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NISOs IOTA Initiative Measuring the Quality of OpenURL Links NASIG Annual Conference St. Louis, MO June 2 – 5, 2011 Rafal Kasprowski, Rice University.

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Presentation on theme: "NISOs IOTA Initiative Measuring the Quality of OpenURL Links NASIG Annual Conference St. Louis, MO June 2 – 5, 2011 Rafal Kasprowski, Rice University."— Presentation transcript:

1 NISOs IOTA Initiative Measuring the Quality of OpenURL Links NASIG Annual Conference St. Louis, MO June 2 – 5, 2011 Rafal Kasprowski, Rice University

2 Agenda In the Beginning: Full-text linking and Advent of OpenURL IOTA: Created in response to OpenURL linking problems IOTAs analytical approach Community-derived reports comparing quality of vendor OpenURLs Concept of the OpenURL Quality Index IOTA & KBART: relationship & joint initiative Community involvement in IOTA: necessary for best outcomes

3 Before OpenURL: Proprietary Linking Certain A&I database providers (e.g., CSA, PubMed) offered full-text linking option for a select number of content providers. Libraries manually activated full-text linking with providers they had subscriptions with. A&I --> Full Text

4 Proprietary Linking: Pros and Cons Linking had to be activated manually by libraries for each full-text provider. A&I providers offering this option were few. Selection of full-text providers was limited. But... Once set up, the static links to full texts were accurate. Problem source pinpointed easily: A&I --> Full Text

5 Advent of OpenURL Objective: Deliver full texts unrestrained by proprietary silos. Open standard generating dynamic links at time of request. A-Z list (e.g., e-journal, e-books): o Knowledge base (KB) with library's holdings. o Replaces librarian as intermediary in linking. o Indicates provider of "appropriate copy" A&I ("Source") --> A-Z list ("KB") --> Full Text ("Target")

6 A, Bernand, et al. "A versatile nanotechnology to connect individual nano-objects for the fabrication of hybrid single-electron devices." Nanotechnology 21, no. 44 (November 5, 2010): 445201. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed October 24, 2010). OpenURL: resolver, syntax, linking nodes 4484&volume=21&issue=44&date=20101105&spage=445201&title=Nanotechnology &atitle=A+ versatile+nanotechnology+to+connect+individual+nano- objects+for+the+ fabrication+of+hybrid+single- electron+devices.&aulast=A++Bernand Source Citation Target OpenURL (Source OpenURL structured similarly)

7 Pros & Cons of OpenURL Pros: KB/Resolver vendors took over most of the linking setup: Less work for libraries and providers. Participation by A&I platforms and full-text providers exceeded proprietary linking: OpenURL scales better. Cons: Dynamic linking less predictable than static linking: more difficult to pinpoint cause of link failures. OpenURL linking not improved significantly last 10 years. No systematic method exists to benchmark OpenURLs.

8 Identifying source of problem… "72% of respondents to the online survey either agreed or strongly agreed that a significant problem for link resolvers is the generation of incomplete or inaccurate OpenURLs by databases (for example, A&I products)." Culling, James. 2007. Link Resolvers and the Serials Supply Chain: Final Project Report for UKSG, p.33. Defining methodology for addressing problem… Recently, researchers have indicated the need for metadata quality metrics, including: completeness; accuracy; conformance to expectations; logical consistency and coherence. Bruce, Thomas R. and Hillmann, Diane I. 2004. The Continuum of Metadata Quality: Defining, Expressing, Exploiting. In Metadata in Practice. Ed. Diane I. Hillmann and Elaine L. Westbrooks. Chicago: American Library Association, pp. 238-256.

9 Année philologique OpenURL Study 2008 Cornell study led by Adam Chandler* Problem: Too often links sent from Aph did not successfully resolve to requested resource. Objective: Examine quality of OpenURLs offered to users by Aph in order to improve the linking. Aph Study investigated: Faulty citation metadata from source database. Method to evaluate the OpenURLs. *Chandler, Adam. 2009. Results of LAnnée philologique online OpenURL Quality Investigation: Mellon Planning Grant Final Report.

10 Scoring System & Aph Study Outcomes Concept of scoring in Aph study (based on B. Hughes study)* establish a baseline for comparison; results to be shared with data providers; develop a best practice. Problem analysis in Aph study limited to: source link presence/absence of citation metadata elements Results: OpenURL quality model: compares elements in Aph OpenURLs to those of other providers. No scoring was achieved for Aph, but model is first step towards scoring system. *Hughes, Baden. 2004. Metadata Quality Evaluation: Experience from the Open Language Archives Community. In Digital Libraries: International Collaboration and Cross-Fertilization. Ed. Zhaoneng Chen et al. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2004, pp. 320-329.

