Presentation on theme: "Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual"— Presentation transcript:
1 Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual SEMINAR – WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS Phnom Penh, Cambodia Nov 2008
2 Outline The UIS approach R&D statistics in developing countries Characteristics of R&D in developing countriesMeasurement issuesPresent status and way forward
3 The UIS approachAdvisory Meeting to the UIS S&T Statistics Programme held in Montreal, Canada, December 2007Papers commissioned by UIS to Jacques Gaillard (IRD, Paris), Michael Kahn et. al.(HSRC, South Africa), and Gustavo Arber et. al. (RICYT, Argentina)Experience acquired through the UIS work, in particular through the direct contact with S&T statisticians in numerous workshops and other meetings around the developing world.Proposal for an annex to the Frascati Manual on measuring R&D in developing countries was presented at the OECD 2008 NESTI meeting.
4 Countries and Territories included R&D statistics in developing countries are still rare in some countries/regionsRegionsCountries and Territories includedData published by UISCoverageTotal21512960%Developed countries595085%Triad (OECD + EU)43100%Others in Europe16744%Developing world1567951%in Africa542852%Sub-Saharan Africa462350%Arab States in Africa8563%in Asia26excl. Arab States3174%Arab States in Asia12325%in the Americas4255%Latin America (RICYT)1983%Caribbean & territories421%in Oceania17212%Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2008
5 R&D statistics in developing countries Meeting targets, evidence-based S&T policy, butlack of interest at the level of policy makers (low policy-relevance?),lack of resources devoted to statistics in S&T,lack of technical knowledge for the production of cross-nationally comparable R&D statistics,difficulties in applying FM concepts and methods.weak statistical institutionsS&T indicators need to be adapted to particular policy needs, and need to provide answers to actual policy questions.
6 Selected characteristics of R&D in developing countries Nature of R&D activitiesPatterns in research funding and budgetingProfessional CrisisConcentrationHeterogeneityBrain mobility and internationalizationMore than R&D indicators needed
7 Characteristics of R&D in developing countries – funding Traditionally dominated by government spend (or higher education) BUT becoming much more diversifiedForeign investment much larger % of R&D fundingSignificance of the ‘not-for- profit’ sectorFunding may pass direct to individuals rather than institutions; bypassing traditional data collection
8 Characteristics of R&D in developing countries - personnel Researchers with research but no fundingResearchers with funding but no researchMuch less common than lack of funding (?), but includes other barriers to research; availability of ‘tools’, problems of ‘access’, conflict situations etc‘taxi professors’Two (or more) jobs resulting in less than expected, or very variable, time spent on research‘enseignant-chercheur’ (teacher-researcher)A contract giving a certain employment status but not necessarily linked to a certain level of active research
9 Characteristics of R&D in developing countries – special types of R&D Traditional knowledgetraditional knowledge as an object of scientific studyapplying scientific methods within areas of traditional knowledge ie biodiversityusing science to develop the products of traditional knowledgeCommunity developmentIf projects are concerned with development and testingClinical trialsOf growing importance in R&DLed by foreign institutionsReverse engineeringDeriving principles from an existing product in the context of an R&D project
10 Other structural issues Co-ordination of national scienceConcentration – national R&D can be dominated by one or two BIG projects, impacting on both finance and personnelInformal economy may play a large part in R&D activities, but is usually hidden from measurement
11 Measurement strategy Acknowledge differences and problems. Maintain Frascati standard to ensure, and through guidance increase, comparabilityAllow statistics to better identify key prioritiesSectors for developmentImproved conditions for researchersClearly identify barriers > so they can be removedIdentify successes > make them easier toMaintain and developReplicate in other areas/countries
12 Measurement issues FM issues affecting developing countries applicability of concepts and definitionsstructure of R&D systemsSectorial issuesBusiness enterprise sectorHigher Education sectorPrivate-non-profit sectorAbroad and international sectoruse of secondary sources (beyond surveys)
13 Measurement issues Developing country issues beyond FM scope Difficulties in establishing surveysData sources: Need to establish proper registers and directories to provide an overview of the system and an initial framework for R&D surveysInstitutionalizationInteraction with stakeholders - users and producers - ownershipDevelop new internationalization indicatorsDevelop STA indicatorsNeed for studies to complement, interpret and use indicators
14 Frascati manual proposals Introduce/define more precisely categories of funding sources and performing sectors that highlight characteristics of developing countries eg foreign investmentCapture the role of the researcher to better identify successes and problems
15 Present status and way forward "Annex to the FM on measuring R&D in developing countries". To provide guidance and clarifications to help developing countries to implement R&D surveys and FM concepts. A task force (lead by UIS) was established by the NEST to proceed with this.UIS is in the process of preparing the 1st draft of the Annex. More inputs needed…"UIS guide to S&T statistics". UIS to develop new concepts and guidelines to address challenges specific to developing countries, exceeding the scope of FM: S&T statistics beyond R&D.Some of the issues might also present measurement challenges for a future revision of the Frascati Manual.UIS to further consult Member States to expand and refine the issues.
16 Statistical capacity building to help countries with Co-ordinationTechnical skillsAdvocacy
17 http://www.uis.unesco.org Thank you! UNESCO Institute for Statistics C.P Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada.TP: (1 514) Fax: (1 514)
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