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SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL SEMINAR-WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS CURRENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH-EAST.

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Presentation on theme: "SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL SEMINAR-WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS CURRENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH-EAST."— Presentation transcript:

1 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL SEMINAR-WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS CURRENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH-EAST ASIA Phnom Penh, Cambodia 18-20 Nov 2008

2 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Country Presentation Sitaram P BYAHUT National Science Council Tribhuvan University Dinesh R BHUJU Nepal Academy of Science and Technology

3 UNESCO Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Government of Nepal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology Acknowledgements SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

4 GENERAL OVERVIEW INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITIES HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT DISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT PLANS & POLICY SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL CONTENTS

5 General Overview Federal Republic of Nepal COUNTRY NOTES Area: 141,181 Sq Km Population:25 million (2001) Literacy: >60%; KEI: 1.61 Topography: Mountainous (>70%) Major Economic Activity: Agriculture, Tourism, Remittance Potentials: Natural Resources: Water Resources (>6,000 rivers 225 b cu m/yr, Biodiversity (>34 ecosystems), High Altitude Mountains (60m-8,848m asl) Human Resources: Intellectual Plurarism, Technical Advances (IOL and IT received Magasessey Awards), Higher Education, Indigenous Knowledge System, Micro-Hydro, Community Forestry & Conservation etc. High Altitude Research Lab 5,50m, Nepal SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

6 Pre-Modern (Before 1800) The Gopal:Up to 1000 BC The Kirat:700 BC-110 AD The Lichhavi:110-879 AD The Thakuri: 879-1200 AD The Malla: 1200-1768 AD Modern Isolation (1800 – 1950 AD) Post-isolation (1950 AD onwards) General Overview HISTORICAL TRENDS SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

7 SNDynastyPeriodKnowledge 1The Gopals The Abhirs Up to 1000BC Animal husbandry; Agricultural farming; Use of bamboo, hay, thatch and timber for construction; Dairy products 2The Kirats700BC- 110AD Brick firing; Woolen shawls 3The Lichhavis110AD- 879AD Building construction; Water supply- construction of irrigation canals and stone spot; Architectural developments- Chityas, Stupa; Stone technology; Ponds for recharging water, sand filters; Street light by cotton and oil 4The Thakuris 879AD - 1200AD Construction of Kasthamandap; Continuation of technologies developed in the past 5The Mallas1200AD- 1768AD Construction of Krishna Mandir, Nyatapola, Taleju & many palaces in Bhaktapur, Patan & Kathmandu; Metallurgical Competence, Excelled in civil & architecture, textile; Knowledge in mining & extraction of iron; Ayurvedic dispensary; Technologies comparable to neighboring countries; Arniko to China 6The Ranas1845AD- 1950AD Introduction of European technology; Construction of Sinha Durbar, other Victorian buildings, Clock tower; Allopathic hospital; Introduction of Motor car, Hydro electricity; Experimental station for agriculture Table: Records of scientific knowledge and technological innovations in Nepal before 1950 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

8 Nyatapola: Five-Storied Temple Bhaktapur, Built 1703 13 th Century

9 Pre-Modern (Before 1800) Modern Isolation (1800 – 1950 AD) Post-isolation (1950 AD onwards) General Overview HISTORICAL TRENDS SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

10 YearName of InstitutionType 1890Bir HospitalHealth service 1911Pharping Hydroelectric Power Plant Bijuli Adda/Nepal Electricity Authority (since 1985) Power supply 1918Trichandra CollegeEducation 1924Department of AgricultureS&T Service 1939Department of Livestock ServicesS&T Service 1942Technical School for Sub-overseerTraining 1947Nepal Forest InstituteEducation 1955Department of ForestS&T Service 1956Department of Soil SciencesS&T Service 1958Department of Geology and Mines Department of Survey Central Bureau of Statistics Exploration and S&T Service 1959Tribhuvan UniversityEducation 1960Department of Medicinal Plants Botanical Survey and National Herbarium Balaju Yantra Shala Exploration, S&T Service Workshop, R&D 1962Department of Hydrology and MeteorologyS&T Service 1963Butwal Technical Institute Forest Survey Research Office Training, R&D S&T Service Table. Chronological order major S&T institutions established in the country SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

11 1964Royal Drug Research LaboratoryR&D 1965Postgraduate Departments of Natural Sciences, Tribhuvan University Education 1966Central Food Research LaboratoryQuality tests 1968Lumle Agriculture Research CenterR&D 1972Royal Drugs Ltd. Institutes of Medicine, Agriculture, Forestry, Engineering- TU R&D Education 1973Department of National Parks and WildlifeS&T Service 1974Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed ManagementS&T Service 1975Nepal Telecommunication Corporation Natural History Museum, Tribhuvan University Telecommunication Exploration Research 1976National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) Nepal Bureau of Standards Coordination S&T Service 1977Research Center for Applied Science and Technology (RECAST) Butwal Engineering Works Ltd. R&D Industrial service 1980Department of Drug AdministrationDrug administration 1981Water and Energy Commission Herbs Production and Processing Company Ltd. R&D Production Processing 1982King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation Department of Ayurved Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) Conservation R&D R&D, Tech. transfer, Science Promotion Table. Chronological order major S&T institutions established in the country contd. SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

