Consortia - SHERPA-LEAP (London E-prints Access Project) Consortia - SHERPA-LEAP (London E-prints Access Project) Funding Agency – NIH (PubMed), Wellcome Trust (UK PubMed), NERC Funding Agency – NIH (PubMed), Wellcome Trust (UK PubMed), NERC Project - Public Knowledge Project EPrint Archive Project - Public Knowledge Project EPrint Archive Conference - 11th Joint Symposium on Neural Computation, May Conference - 11th Joint Symposium on Neural Computation, May Personal – peer to peer Personal – peer to peer Media Type - VCILT Learning Objects Repository, NTDL (Theses) Media Type - VCILT Learning Objects Repository, NTDL (Theses) Publisher – journal archives Publisher – journal archives Data Repositories/Archives - NODC, BODC, DOD, JODC, BADC etc Data Repositories/Archives - NODC, BODC, DOD, JODC, BADC etc ***** Problem is that the above are not mutually exclusive

31 OAI Gateway Specification - Static Repository Institutions that do not have an OAI repository can utilise the newly developed OAI gateway specification. This development is intended to lower the barriers to making metadata available through the OAI. It works on the basic principle that metadata canbe encoded in an XML file (conforming to a specific schema) and mounted ona standard web site, e.g. an authors or institutions home page. This file is known as a static repository. The URL of the static repository can be registered with an entity known as a static repository gateway. The gateway reads the metadata file and incorporates it into a fully compliant OAI-PMH service that can subsequently respond to OAI requests. The idea is that metadata can be made available from standard web sites and Incorporated into an OAI environment.

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33 IAMSLIC Aquatic Science Repository and Harvester - early concept Marine Science Institutional e-Print repositories IAMSLIC Marine Science e-Print Service Harvester (General) Regional e-Print Repository Odin PubAfrica ArXiv (Atmos & Oceanic Physics) User Search OAI-PMH Depositor

34 Open Archive Initiative Supported by Digital Library Federation & NSF (Sante Fe, 1999) Supported by Digital Library Federation & NSF (Sante Fe, 1999) Roots in an effort to enhance access to e-Print archives as a means of increasing availability of scholarly communication Roots in an effort to enhance access to e-Print archives as a means of increasing availability of scholarly communication OAI Metadata Harvesting Protocol which creates potential for interoperability between Repositories by enabling metadata from a number of archives to be collected together in one searchable database. OAI Metadata Harvesting Protocol which creates potential for interoperability between Repositories by enabling metadata from a number of archives to be collected together in one searchable database.

35 Open Archive Initiative - MHP Enables a cross searchable global virtual research archive in which papers are easily retrievable wherever they are located. Enables a cross searchable global virtual research archive in which papers are easily retrievable wherever they are located. Based on Unqualified Dublin Core Metadata set – criticism that rich metadata is lost. METS + DC leading contender. Other options - s archives may choose to expose their metadata as MARC21 in an XML wrapper. MPEG21 DIDL highly structured metadata schema also being considered. Based on Unqualified Dublin Core Metadata set – criticism that rich metadata is lost. METS + DC leading contender. Other options - s ome archives may choose to expose their metadata as MARC21 in an XML wrapper. MPEG21 DIDL highly structured metadata schema also being considered. OAI WG on enhancements to include Rights Metadata OAI WG on enhancements to include Rights Metadata

36 From Data Provider (IR) to Service Provider (Harvester/Aggregator) From Data Provider (IR) to Service Provider (Harvester/Aggregator) Author Open Repositories Service Providers (Value-added ) Reader Institutional Servers Disciplinary Servers Journals (e.g., PLoS model) Interoperability Standards Workflow Applications Integrated scholarly communities Search tools OAI-PMH

37 Repositories are spreading because … Supplementary to traditional publication Supplementary to traditional publication Do not affect current research publication processes Do not affect current research publication processes Give easy access Give easy access Give rapid access Give rapid access Give long-term access Give long-term access Increase readership and use of material Increase readership and use of material They offer advantages to institutions They offer advantages to institutions They offer advantages to research funders They offer advantages to research funders They offer new ways for information to be linked and used They offer new ways for information to be linked and used

38 Why it should be Institutional Repositories Institutions are logical implementers of repositories because they can take responsibility for: because they can take responsibility for: – Centralising a distributed activity – Framework and Infrastructure – Permanence that can sustain changes – Stewardship of Digital assets – Preservation policy for long term access – Provide central digital showcase for the research, teaching and scholarship of the institution teaching and scholarship of the institution Subject or project repositories often linked to an individual or a group – can be transitory - collection at risk

