Presentation on theme: "Www.uis.unesco.org Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual SEMINAR – WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS."— Presentation transcript:
Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual SEMINAR – WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS Phnom Penh, Cambodia Nov 2008
Outline The UIS approach R&D statistics in developing countries Characteristics of R&D in developing countries Measurement issues Present status and way forward
The UIS approach Advisory Meeting to the UIS S&T Statistics Programme held in Montreal, Canada, December 2007 Papers commissioned by UIS to Jacques Gaillard (IRD, Paris), Michael Kahn et. al.(HSRC, South Africa), and Gustavo Arber et. al. (RICYT, Argentina) Experience acquired through the UIS work, in particular through the direct contact with S&T statisticians in numerous workshops and other meetings around the developing world. Proposal for an annex to the Frascati Manual on measuring R&D in developing countries was presented at the OECD 2008 NESTI meeting.
R&D statistics in developing countries are still rare in some countries/regions Regions Countries and Territories included Data published by UIS Coverage Total % Developed countries % Triad (OECD + EU)43 100% Others in Europe16744% Developing world % in Africa542852% Sub-Saharan Africa462350% Arab States in Africa8563% in Asia432660% excl. Arab States312374% Arab States in Asia12325% in the Americas422355% Latin America (RICYT)231983% Caribbean & territories19421% in Oceania17212% Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2008
R&D statistics in developing countries Meeting targets, evidence-based S&T policy, but lack of interest at the level of policy makers (low policy- relevance?), lack of resources devoted to statistics in S&T, lack of technical knowledge for the production of cross- nationally comparable R&D statistics, difficulties in applying FM concepts and methods. weak statistical institutions S&T indicators need to be adapted to particular policy needs, and need to provide answers to actual policy questions.
Selected characteristics of R&D in developing countries Nature of R&D activities Patterns in research funding and budgeting Professional Crisis Concentration Heterogeneity Brain mobility and internationalization More than R&D indicators needed
Characteristics of R&D in developing countries – funding Traditionally dominated by government spend (or higher education) BUT becoming much more diversified Foreign investment much larger % of R&D funding Significance of the not-for- profit sector Funding may pass direct to individuals rather than institutions; bypassing traditional data collection
Characteristics of R&D in developing countries - personnel Researchers with research but no funding Researchers with funding but no research Much less common than lack of funding (?), but includes other barriers to research; availability of tools, problems of access, conflict situations etc taxi professors Two (or more) jobs resulting in less than expected, or very variable, time spent on research enseignant-chercheur (teacher-researcher) A contract giving a certain employment status but not necessarily linked to a certain level of active research
Characteristics of R&D in developing countries – special types of R&D Traditional knowledge traditional knowledge as an object of scientific study applying scientific methods within areas of traditional knowledge ie biodiversity using science to develop the products of traditional knowledge Community development If projects are concerned with development and testing Clinical trials Of growing importance in R&D Led by foreign institutions Reverse engineering Deriving principles from an existing product in the context of an R&D project
Other structural issues Co-ordination of national science Concentration – national R&D can be dominated by one or two BIG projects, impacting on both finance and personnel Informal economy may play a large part in R&D activities, but is usually hidden from measurement
Measurement strategy Acknowledge differences and problems. Maintain Frascati standard to ensure, and through guidance increase, comparability Allow statistics to better identify key priorities Sectors for development Improved conditions for researchers Clearly identify barriers > so they can be removed Identify successes > make them easier to Maintain and develop Replicate in other areas/countries
Measurement issues FM issues affecting developing countries applicability of concepts and definitions structure of R&D systems Sectorial issues Business enterprise sector Higher Education sector Private-non-profit sector Abroad and international sector use of secondary sources (beyond surveys)
Measurement issues Developing country issues beyond FM scope Difficulties in establishing surveys Data sources: Need to establish proper registers and directories to provide an overview of the system and an initial framework for R&D surveys Institutionalization Interaction with stakeholders - users and producers - ownership Develop new internationalization indicators Develop STA indicators Need for studies to complement, interpret and use indicators
Frascati manual proposals Introduce/define more precisely categories of funding sources and performing sectors that highlight characteristics of developing countries eg foreign investment Capture the role of the researcher to better identify successes and problems
Present status and way forward "Annex to the FM on measuring R&D in developing countries". To provide guidance and clarifications to help developing countries to implement R&D surveys and FM concepts. A task force (lead by UIS) was established by the NEST to proceed with this. UIS is in the process of preparing the 1 st draft of the Annex. More inputs needed… "UIS guide to S&T statistics". UIS to develop new concepts and guidelines to address challenges specific to developing countries, exceeding the scope of FM: S&T statistics beyond R&D. Some of the issues might also present measurement challenges for a future revision of the Frascati Manual. UIS to further consult Member States to expand and refine the issues.
Statistical capacity building to help countries with Co-ordination Technical skills Advocacy
Thank you! UNESCO Institute for Statistics C.P Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada. TP: (1 514) Fax: (1 514)