12 SCHOOL EDUCATION: Primary Tier : Grade 1-5 Lower Secondary Tier: Grade 6-8 Secondary Tier: Grade 9-10 Higher Secondary Tier: Grade 11-12 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION Bachelors : 3-5 yrs (after Higher Secondary) Masters : 2 yrs after Bachelors Degree MPhil and PhD Programs Institutional Capabilities EDUCATION SYSTEM SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

13 Table. Distribution of +2 schools (science stream) in and outside Kathmandu valley SN Schools addressNumber of Schools Number of Students 1Kathmandu valley104 (48.6%)7196 (55.4%) 2Outside Kath valley.110 (51.4%)5795 (44.6%) Total21412,991 Source: Higher Secondary Education Board 2005 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

14 Institutional Capability VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Technical School 1932 Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (1989) Technical Schools : 19 Affiliated Institutes: 170 Areas: > 20 (Agriculture, Electrical, Electronics, Nursing) SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

15 Table. Technical institutions operated by CTEVT SNName of the InstitutionTrade Areas 1Balaju Technical Training Center, KathmanduElectrical, Mechanical, Sanitation 2.Training Institute for Technical Instruction, (TITI)Instruction Related Training 3.Panauti Technical School, KavreAutomobile 4.Lahan Technical School, LahanAgriculture, Construction, General Mechanics 5.Jiri Technical School, JiriAgriculture, Construction, Health (ANM) 6.Dhankuta Technical School, UttarpaniAgriculture 7.Vocational Training Center, BiratnagarHealth 8.Karnali Technical School, JumlaAgriculture, Construction, Health (AHW, ANM) 9.Bheri Technical School, NepalgunjGeneral Mechanics, Automechanics, Plumbing, Wielding, Electricity, Electronics, Computer, Off. Mgt. 10.Rapti Technical School, DangAgriculture, Construction, Rural Mechanics, CMA 11.School of Health Science, BharatpurHealth (Health Assistant) 12.Dhaulagiri Technical School, MustangLodge Management, Agriculture, Construction 13.Pokhara Tourism Training Center, PokharaHotel Management, Travel and Tourism Mgt, Computer 14.VTCD, LamjungAs per Local Needs 15.VTCD, TanahaunAs per Local Needs 16.Tansen Nursing School, PalpaHealth (Staff Nurse) 17.Second Health Service, BharatpurHealth 18.Hetauda Polytechnic, HetaudaElectrical, Mechanical and Industrial Skills 19.Seti Technical School, DipayalAgriculture, Construction SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

16 Institutional Capability HIGHER EDUCATION 1.Tri-Chandra College 1918 2.Tribhuvan University 1959 3.Nepal Sanskrit University 1986 4.Kathmandu University 1991 5.Purbanchal University 1995 6.Pokhara University 1997 7.BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences 1998 8.National Academy of Medical Sciences 2003 9.Lumbini University SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

17 TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY Institutes: Science and Technology, Medicine, Engineering, Forestry, Agriculture and Animal Science; Campuses: >300; Courses: Nearly 200 Students: >200,000; Faculties: 7,000; KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY POKHARA UNIVERSITY Institutional Capability MAJOR UNIVERSITIES SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

18 YearIOSTIOEIOMIAASIOFTotal 1990 93841831151274257714046 1991105172039188568456115686 1992121132268177772145417333 1993122722080149967456317088 1994141092029109867554118474 1995110282052113656548315264 1996111821974103652040415116 1997120471998117360241016230 1998117002172121259835316035 1999136202369137169643518491 2000126193610160574540519056 2001123604077174772036019264 2002115334291166756435818413 2003184704321164058634825365 2004188914050154364343725564 Table. Number of students in different institutes of Tribhuvan University SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

19 Table. Number of teachers in different S&T related institutions of Tribhuvan Univeristy Teachers IOSTIOEIOMIAASIOFTOTAL Professors 53 16 26 10-105 Readers171 52 42 25 4294 Lecturers511143177 7643950 Contract 61 78 36 15 2192 Total796289281126491541 Source: Planning Division, Tribhuvan University Today, 1999