39 Changing paradigms from now Open Access little known Open Access little known Open access publishing Open access publishing Open access repositories Open access repositories High level support High level support UK Science and Technology Committee Scientific Publications - free for all UK Science and Technology Committee Scientific Publications - free for all Copyright transfer Copyright transfer License to Publish License to Publish Amendments Amendments Publishers Publishers Changing policies Changing policies New publishing models New publishing models Software, few options Software, few options Multiple, open source Multiple, open source Funding Agency - no support Funding Agency - no support Declarations on Open Access signatories Mandate deposit Wellcome Trust RCUK NIH Authors non acceptance Authors non acceptance Surveys - JISC/OSI Journal Authors Survey (3000 researchers) 83% would deposit in IR if required by employer 3% would not be prepared to do so 66% thought archiving in IR important 60% thought publishers should allow it

40 Institutional Repositories – author surveys JISC/OSI Journal Authors Survey (3000 researchers) JISC/OSI Journal Authors Survey (3000 researchers) 83% would deposit in IR if required by employer 83% would deposit in IR if required by employer 3% would not be prepared to do so 3% would not be prepared to do so 66% thought archiving in IR important 66% thought archiving in IR important 60% thought publishers should allow it 60% thought publishers should allow it 75% authors not familiar with IRs – advocacy needed! 75% authors not familiar with IRs – advocacy needed! SOUTHAMPTON SURVEY SOUTHAMPTON SURVEY 93% prefer mediated deposit!! 93% prefer mediated deposit!! Researchers have many concerns : workload, status quo; content quality control; authentication, versioning control and of course Copyright Researchers have many concerns : workload, status quo; content quality control; authentication, versioning control and of course Copyright

41 Barriers to adoption Copyright restrictions Copyright restrictions But - approx. 72% of publishers allow their authors to archive But - approx. 72% of publishers allow their authors to archive Cultural barriers to adoption Cultural barriers to adoption Disciplines; Awareness? Working habits? Disciplines; Awareness? Working habits? Authors are willing to use repositories Authors are willing to use repositories 83% would deposit willingly if required to do so by their funders (JISC/OSI Author Survey) 83% would deposit willingly if required to do so by their funders (JISC/OSI Author Survey) Funders Deposition policies are key (NIH, WellCome Trust, RCUK) Funders Deposition policies are key (NIH, WellCome Trust, RCUK)

42 Institutional Repository – Copyright (incl IPR) Rapidly changing publishers attitudes - moving goalposts! Traditionally authors sign over copyright, whether they own it or not! Traditionally authors sign over copyright, whether they own it or not! As a guide traditional copyright agreements have not allowed authors to: As a guide traditional copyright agreements have not allowed authors to: Reuse an article as a chapter in a book Reuse an article as a chapter in a book Revise or adapt an article Revise or adapt an article Distribute an article to colleagues Distribute an article to colleagues Reproduce copies of an article for teaching purposes Reproduce copies of an article for teaching purposes Self archive/make available an article in an repository Self archive/make available an article in an repository But now 76% of journals allow deposit in institutional repositories But now 76% of journals allow deposit in institutional repositories

43 Authors can annotate Copyright Forms Authors can add text to Copyright Forms : "I hereby transfer to [publisher or journal] all rights to sell or lease the text (on paper and online) of my paper [paper title]. I retain only the right to distribute it free for scholarly/scientific purposes, in particular the right to self- archive it publicly online on the Web." Often the publisher accepts the text or returns a license to publish form

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45 SHERPA/RoMeo Database of Publishers Copyright Policies

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47 Journals Copyright Policies

48 Pre-prints: pre refereed version.Many publishers do permit authors to make the pre-prints version of the article available in repositories. Pre-prints: pre refereed version. Many publishers do permit authors to make the pre-prints version of the article available in repositories. Post Print : post refereed, pre journal version – some 65% of publishers will allow the text of article as published to be included in institutional repositories, but not in the form of the formatted PDF file that appears in the journal. Post Print : post refereed, pre journal version – some 65% of publishers will allow the text of article as published to be included in institutional repositories, but not in the form of the formatted PDF file that appears in the journal. Publisher PDFs : A very few publishers prefer the final journal PDF version to be used, as this is a clear indication that an article in a repository is the bona fide version. (Eg. Royal Society) Publisher PDFs : A very few publishers prefer the final journal PDF version to be used, as this is a clear indication that an article in a repository is the bona fide version. (Eg. Royal Society) Personal or departmental web sites: Many publishers will permit authors to make their articles available on a personal web site or on a departmental site. By permitting this they are making a clear distinction between this type of web pages and institutional repositories. The fact that the full text of the article can easily be found using search engines regardless of whether it is available in a repository on a personal web site within the individual organisation domain is immaterial. Personal or departmental web sites: Many publishers will permit authors to make their articles available on a personal web site or on a departmental site. By permitting this they are making a clear distinction between this type of web pages and institutional repositories. The fact that the full text of the article can easily be found using search engines regardless of whether it is available in a repository on a personal web site within the individual organisation domain is immaterial.

