Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS"— Presentation transcript:

1 SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL SEMINAR-WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS CURRENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH-EAST ASIA Phnom Penh, Cambodia 18-20 Nov 2008

2 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Country Presentation SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Sitaram P BYAHUT National Science Council Tribhuvan University Dinesh R BHUJU Nepal Academy of Science and Technology

3 Acknowledgements UNESCO
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Acknowledgements UNESCO Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Government of Nepal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology

4 CONTENTS GENERAL OVERVIEW INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITIES
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL CONTENTS GENERAL OVERVIEW INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITIES HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT DISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT PLANS & POLICY

5 General Overview Federal Republic of Nepal COUNTRY NOTES
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL General Overview Federal Republic of Nepal COUNTRY NOTES Area: 141,181 Sq Km Population:25 million (2001) Literacy: >60%; KEI: 1.61 Topography: Mountainous (>70%) Major Economic Activity: Agriculture, Tourism, Remittance Potentials: Natural Resources: Water Resources (>6,000 rivers 225 b cu m/yr, Biodiversity (>34 ecosystems), High Altitude Mountains (60m-8,848m asl) Human Resources: Intellectual Plurarism, Technical Advances (IOL and IT received Magasessey Awards), Higher Education, Indigenous Knowledge System, Micro-Hydro, Community Forestry & Conservation etc. High Altitude Research Lab 5,50m, Nepal

6 General Overview HISTORICAL TRENDS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL General Overview HISTORICAL TRENDS Pre-Modern (Before 1800) The Gopal: Up to 1000 BC The Kirat: 700 BC-110 AD The Lichhavi: AD The Thakuri: AD The Malla: AD Modern Isolation (1800 – 1950 AD) Post-isolation (1950 AD onwards)

7 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table: Records of scientific knowledge and technological innovations in Nepal before 1950 SN Dynasty Period Knowledge 1 The Gopals The Abhirs Up to 1000BC Animal husbandry; Agricultural farming; Use of bamboo, hay, thatch and timber for construction; Dairy products 2 The Kirats 700BC- 110AD Brick firing; Woolen shawls 3 Lichhavis 110AD- 879AD Building construction; Water supply- construction of irrigation canals and stone spot; Architectural developments- Chityas, Stupa; Stone technology; Ponds for recharging water, sand filters; Street light by cotton and oil 4 Thakuris 879AD - 1200AD Construction of Kasthamandap; Continuation of technologies developed in the past 5 Mallas 1200AD- 1768AD Construction of Krishna Mandir, Nyatapola, Taleju & many palaces in Bhaktapur, Patan & Kathmandu; Metallurgical Competence, Excelled in civil & architecture, textile; Knowledge in mining & extraction of iron; Ayurvedic dispensary; Technologies comparable to neighboring countries; Arniko to China 6 The Ranas 1845AD- 1950AD Introduction of European technology; Construction of Sinha Durbar, other Victorian buildings, Clock tower; Allopathic hospital; Introduction of Motor car, Hydro electricity; Experimental station for agriculture

8 Nyatapola: Five-Storied Temple
Bhaktapur, Built 1703 13th Century

9 General Overview HISTORICAL TRENDS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL General Overview HISTORICAL TRENDS Pre-Modern (Before 1800) Modern Isolation (1800 – 1950 AD) Post-isolation (1950 AD onwards)

10 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Chronological order major S&T institutions established in the country Year Name of Institution Type 1890 Bir Hospital Health service 1911 Pharping Hydroelectric Power Plant Bijuli Adda/Nepal Electricity Authority (since 1985) Power supply 1918 Trichandra College Education 1924 Department of Agriculture S&T Service 1939 Department of Livestock Services 1942 Technical School for Sub-overseer Training 1947 Nepal Forest Institute 1955 Department of Forest 1956 Department of Soil Sciences 1958 Department of Geology and Mines Department of Survey Central Bureau of Statistics Exploration and S&T Service 1959 Tribhuvan University 1960 Department of Medicinal Plants Botanical Survey and National Herbarium Balaju Yantra Shala Exploration, S&T Service Workshop, R&D 1962 Department of Hydrology and Meteorology 1963 Butwal Technical Institute Forest Survey Research Office Training, R&D