20 Institutional Capability HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL 1977 1995 2005

21 SNSubject197719952005 1 Engineering739238911,234 2 Natural Science (Botany, Zoology, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Geology, Meteorology) 45019096,266 3 Medical Science (Nursing, Pharmacy, Medicine and Surgery) 49216585,496 4 Agriculture47713963004 5 Forestry155719798 6 Technology (Food Technology)64165224 7 Computer and IT782 8 Environment and Natural Resources104 9 Microbiology195 10 Total Number2377823628,103 Table. Human Resource Development in Science and Technology SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

22 Institutional Capability S&T ORGANIZATIONS National Council for Science and Technology 1976 (dissolved) Nepal Academy of Science and Technology 1982 Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology 1996 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

23 Department of Agriculture 1924 Department of Mines and Geology 1926 Department of Survey 1958 Department of Plant Resources 1959 Department of Food Research and Quality Control 1960 Department of Meteorology & Hydrology 1962 Department of Forest Research & Survey 1963 Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management 1974 Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation 1980 Department of Drug Administration 1980 Institutional Capability GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

24 Water and Energy Commission 1981 National Agriculture Research Council 1991 Environment Protection Council 1992 National Health Research Council 1992 High Level Commission for IT 1996 NGOs- >15,000 registered with Social Welfare Council (Environment Conservation 926, Health Care 339, etc.) Institutional Capability OTHER ORGANIZATIONS SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

25 Natural Science Physics Chemistry Mathematics Statistics Botany Zoology Geology Disciplinary Development MAJOR SUBJECTS Emerging Subjects Computer and IT Environmental Sc Conservation Biology Microbiology Biotechnology SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Applied Science Medicine Engineering Agriculture Forestry

26 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL SNInstitutionMajor Research Areas 1.Central Dept of Botany, TUPlant Physiology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Cytogenetics, Pathology, Mycology, Taxonomy, Plant Ecology, Ecophysiology Plant Biodiversity, Ethnobotany 2.Central Dept of Chemistry, TUNatural Product Chemistry, Electrochemistry, Radiation Chemistry, Sulfur Chemistry 3Central Dept of Geology, TUApplied Geophysics, Geological Mapping, Palaentology, Climate Change and Glaciology, Petrology, Hydrology, Chemical Modelling, Ground- and Surface Water 4Central Dept of Mathematics, TUAlgebra, Fluid Dynamics, Special Functions, Classical Analysis, Complex Analysis (Univalent Function), Integral Transform, 5Central Dept of Meteorology, TUClimate, hydrology, 6Central Dept of Microbiology, TUMedical Microbiology, Food Microbiology, Agricultural Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology 7Central Dept of Physics, TUAstrophysics, Environmental Physics, Condensed Matter, Polymer, Plasma Physics 8Central Dept of Statistics, TUSampling Theory, Demography, 10Central Det of Zoology,TUParasitology, Entomology, Ecology, Wetland Ecosystem, Fisheries 11Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology (RECAST) Solar Energy, Biomass Briquteting, Bio-fuel and improved cooking stoves, Natural Dyes, Natural Products, Crop Science and Medicinal Chemistry, Technology Testing and Transfer 12Institute of Agriculture & Animal Sciences, TU Wheat Improvement, Rice Improvement, Orobanche Management, Biological Control, Irrigation Management, Agronomy, Pathology, Horticulture, Entomology, Animal Sciences, Veterinary Sciences 13Institute of Engineering, TUHill Irrigation, Air Pollution, Passive Solar Heating, Building Design, Renewable Energy, Urban Land Management, Urban Regeneration, Seismic Resistant Design 14Institute of Forestry, TUSocial Forestry and Forest Management, Forest Products and Forest Engineering, Wildlife Management, Silviculture, Forest Biology, Community Forestry, Ecotourism, Farm Forestry, Watershed Management, Environmental Science Table. Major research areas in some S&T Institutions in Nepal

27 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL 15Institute of Medicine, TUOpthalmology, Obstretics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Orthopaedics, Radiology, Internal Medicine, Public Health, Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, Anaesthesiology 16School of Science, Kathmandu University Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Physics, Environmentla Science. Pharmacy 17School of Engineering, KUComputing projects, Online translation system, Hydro turbines, Solar water heater for highaltitudes, Micro hydro, Energy 18School of Medical Sciences, KUOccupational health safety 19Central Food Research LaboratoryFood Technology, Quality Control, Nutrition, 20Department of Forest Research and Survey (DFRS) Natural Forestry Management, Plantation Management, Tree Improvement, Agroforestry and Fodder Trees 21Department of Mines and GeologyMines, Petroleum, Seismology 22Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC) Cereals and Cash Crops, Horticulture, Livestock and Animal Health, Fisheries, Aquaculture, Fodder and Pasture, Agroforestry, Farm Forestry, Soil and Irrigation Management, Botany and Biotechnology, Entomology, Plant Pathology and Plant Protection, Farming Systems, Agri Economics and Marketing, Food Science, Agri Ecology and Environment, Socioeconomics and other related Fields of Agriculture 23Department of Plant Resources (DPR) Medicinal Plants, Plant Chemistry, Flora, Plant Taxonomy, Tissue Culture, Cytology and Cytogenetics, Plant Anatomy 24Department of Hydrology and Metereology Weather forecasting, Weather recording 25Department of Wildlife and National Parks Conservation of ecosystem, protection of rare and endangered wildlife 26Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) Biotechnology, Natural Products, Environment, Alternate Energy, High Altitude Sciences and Technology, Science and Technology Policy 27Purbanchal UniversityEngineering, Agriculture, Animal Science 28Pokhara UniversityPharmaceutical, Biomedical, Environment Table. Major research areas in some S&T Institutions in Nepal (Contd.)

