Presentation on theme: "Www.uis.unesco.org Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON NEW INDICATORS OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION."— Presentation transcript:
Measuring R&D in developing countries: Annex to Frascati Manual INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR ON NEW INDICATORS OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Mexico City, Mexico 5-7 Nov 2008
Outline The UIS approach Status and the context of R&D statistics in developing countries Characteristics of R&D practices in developing countries Measurement issues Present status and way forward
The UIS approach Experience acquired through the UIS work, in particular through direct contact with S&T statisticians in numerous workshops and other meetings around the developing world. Advisory Meeting to the UIS S&T Statistics Programme held in Montreal, Canada, December Papers commissioned by UIS to Jacques Gaillard (IRD, Paris), Michael Kahn et. al.(HSRC, South Africa), and Gustavo Arber et. al. (RICYT, Argentina). Proposal for an annex to the Frascati Manual on measuring R&D in developing countries was presented at the OECD 2008 NESTI meeting.
R&D statistics in developing countries are still rare in some countries/regions Regions Countries and Territories included Data published by UIS Coverage Total % Developed countries % Triad (OECD + EU)43 100% Others in Europe16744% Developing world % in Africa542852% Sub-Saharan Africa462350% Arab States in Africa8563% in Asia432660% excl. Arab States312374% Arab States in Asia12325% in the Americas422355% Latin America (RICYT)231983% Caribbean & territories19421% in Oceania17212% Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2008
R&D statistics in developing countries Recognition, meeting targets, evidence-based S&T policy, but; lack of interest at the level of policy makers (low policy-relevance?), lack of resources devoted to statistics in S&T, lack of technical knowledge for the production of cross-nationally comparable R&D statistics, difficulties in applying FM concepts and methods. weak statistical institutions S&T indicators need to be adapted to particular policy needs, and need to provide answers to actual policy questions.
Characteristics of R&D in developing countries Particular characteristics of R&D activities to be taken into account; - different structures in terms of Government, innovation system, higher education system, statistical system. - particular culture of information - Users of R&D stat: Gov, analysts. + international donor agencies. Besides these, international comparability is foremost.
Selected characteristics of R&D in developing countries Nature of R&D activities Patterns in research funding and budgeting Professional Crisis Concentration Heterogeneity Brain mobility and internationalization More than R&D indicators needed
Selected characteristics of R&D in developing countries Nature of R&D activities - More R than D - Traditionally dominated by government and higher education - Degree of informality: Informal economy may play a large part in R&D activities, but is usually hidden from measurement - Special type of R&D (Traditional knowledge, Clinical trials, Reverse engineering, Community development, Religious research, etc) Patterns in research funding and budgeting - GERD based on national budget - NGOs funding, foreign investment much larger % of R&D funding - Funding may pass direct to individuals rather than institutions; bypassing traditional data collection - Lacks separate research budget: difficulties in identifying R&D components - Discrepancies between voted and allocated budget - Confusion between S&T and R&D budget: over/under estimating
Characteristics of R&D in developing countries – special types of R&D Traditional knowledge traditional knowledge as an object of scientific study ie. ethno-science, anthropology applying scientific methods within areas of traditional knowledge ie. biodiversity using science to develop the products of traditional knowledge ie. research on traditional medicinal practices; traditional pharmacopoeia… Clinical trials Of growing importance in R&D Led by foreign institutions Reverse engineering Deriving principles from an existing product in the context of an R&D project Community development If projects are concerned with development and testing Religious research
Selected characteristics of R&D in developing countries (counti…) Professional Crisis Researchers with research but no funding Researchers with funding but no research Much less common than lack of funding (?), but includes other barriers to research; availability of tools, problems of access, conflict situations etc. taxi professors Two (or more) jobs resulting in less than expected, or very variable, time spent on research enseignant-chercheur (teacher-researcher) A contract giving a certain employment status but not necessarily linked to a certain level of active research visiting researchers from abroad
Selected characteristics of R&D in developing countries (counti…) Concentration - some Regions (triad) some countries few sectors few institutions Heterogeneity - Eg. countries with consolidated R&D system and developed S&T statistics systems, countries with consolidated R&D system and less developed S&T statistics systems, countries with less consolidated R&D systems (Arber et al 2008). Mobility - Brain drain, brain circulation - knowledge flows, impact on S&T Diaspora Internationalization - foreign institutions, foreign antennas, international organizations, multinational/foreign laboratories, foreign universities achieving the targets?? More than R&D indicators needed - Dynamics of R&D systems, R&D practices
Measurement issues FM issues affecting developing countries Developing countries issues affecting FM Developing country issues beyond FM scope
Measurement issues FM issues affecting developing countries applicability of concepts and definitions: (R&D, FTE, Informal researchers) structure of R&D systems: (foreign institutions, Public/Private enterprises, Public/Private/Foreign HE, incompatible sources of funds) Sectorial issues Business enterprise sector: (smaller % of R&D, Foreign multinationals, large companies) Higher Education sector: (Budgetary issues, difficulties in accessing info, FTE calculations, PhD/Master students). Private-non-profit sector: (volatility) Abroad and international sector: (Foreign funds, Foreign research institutes, visiting researchers from aboard, clinical trials, etc). use of secondary sources (beyond surveys): (National budgets, S&TMIS, databases).
Measurement issues Developing country issues beyond FM scope Difficulties in establishing surveys; registers, questionnaire design, Institutionalization of S&T stats, Interaction with stakeholders - users and producers - ownership, involvement of NSO Data sources: Need to establish proper registers and directories to provide an overview of the system and an initial framework for R&D surveys Develop new internationalization indicators Develop STA indicators Need for studies to complement, interpret and use indicators
Present status and way forward "Annex to the FM on measuring R&D in developing countries". To provide guidance and clarifications to help developing countries to implement R&D surveys and FM concepts. A task force (lead by UIS) was established by the NESTI to proceed with this. UIS is in the process of preparing the 1 st draft of the Annex. More inputs needed… "UIS guide to S&T statistics". UIS to develop new concepts and guidelines to address challenges specific to developing countries, exceeding the scope of FM: S&T statistics beyond R&D. Some of the issues might also present measurement challenges for a future revision of the Frascati Manual. UIS to further consult Member States to expand and refine the issues. Statistical capacity building to help countries with; Co-ordination, Technical skills, Advocacy
Thank you! Rohan Pathirage, Asst. Programme Specialist, UNESCO Institute for Statistics C.P Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada. TP: (1 514) Fax: (1 514)