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Science and Technology Indicators of Sri Lanka Dr. P.R.M.P. Dilrukshi Science and Technology Policy Research Division National Science Foundation Sri Lanka.

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Presentation on theme: "Science and Technology Indicators of Sri Lanka Dr. P.R.M.P. Dilrukshi Science and Technology Policy Research Division National Science Foundation Sri Lanka."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science and Technology Indicators of Sri Lanka Dr. P.R.M.P. Dilrukshi Science and Technology Policy Research Division National Science Foundation Sri Lanka Sri Lanka

2 Presentation Layout 1.Country Profile 2.History of R&D data collection in Sri Lanka 3.Present status of collecting R&D statistics 4.Summary of R&D indicators of Sri Lanka 5.Usage of S&T indicators in the country 6.Problems faced by Survey team during the R&D survey 1.Country Profile 2.History of R&D data collection in Sri Lanka 3.Present status of collecting R&D statistics 4.Summary of R&D indicators of Sri Lanka 5.Usage of S&T indicators in the country 6.Problems faced by Survey team during the R&D survey Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

3 Country Profile Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, known as Ceylon before 1972, is an island in South Asia, located about 31 kilometers (19.3 mile) off the southern coast of India. Total land area is 65,610 square km Mid year population in 2008 is 20.2 million Female: Male ratio (2002) 52:48 Density of population, person per sq. km. 322 Average Literacy rate 91. 3% (male: 92.8, Female 77.9) Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births) 11 Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) 58 Expectation of life at birth, 71.9 years Human Development Index (2007) : 102 (Rank among 182 countries) Prosperity Index (2007): Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

4 History of R&D data collection in Sri Lanka The mandate to collect S&T statistics was provided to the National Science Council (NSC) of Sri Lanka the predecessor of National Science Foundation in The earliest study on S&T indicators was carried out in 1970 to assess the scientific resources in Sri Lanka in term of public expenditure on Research and Development by the Ceylon Institute for scientific & industrial Research (CISIR) predecessor of Industrial Technology Institute (ITI) A subsequent survey was conducted to measure the Scientific and technical manpower in the country in 1972 by the Ceylon Association for the Advancement of Science presently known as the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science (SLAAS). The mandate to collect S&T statistics was provided to the National Science Council (NSC) of Sri Lanka the predecessor of National Science Foundation in The earliest study on S&T indicators was carried out in 1970 to assess the scientific resources in Sri Lanka in term of public expenditure on Research and Development by the Ceylon Institute for scientific & industrial Research (CISIR) predecessor of Industrial Technology Institute (ITI) A subsequent survey was conducted to measure the Scientific and technical manpower in the country in 1972 by the Ceylon Association for the Advancement of Science presently known as the Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Science (SLAAS). Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

5 History of R&D data collection in Sri Lanka contd. The first systematically designed survey on scientific and technical manpower potential in the country was carried out in 1974 by the National Science Council (NSC) following the guidelines prepared by the UNESO. In 1977 National Science Council (NSC) carried out its 2 nd major survey which included an assessment of funding for basic and applied research in the country for 10 year period from 1956 to 1965 and technical manpower during The first systematically designed survey on scientific and technical manpower potential in the country was carried out in 1974 by the National Science Council (NSC) following the guidelines prepared by the UNESO. In 1977 National Science Council (NSC) carried out its 2 nd major survey which included an assessment of funding for basic and applied research in the country for 10 year period from 1956 to 1965 and technical manpower during Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

6 History of R&D data collection in Sri Lanka The 3 rd study of the series was carried out in 1984 by the Natural Resource Energy Authority (NARESA) which was the successor of NSC and predecessor of National Science Foundation (NSF). Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

7 History of R&D data collection in Sri Lanka contd. The 4 th comprehensive survey carried out by NARESA in 1996 covering higher education, government, industrial and private non profit sectors. This is the first comprehensive survey of R&D in the country and done according to the standard specified by OECD Frascati Manual. The 5 th Survey was carried out in year 2000 by the NSF the successor to NSC and NARESA. The survey only covered the higher education sector and S&T public sector following the UNESCO guidelines and OECD Frascati Manual. The 4 th comprehensive survey carried out by NARESA in 1996 covering higher education, government, industrial and private non profit sectors. This is the first comprehensive survey of R&D in the country and done according to the standard specified by OECD Frascati Manual. The 5 th Survey was carried out in year 2000 by the NSF the successor to NSC and NARESA. The survey only covered the higher education sector and S&T public sector following the UNESCO guidelines and OECD Frascati Manual. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

8 Present status of collecting R&D statistics in Sri Lanka After establishment of Science and Technology Policy Research Division at the NSF the regular R&D survey commenced in 2006 covering all Science and Technology sectors. The R&D survey conducted biannually. Accordingly three surveys completed in 2006, 2008 and 2010 to measure the status of R&D in the country pertaining to 2004, 2006 and 2008 respectively. After establishment of Science and Technology Policy Research Division at the NSF the regular R&D survey commenced in 2006 covering all Science and Technology sectors. The R&D survey conducted biannually. Accordingly three surveys completed in 2006, 2008 and 2010 to measure the status of R&D in the country pertaining to 2004, 2006 and 2008 respectively. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

9 Preliminary preparation are being made to carry out survey for 2010 and survey planned to commenced on April 2011 Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Present status of collecting R&D statistics in Sri Lanka Contd.