11 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Chronological order major S&T institutions established in the country contd. 1964 Royal Drug Research Laboratory R&D 1965 Postgraduate Departments of Natural Sciences, Tribhuvan University Education 1966 Central Food Research Laboratory Quality tests 1968 Lumle Agriculture Research Center 1972 Royal Drugs Ltd. Institutes of Medicine, Agriculture, Forestry, Engineering- TU 1973 Department of National Parks and Wildlife S&T Service 1974 Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management 1975 Nepal Telecommunication Corporation Natural History Museum, Tribhuvan University Telecommunication Exploration Research 1976 National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) Nepal Bureau of Standards Coordination 1977 Research Center for Applied Science and Technology (RECAST) Butwal Engineering Works Ltd. Industrial service 1980 Department of Drug Administration Drug administration 1981 Water and Energy Commission Herbs Production and Processing Company Ltd. Production Processing 1982 King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation Department of Ayurved Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) Conservation R&D, Tech. transfer, Science Promotion

12 Institutional Capabilities EDUCATION SYSTEM
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capabilities EDUCATION SYSTEM SCHOOL EDUCATION: Primary Tier : Grade 1-5 Lower Secondary Tier: Grade 6-8 Secondary Tier: Grade 9-10 Higher Secondary Tier: Grade 11-12 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION Bachelors’ : 3-5 yrs (after Higher Secondary) Master’s : 2 yrs after Bachelor’s Degree MPhil and PhD Programs

13 SN Schools address Number of Schools Number of Students 1
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Table. Distribution of +2 schools (science stream) in and outside Kathmandu valley SN Schools address Number of Schools Number of Students 1 Kathmandu valley 104 (48.6%) 7196 (55.4%) 2 Outside Kath valley. 110 (51.4%) 5795 (44.6%) Total 214 12,991 Source: Higher Secondary Education Board 2005

14 Institutional Capability VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capability VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Technical School 1932 Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (1989) Technical Schools : 19 Affiliated Institutes: 170 Areas: > 20 (Agriculture, Electrical, Electronics, Nursing)

15 Table. Technical institutions operated by CTEVT
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Table. Technical institutions operated by CTEVT SN Name of the Institution Trade Areas 1 Balaju Technical Training Center, Kathmandu Electrical, Mechanical, Sanitation 2. Training Institute for Technical Instruction, (TITI) Instruction Related Training 3. Panauti Technical School, Kavre Automobile 4. Lahan Technical School, Lahan Agriculture, Construction, General Mechanics 5. Jiri Technical School, Jiri Agriculture, Construction, Health (ANM) 6. Dhankuta Technical School, Uttarpani Agriculture 7. Vocational Training Center, Biratnagar Health 8. Karnali Technical School, Jumla Agriculture, Construction, Health (AHW, ANM) 9. Bheri Technical School, Nepalgunj General Mechanics, Automechanics, Plumbing, Wielding, Electricity, Electronics, Computer, Off. Mgt. 10. Rapti Technical School, Dang Agriculture, Construction, Rural Mechanics, CMA 11. School of Health Science, Bharatpur Health (Health Assistant) 12. Dhaulagiri Technical School, Mustang Lodge Management, Agriculture, Construction 13. Pokhara Tourism Training Center, Pokhara Hotel Management, Travel and Tourism Mgt, Computer 14. VTCD, Lamjung As per Local Needs 15. VTCD, Tanahaun 16. Tansen Nursing School, Palpa Health (Staff Nurse) 17. Second Health Service, Bharatpur 18. Hetauda Polytechnic, Hetauda Electrical, Mechanical and Industrial Skills 19. Seti Technical School, Dipayal Agriculture, Construction

16 Institutional Capability HIGHER EDUCATION
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capability HIGHER EDUCATION Tri-Chandra College 1918 Tribhuvan University 1959 Nepal Sanskrit University 1986 Kathmandu University 1991 Purbanchal University 1995 Pokhara University 1997 BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences 1998 National Academy of Medical Sciences 2003 Lumbini University