11 Creation of IOTA NISO: Accepts proposal to take Aph Study to wider community. New OpenURL quality metrics initiative formed in Jan. 2011. Branded as: Improving OpenURLs Through Analytics. Basic Assumptions: Results are achieved through an analytical investigation of how OpenURL links work. Practical Goal: Not the OpenURL standard is addressed, but the links (OpenURLs) generated by standard. Selective changes to OpenURLs will lead to significant improvement in linking success rate. o Motto: "small changes. big improvements"

12 IOTA Desired Outcomes Produce qualitative reports that will help OpenURL providers quickly compare their OpenURL quality to that of their peers. Develop community-recognized index for measuring the quality of OpenURL links generated by content providers. Method: o fair; o transparent; o scalable across all OpenURLs and their providers.

13 How is comparing OpenURLs useful? Content providers generating OpenURLs can: –compare their OpenURLs with other providers; –make improvements to their OpenURLs. Institutions can: –compare OpenURL providers; –make local adjustments to OpenURL setup. Link resolver vendors can: –compare OpenURL providers; –change their OpenURL provider settings: Link resolvers; Web-scale discovery products.

14 Report types Source reports –Viewing how a particular (1) vendor or (2) database A. uses OpenURL elements (element frequency) B. formats OpenURL elements (pattern frequency) Element / Pattern reports –Viewing how a particular (1) element or format A. is used across vendors B. is used across databases

15 Running reports

16 Reports: Log file providers

17 Report: source (vendor or database)

18 Report: source = vendor

19 Report: element, source = vendor

20 Report: pattern, source = vendor

21 Report: source = database

22 Report: element, source = database

23 Report: pattern, source = database

24 Report: element and pattern frequency

25 Report: element & pattern frequency: Vendor option

26 Report: element/pattern frequency: Choosing Metric

27 Report: element/pattern by vendor

28 Report: element & pattern frequency: Database option

29 Report: element/pattern by database

30 Reporting System: improvements underway Consolidating variant instances of databases and vendors if the same; Separating article-like requests from book-like requests –Either/Or situation: most resources do not offer both formats –Once separation is completed, users will be given corresponding options to select OpenURL data by format: ARTICLE or BOOK These improvements will also benefit the accuracy of the OpenURL scoring system.

31 OpenURL Quality Index: initial version 1. Core elements: Any element contained in IOTA's OpenURL reporting system; 13M OpenURLs already obtained from libraries content providers. 2. Scoring system based on assumption : Correlation exists between o # of core elements ("OpenURL completeness") & o ability of OpenURLs to link to specific content. 3. Weighting assigned to core elements: Based on relative importance o spage vs atitle o issn vs jtitle o doi/pmid vs date, etc.

32 OpenURL Quality Index: vendor rating

33 Work in Progress Element weighting still in progress: o E.g., importance of identifiers (doi, pmid) vs bibliographic data (issn, volume, spage). Currently, IOTA focuses on OpenURLs from citation sources only. OpenURL quality is also influenced by: o knowledge base, o resolver, o full-text provider (target). High "completeness" score of OpenURLs not always indicative of "success" in linking to full texts o Combination of multiple indexes along linking nodes may provide more complete picture.

34 IOTA & KBART: NISO working groups IOTA Deals with issues specific to OpenURL linking; Seeks improvements in OpenURL elements used by: –OpenURL providers. KBART Knowledge Bases And Related Tools Deals with data issues at the KB level Seeks improvements in data exchange practices between: –content providers (e.g. OpenURL providers); –product vendors (e.g. link resolver vendors); –subscription agents.

35 IOTA & KBART: related through OpenURL IOTA node: –analyzing data sent from OpenURL source to link resolver. KBART node: –creating formatting best practices for data sent from content providers to knowledge base (and link resolver) vendors.

36 KBART-IOTA joint initiative KBART-IOTA node: –Exploring together the third source of failures: link-to (or target) syntax and behavior which couples link resolvers to content providers Collaboration begun in March 2011 is meant to address OpenURL quality in a broader context.

37 How can I get involved? If you are an OpenURL provider: Contribute data to IOTA Review the IOTA data This data is meant to help you make improvements in your OpenURL linking If you are a librarian: Contribute data to IOTA Spread the word to vendors about IOTA OpenURL data contact: Adam Chandler,

38 IOTA Web Presence

39 Questions? @nisoiota on twitter Rafal Kasprowski Electronic Resources Librarian Rice University, Fondren Library MS 44 Houston, TX 77005

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