10 National Research Experiment and Development Survey Sri Lanka (R&D Survey) Conduct Every two Years Data collection done according to the fiscal year (survey start on 31 st March of the survey year) Follow OECD (Frascati and Canbara Manuals) and UNESCO definitions and standard Conduct Every two Years Data collection done according to the fiscal year (survey start on 31 st March of the survey year) Follow OECD (Frascati and Canbara Manuals) and UNESCO definitions and standard Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

11 Scope of the Survey All higher education Sector Institution All R&D Institutions All government and private sector Institutions work in the areas in Science and Technology All S&T service sector organizations including Ministries, Department, Statutory Boards etc. Business enterprise sector (Select representing sample only) Non Profit Private sector organizations and Non Government organizations All higher education Sector Institution All R&D Institutions All government and private sector Institutions work in the areas in Science and Technology All S&T service sector organizations including Ministries, Department, Statutory Boards etc. Business enterprise sector (Select representing sample only) Non Profit Private sector organizations and Non Government organizations Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

12 Survey Methodology 1. Higher Education 2. R&D Institute/Units/Individual doing R&D 3. S&T service sector 4. Business sector enterprises 5. Non Profit Local/Foreign Organizations 1. Higher Education 2. R&D Institute/Units/Individual doing R&D 3. S&T service sector 4. Business sector enterprises 5. Non Profit Local/Foreign Organizations 5 types of questionnaires use to collect data as follows: Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

13 Data collection Methodology MOU has been singed with University Grant Commission (UGC) to collect data pertaining to the government university system in 2006 UGC is provided with questionnaires and relevant definitions and guidelines for the data collection. The survey frame include all Faculties, Department, Institutions, units comes under the S&T sector MOU has been singed with University Grant Commission (UGC) to collect data pertaining to the government university system in 2006 UGC is provided with questionnaires and relevant definitions and guidelines for the data collection. The survey frame include all Faculties, Department, Institutions, units comes under the S&T sector Higher Education Sector: Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

14 Data Collection Methodology Contd. Private sector Higher Education Institutes, all R&D Institutes, S&T service sector institutes and other government institutions involve in S&T activities are collected by NSF/STPRD staff by visiting the institutions and following a. Direct interview method b. Training appointed person from the particular institution and collecting information through that contact person (An honorarium payment is made to this contact person) c. Directly employing questionnaire mailing method and giving guidelines for data collection through /over the phone Non profit sector data collection: is done by the staff of the STPRD/NSF though direct interview method and questionnaire mailing method. Private sector Higher Education Institutes, all R&D Institutes, S&T service sector institutes and other government institutions involve in S&T activities are collected by NSF/STPRD staff by visiting the institutions and following a. Direct interview method b. Training appointed person from the particular institution and collecting information through that contact person (An honorarium payment is made to this contact person) c. Directly employing questionnaire mailing method and giving guidelines for data collection through /over the phone Non profit sector data collection: is done by the staff of the STPRD/NSF though direct interview method and questionnaire mailing method. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

15 Outsource data collection to the Department of Census and Statistics Sri Lanka. Data collection done through direct interview method by enumerators trained by the NSF Staff. Survey frame selected proportionately representing all Industrial categories. Only 250 industries selected to conduct the survey. Data collection completed within two months period. Outsource data collection to the Department of Census and Statistics Sri Lanka. Data collection done through direct interview method by enumerators trained by the NSF Staff. Survey frame selected proportionately representing all Industrial categories. Only 250 industries selected to conduct the survey. Data collection completed within two months period. Data collection Methodology Contd. Business Enterprise sector data collection: Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

16 Collecting Data of S&T Human Resources 1. Human resources involve in R&D (Researchers, Technicians /equivalent staff and Supporting staff) 2. Human resources involve in S&T related activities (S&T Scientists, Technicians and Supporting staff directly involve in S&T service activities ) 1. Human resources involve in R&D (Researchers, Technicians /equivalent staff and Supporting staff) 2. Human resources involve in S&T related activities (S&T Scientists, Technicians and Supporting staff directly involve in S&T service activities ) Data collection done through two questionnaires Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