17 Institutional Capability MAJOR UNIVERSITIES
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capability MAJOR UNIVERSITIES TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY Institutes: Science and Technology, Medicine, Engineering, Forestry, Agriculture and Animal Science; Campuses: >300; Courses: Nearly 200 Students: >200,000; Faculties: 7,000; KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY POKHARA UNIVERSITY

18 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Number of students in different institutes of Tribhuvan University Year IOST IOE IOM IAAS IOF Total 1990 9384 1831 1512 742 577 14046 1991 10517 2039 1885 684 561 15686 1992 12113 2268 1777 721 454 17333 1993 12272 2080 1499 674 563 17088 1994 14109 2029 1098 675 541 18474 1995 11028 2052 1136 565 483 15264 1996 11182 1974 1036 520 404 15116 1997 12047 1998 1173 602 410 16230 11700 2172 1212 598 353 16035 1999 13620 2369 1371 696 435 18491 2000 12619 3610 1605 745 405 19056 2001 12360 4077 1747 720 360 19264 2002 11533 4291 1667 564 358 18413 2003 18470 4321 1640 586 348 25365 2004 18891 4050 1543 643 437 25564

19 Teachers IOST IOE IOM IAAS IOF TOTAL Professors 53 16 26 10 - 105
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Table. Number of teachers in different S&T related institutions of Tribhuvan Univeristy Teachers IOST IOE IOM IAAS IOF TOTAL Professors 53 16 26 10 - 105 Readers 171 52 42 25 4 294 Lecturers 511 143 177 76 43 950 Contract 61 78 36 15 2 192 Total 796 289 281 126 49 1541 Source: Planning Division, Tribhuvan University Today, 1999

20 Institutional Capability HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capability HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

21 Table. Human Resource Development in Science and Technology SN Subject
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Table. Human Resource Development in Science and Technology SN Subject 1977 1995 2005 1 Engineering 739 2389 11,234 2 Natural Science (Botany, Zoology, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Geology, Meteorology) 450 1909 6,266 3 Medical Science (Nursing, Pharmacy, Medicine and Surgery) 492 1658 5,496 4 Agriculture 477 1396 3004 5 Forestry 155 719 798 6 Technology (Food Technology) 64 165 224 7 Computer and IT 782 8 Environment and Natural Resources 104 9 Microbiology 195 10 Total Number 2377 8236 28,103

22 Institutional Capability S&T ORGANIZATIONS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capability S&T ORGANIZATIONS National Council for Science and Technology 1976 (dissolved) Nepal Academy of Science and Technology 1982 Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology 1996

23 Institutional Capability GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capability GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS Department of Agriculture 1924 Department of Mines and Geology 1926 Department of Survey 1958 Department of Plant Resources 1959 Department of Food Research and Quality Control 1960 Department of Meteorology & Hydrology 1962 Department of Forest Research & Survey 1963 Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management 1974 Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation 1980 Department of Drug Administration 1980

24 Institutional Capability OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Institutional Capability OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Water and Energy Commission 1981 National Agriculture Research Council 1991 Environment Protection Council 1992 National Health Research Council 1992 High Level Commission for IT 1996 NGOs- >15,000 registered with Social Welfare Council (Environment Conservation 926, Health Care 339, etc.)

25 Disciplinary Development MAJOR SUBJECTS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Disciplinary Development MAJOR SUBJECTS Applied Science Medicine Engineering Agriculture Forestry Natural Science Physics Chemistry Mathematics Statistics Botany Zoology Geology Emerging Subjects Computer and IT Environmental Sc Conservation Biology Microbiology Biotechnology

