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Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual"— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual

2 Outline The UIS approach R&D statistics in developing countries
Characteristics of R&D in developing countries Measurement issues Present status and way forward

3 The UIS approach Advisory Meeting to the UIS S&T Statistics Programme held in Montreal, Canada, December 2007 Papers commissioned by UIS to Jacques Gaillard (IRD, Paris), Michael Kahn et. al.(HSRC, South Africa), and Gustavo Arber et. al. (RICYT, Argentina) Experience acquired through the UIS work, in particular through the direct contact with S&T statisticians in numerous workshops and other meetings around the developing world. Proposal for an annex to the Frascati Manual on measuring R&D in developing countries was presented at the OECD 2008 NESTI meeting.

4 Countries and Territories included
R&D statistics in developing countries are still rare in some countries/regions Regions Countries and Territories included Data published by UIS Coverage Total 215 129 60% Developed countries 59 50 85% Triad (OECD + EU) 43 100% Others in Europe 16 7 44% Developing world 156 79 51% in Africa 54 28 52% Sub-Saharan Africa 46 23 50% Arab States in Africa 8 5 63% in Asia 26 excl. Arab States 31 74% Arab States in Asia 12 3 25% in the Americas 42 55% Latin America (RICYT) 19 83% Caribbean & territories 4 21% in Oceania 17 2 12% Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2008

5 R&D statistics in developing countries
Meeting targets, evidence-based S&T policy, but lack of interest at the level of policy makers (low policy-relevance?), lack of resources devoted to statistics in S&T, lack of technical knowledge for the production of cross-nationally comparable R&D statistics, difficulties in applying FM concepts and methods. weak statistical institutions S&T indicators need to be adapted to particular policy needs, and need to provide answers to actual policy questions.

6 Selected characteristics of R&D in developing countries
Nature of R&D activities Patterns in research funding and budgeting Professional Crisis Concentration Heterogeneity Brain mobility and internationalization More than R&D indicators needed

7 Characteristics of R&D in developing countries – funding
Traditionally dominated by government spend (or higher education) BUT becoming much more diversified Foreign investment much larger % of R&D funding Significance of the ‘not-for- profit’ sector Funding may pass direct to individuals rather than institutions; bypassing traditional data collection

8 Characteristics of R&D in developing countries - personnel
Researchers with research but no funding Researchers with funding but no research Much less common than lack of funding (?), but includes other barriers to research; availability of ‘tools’, problems of ‘access’, conflict situations etc ‘taxi professors’ Two (or more) jobs resulting in less than expected, or very variable, time spent on research ‘enseignant-chercheur’ (teacher-researcher) A contract giving a certain employment status but not necessarily linked to a certain level of active research

9 Characteristics of R&D in developing countries – special types of R&D
Traditional knowledge traditional knowledge as an object of scientific study applying scientific methods within areas of traditional knowledge ie biodiversity using science to develop the products of traditional knowledge Community development If projects are concerned with development and testing Clinical trials Of growing importance in R&D Led by foreign institutions Reverse engineering Deriving principles from an existing product in the context of an R&D project

10 Other structural issues
Co-ordination of national science Concentration – national R&D can be dominated by one or two BIG projects, impacting on both finance and personnel Informal economy may play a large part in R&D activities, but is usually hidden from measurement

11 Measurement strategy Acknowledge differences and problems.
Maintain Frascati standard to ensure, and through guidance increase, comparability Allow statistics to better identify key priorities Sectors for development Improved conditions for researchers Clearly identify barriers > so they can be removed Identify successes > make them easier to Maintain and develop Replicate in other areas/countries

12 Measurement issues FM issues affecting developing countries
applicability of concepts and definitions structure of R&D systems Sectorial issues Business enterprise sector Higher Education sector Private-non-profit sector Abroad and international sector use of secondary sources (beyond surveys)

13 Measurement issues Developing country issues beyond FM scope
Difficulties in establishing surveys Data sources: Need to establish proper registers and directories to provide an overview of the system and an initial framework for R&D surveys Institutionalization Interaction with stakeholders - users and producers - ownership Develop new internationalization indicators Develop STA indicators Need for studies to complement, interpret and use indicators

14 Frascati manual proposals
Introduce/define more precisely categories of funding sources and performing sectors that highlight characteristics of developing countries eg foreign investment Capture the role of the researcher to better identify successes and problems

15 Present status and way forward
"Annex to the FM on measuring R&D in developing countries". To provide guidance and clarifications to help developing countries to implement R&D surveys and FM concepts. A task force (lead by UIS) was established by the NEST to proceed with this. UIS is in the process of preparing the 1st draft of the Annex. More inputs needed… "UIS guide to S&T statistics". UIS to develop new concepts and guidelines to address challenges specific to developing countries, exceeding the scope of FM: S&T statistics beyond R&D. Some of the issues might also present measurement challenges for a future revision of the Frascati Manual. UIS to further consult Member States to expand and refine the issues.

16 Statistical capacity building to help countries with
Co-ordination Technical skills Advocacy

17 Thank you!
UNESCO Institute for Statistics C.P Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada. TP: (1 514) Fax: (1 514)

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