17 Calculatting R&D Personnel (FTE) Method employed: Number of days spend on R&D work per week by person is asked in the questionnaire. If a person do work related to R&D more than 4 hours per day it taken as one day. If it is less than 4 hours that taken as ½ a day. Accordingly, the time spend on R&D per week is calculated and from that percentage of time per month on R&D work is calculated. This extrapolated for a different institutions and average number of person in each category working fulltime calculated accordingly. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

18 Status of Sri Lankan S&T Science and Technology Policy Research Division

19 Indicators Developed 1. Input indicators in term of investment, expenditure and human resources in S&T. 2. Output indicators in term of publications, patent and innovation 1. Input indicators in term of investment, expenditure and human resources in S&T. 2. Output indicators in term of publications, patent and innovation Measure S&T statistics in two terms Science and Technology Policy Research Division

20 Indicators of R&D Expenditure Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

21 Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD) in Sri Lanka YearGDP Per (Current price) Rs. million GERD Rs. Million (US$) GERD as percentag e of GDP Total Population million GERD Per million population Rs. million 19667,52920 (4.2) ,10045(6.4) , (9.7) , (13.1)0.13* ,9001,410.0 (23) ,258,0001,810.0 (22.9)0.14* ,800,7503,807.5 (40.9) ,939,0005, (47.9) ,410,6825, (46.1) Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

22 Gross Expenditure on R&D Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

23 National expenditure on R&D by source of funding Source of fundingRecurrentCapitalTotal Government3, , (61.0%)(10,82)(71.8%) Private , (16.1%)(3.8%)(19.9%) Foreign (3.4%)(0.9%)(4.3%) Other (3.2%)(0.9%)(4.0%) Total4, , Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

24 National Expenditure on R&D Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

25 National Expenditure on R&D by sector Percentage of Expenditure Year Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

26 National expenditure on R&D (GERD) by nature of research activities Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

27 GERD by Discipline Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

28 S&T Human Resources Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

29 Science and Technology Personnel (STP) STP Include all Scientists a Technologists, Technicians, Supporting Staff involve in S&T research, Service and Management activities Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

30 Number of R&D Scientists and Technicians (Head counts) by Sector Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

31 Distribution of R&D scientists (FTE) by Sector Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

32 Performance Indicators for Science and Technology Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

33 Number of patents registered in Sri Lanka YearResidentNon residentTotal Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

34 Publications trends in the SCI journals by Sri Lankan Scientists in Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Source: R&D Survey 2008

35 Use of S&T Indicators in Sri Lanka National Science Foundation for selecting priority areas for funding R&D, human resource development, facilitating Industry Institute partnership (IIP) and technology transfer activities etc. S&T Policy Planning activities and formulating S&T strategic plan by the Ministry of Research and Technology. National Science Foundation for selecting priority areas for funding R&D, human resource development, facilitating Industry Institute partnership (IIP) and technology transfer activities etc. S&T Policy Planning activities and formulating S&T strategic plan by the Ministry of Research and Technology. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. S&T Indicators use by:

36 Use of S&T Indicators in Sri Lanka Use by Ministry of Finance & Planning for devoting funds for S&T activities and human resource development. Use by higher education sector for human resource training. Use for academic purposes. STPRD/NSF submit data to UIS since Use by Ministry of Finance & Planning for devoting funds for S&T activities and human resource development. Use by higher education sector for human resource training. Use for academic purposes. STPRD/NSF submit data to UIS since Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

37 Problems associated with collecting information for R&D Survey Lack of awareness of people on the importance of having S&T statistics and lack of inadequate knowledge to use it for planning purposes etc. Reluctance of the people to give information specially concerning budgetary information. Lack of awareness of people on the importance of having S&T statistics and lack of inadequate knowledge to use it for planning purposes etc. Reluctance of the people to give information specially concerning budgetary information. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

38 Problems associated with collecting information for R&D Survey Difficulty in demarcating boundaries between R&D, Innovation and manufacturing in the industrial sector. Difficulty in categorizing industries into the disciplines use in higher education, S&T Service and R&D sectors (e.g. natural science, Engineering Technology etc.). Difficulty in demarcating boundaries between R&D, Innovation and manufacturing in the industrial sector. Difficulty in categorizing industries into the disciplines use in higher education, S&T Service and R&D sectors (e.g. natural science, Engineering Technology etc.). Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

39 Acknowledgments UNESCO Institute of Statistics UNESCO Kathmandu Ministry of Science and Technology, Nepal Director and Management Board of the National Science Foundation Head/ Science and Technology Policy Research Division UNESCO Institute of Statistics UNESCO Kathmandu Ministry of Science and Technology, Nepal Director and Management Board of the National Science Foundation Head/ Science and Technology Policy Research Division Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Science and Technology Policy Research Division, National Science Foundation, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka.

40 THANK YOU !


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