28 Disciplinary Development NATIONAL SCIENCE CONGRESS 1982 1988 1994 1999 2004 2008 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Number of Papers Received in Science Congress

29 Subject198219881994199920042008 Agriculture8 (16%)40 (24%)33 (18%)70 (19%)120 (24%)156 (24%) Biological Sc21 (41%)53 (32%)32 (17%)97 (26%)154 (31%)303 (47%) Physical Sc18 (35%)20 (12%)27 (14%)41 (11%)144 (23%)11 (17%) Forest & Env.2 (4%)-33 (18%)43 (12%)33 (7%)87 (13%) Engg & Tech-14 (8%)28 (15%)31 (8%)30 (6%)44 (7%) Health & Med.1 (2%)15 (9%)10 (5%)52 (14%)44 (9%)78 (12%) General1 (2%)25 (15%)24 (13%)38 (10%)7 (1%)27 (4%) Total51 (100%)167 (100%)187 (100%)372 (100%)502 (100%)650 (100%) Table. Subject-wise breakdown of papers presented in national conferences on S&T SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

30 Disciplinary Development PROFESSIONALS /INCLUSIVENESS Professional Society: >100 Journal Publication: >60 Women Participation: Women Scientific Manpower: <15% of the total; 95% engaged in agriculture Marginalized Group in S&T: Negligible SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

31 Development Plans & Science Policy BUDGET OUTLAYS IN DEV. PLANS SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Periodic Development Plan 1956-2007 1st2nd3rd4th5th6th7th8th9th10th Total plan-outlay (Rs. in m)3306702500354091702230054110129565189580 234029 Sectoral distribution in % Agriculture, forest & irrigation 31.414.325.933.133.433.231.926.227.1 24.0 Transportation & communication 33.823.526.835.427.521.415.421.817.6 15.9 Industry, mining & power16.730.927.920.319.524.622.515.119.5 16.1 Education, health & drinking water 17.117.416.610.818.520.830.233.3 38.7 Science & Technology------0.1-0.2 1.0 Trade & tourism-------1.01.5 Land & housing finance--------0.1 1.2 Miscellaneous1.013.92.80.41.0--2.60.9 1.8 Total100 Table. Total outlays and their sector-wise distribution in percent in development plans

32 Development Plans & Science Policy DEVELOPMENT PLANS SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL FIVE-YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLAN Since 1956 S&T Policy Statement in Sixth Plan (1980-1985) Science and Technology Policy 2005, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology

33 PlanPeriodMajor AchievementRemarks First-Fifth1956-1980Development of Service Infrastructure Formation of NCST UNESCO recommends S&T Policy and High Level Body Sixth1980-1985Establishment of NAST23 Expert Groups to work on Status & Priority Seventh1985-1990 S&T Sector Budget National Policy on S&T Eight1992-1997Science Ministry CreatedRestoration of Multi Party System Ninth1997-200220-Year S&T Perspective Plan Tenth2002-2007 New S&T Policy S&T in Constitution Interim2007-2011 R&D Budget Head Govt. Commitments Promulgation of Republic of Nepal SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

34 Development Plans & Science Policy OVERVIEW SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY POLICY Efforts of GON and UNESCO since 1960s National Policy on Science and Technology 1989 forwarded by NAST through First National Conference on S&T Science and Technology Policy 2005, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology

35 Development Plans & Science Policy INVESTMENT IN S&T SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Table. R&D Expenditure in Some of the S&T sectors (Average of 1991-1996) Sector Total Budget (Rs. in millions) R&D Expenditure As % of Total Budget Agriculture and Food235613.3 Forest & Plant Resources7506.1 Industry and Mines93226.8 Health8071.9 Water and Energy29921.5 Land Survey1525.8 Education27821.8 Source: Adhikary et al.(1998)

36 R&D Expenditure % of GDP SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Development Plans & Science Policy INVESTMENT IN S&T 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995


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