49 Summary of Benefits of Institutional Repositories Summary of Benefits of Institutional Repositories Organization / University Organization / University profile to Funding profile to Funding Agencies Agencies Research Group and Discipline Research Group and Discipline visibility visibility Researcher profile Researcher profile Full text content Full text content freely accessible, freely accessible, more rapidly, easily more rapidly, easily Link to learning and Link to learning and teaching teaching Links to projects and Links to projects and web pages web pages Secure storage of Secure storage of publications for long term access to all research publications for long term access to all research including theses and dissertations, technical reports Stewardship of digital assets Stewardship of digital assets Demonstrates Interdisciplinary research Demonstrates Interdisciplinary research Increased citations Increased citations Lawrence, Brody Research reporting (SMA, OPINet, RAE) Research reporting (SMA, OPINet, RAE) Populate CVs, Research Proposals … Populate CVs, Research Proposals …

50 Research Visibility - Raising the profile…. Articles freely available online are more highly cited. For greater impact and faster scientific progress, authors and publishers should aim to make research easy to access Articles freely available online are more highly cited. For greater impact and faster scientific progress, authors and publishers should aim to make research easy to access Nature, Volume 411, Number 6837, p. 521, 2001 Steve Lawrence Online or Invisible? nature01/ Nature, Volume 411, Number 6837, p. 521, 2001 Steve Lawrence Online or Invisible? nature01/ nature01/ nature01/

51 The power of Open Access - journals Limnology and Oceanography, published by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Uses hybrid model to offer authors the chance to purchase open access Access papers published in 2003 have been downloaded 2.8 times more often than non-open access papers For papers published in 2002, the difference increases to 3.4 times greater downloads for open access papers

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55 arXiv daily usage Tuesday

56 Saturday

57 arXiv – 06 Oct 05

58 Benefit of easy discovery: Global Web Search Engines - Google and Google Scholar and SCOPUS …

59 Global repository search – OAIster now partnered with Yahoo 5,835,096 records from 533 institutions (updated 14 September 2005)

60 Link to personal web pages – auto update

61 Secure storage and visibility – branding for a research group

62 RSS feed to web page

63 Screen in foyer – is my paper there?

64 Linking to bookseller – search inside bonus

65 Interdisciplinary research – enter once only

66 Statistics – most downloaded

67 Institutional repositories - benefits For the Individual Provide a central archive of their work Increase the dissemination and impact of their research Acts as a full CV and research reporting tool For the Institution Increases visibility and prestige Acts as an advertisement to funding sources, potential new faculty and students, etc. For Society Provide access to the worlds research Ensures long-term preservation of institutes academic output

68 Repositories - a building block The Knowledge Cycle The Knowledge Cycle Encompassing experimentation, analysis, publication, research, learning Joined up research – a hub linking text and data An audit trail from whatever point of access

69 Learning & Teaching workflows Research & e-Science workflows Aggregator services Repositories : institutional, e-prints, subject, data, learning objects Institutional presentation services: portals, Learning Management Systems, u/g, p/g courses, modules Harvesting metadata Data creation / capture / gathering: laboratory experiments, Grids, fieldwork, surveys, media Resource discovery, linking, embedding Deposit / self- archiving Peer-reviewed publications: journals, conference proceedings Publication Validation Data analysis, transformation, mining, modelling Resource discovery, linking, embedding Deposit / self- archiving Learning object creation, re-use Searching, harvesting, embedding Quality assurance bodies Validation Presentation services: subject, media-specific, data, commercial portals Resource discovery, linking, embedding From: Lyon : CNI - JISC - SURF Conference, May 2005

70 Persistent identifiers Dataset Citations Automated Linking (png)

71 A Plus for Researchers One outcome of CLADDIER Project One outcome of CLADDIER Project pull = Harvesting pull = Harvesting push (png) = CLADDIER outcome push (png) = CLADDIER outcome Enable researcher to deposit in institutional repository and choose to upload (push) the metadata to another repository of choice Enable researcher to deposit in institutional repository and choose to upload (push) the metadata to another repository of choice redundancy of records does it matter? redundancy of records does it matter?

72 Building on Institutional Repositories CLADDIER (Citation, Location and Deposition in Discipline and Institutional Repositories) Linking e-Research. – partnering CCLRC, Reading, NERC CLADDIER (Citation, Location and Deposition in Discipline and Institutional Repositories) Linking e-Research. – partnering CCLRC, Reading, NERC GRADE (Scoping a Geospatial Repository for Academic Deposit and Extraction) – partnering EDINA, AHDS, et al GRADE (Scoping a Geospatial Repository for Academic Deposit and Extraction) – partnering EDINA, AHDS, et al PRESERV (Preservation Services for EPrints) - partnering with National Archives File Format Registry (PRONOM) and the British Library, Oxford University (cooperation with SHERPA DP) PRESERV (Preservation Services for EPrints) - partnering with National Archives File Format Registry (PRONOM) and the British Library, Oxford University (cooperation with SHERPA DP) IAMSLIC IAMSLIC

73 Thank You Pauline Simpson National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK


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