26 Table. Major research areas in some S&T Institutions in Nepal
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Table. Major research areas in some S&T Institutions in Nepal SN Institution Major Research Areas 1. Central Dept of Botany, TU Plant Physiology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Cytogenetics, Pathology, Mycology, Taxonomy, Plant Ecology, Ecophysiology Plant Biodiversity, Ethnobotany 2. Central Dept of Chemistry, TU Natural Product Chemistry, Electrochemistry, Radiation Chemistry, Sulfur Chemistry 3 Central Dept of Geology, TU Applied Geophysics, Geological Mapping, Palaentology, Climate Change and Glaciology, Petrology, Hydrology, Chemical Modelling, Ground- and Surface Water 4 Central Dept of Mathematics, TU Algebra, Fluid Dynamics, Special Functions, Classical Analysis, Complex Analysis (Univalent Function), Integral Transform, 5 Central Dept of Meteorology, TU Climate, hydrology, 6 Central Dept of Microbiology, TU Medical Microbiology, Food Microbiology, Agricultural Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology 7 Central Dept of Physics, TU Astrophysics, Environmental Physics, Condensed Matter, Polymer, Plasma Physics 8 Central Dept of Statistics, TU Sampling Theory, Demography, 10 Central Det of Zoology,TU Parasitology, Entomology, Ecology, Wetland Ecosystem, Fisheries 11 Research Centre for Applied Science and Technology (RECAST) Solar Energy, Biomass Briquteting, Bio-fuel and improved cooking stoves, Natural Dyes, Natural Products, Crop Science and Medicinal Chemistry, Technology Testing and Transfer 12 Institute of Agriculture & Animal Sciences, TU Wheat Improvement, Rice Improvement, Orobanche Management, Biological Control, Irrigation Management, Agronomy, Pathology, Horticulture, Entomology, Animal Sciences, Veterinary Sciences 13 Institute of Engineering, TU Hill Irrigation, Air Pollution, Passive Solar Heating, Building Design, Renewable Energy, Urban Land Management, Urban Regeneration, Seismic Resistant Design 14 Institute of Forestry, TU Social Forestry and Forest Management, Forest Products and Forest Engineering, Wildlife Management, Silviculture, Forest Biology, Community Forestry, Ecotourism, Farm Forestry, Watershed Management, Environmental Science

27 Table. Major research areas in some S&T Institutions in Nepal (Contd.)
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Table. Major research areas in some S&T Institutions in Nepal (Contd.) 15 Institute of Medicine, TU Opthalmology, Obstretics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Orthopaedics, Radiology, Internal Medicine, Public Health, Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, Anaesthesiology 16 School of Science, Kathmandu University Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Physics, Environmentla Science. Pharmacy 17 School of Engineering, KU Computing projects, Online translation system, Hydro turbines, Solar water heater for highaltitudes, Micro hydro, Energy 18 School of Medical Sciences, KU Occupational health safety 19 Central Food Research Laboratory Food Technology, Quality Control, Nutrition, 20 Department of Forest Research and Survey (DFRS) Natural Forestry Management, Plantation Management, Tree Improvement, Agroforestry and Fodder Trees 21 Department of Mines and Geology Mines, Petroleum, Seismology 22 Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC) Cereals and Cash Crops, Horticulture, Livestock and Animal Health, Fisheries, Aquaculture, Fodder and Pasture, Agroforestry, Farm Forestry, Soil and Irrigation Management, Botany and Biotechnology, Entomology, Plant Pathology and Plant Protection, Farming Systems, Agri Economics and Marketing, Food Science, Agri Ecology and Environment, Socioeconomics and other related Fields of Agriculture 23 Department of Plant Resources (DPR) Medicinal Plants, Plant Chemistry, Flora, Plant Taxonomy, Tissue Culture, Cytology and Cytogenetics, Plant Anatomy 24 Department of Hydrology and Metereology Weather forecasting, Weather recording 25 Department of Wildlife and National Parks Conservation of ecosystem, protection of rare and endangered wildlife 26 Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) Biotechnology, Natural Products, Environment, Alternate Energy, High Altitude Sciences and Technology, Science and Technology Policy 27 Purbanchal University Engineering, Agriculture, Animal Science 28 Pokhara University Pharmaceutical, Biomedical, Environment

28 Disciplinary Development NATIONAL SCIENCE CONGRESS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Disciplinary Development NATIONAL SCIENCE CONGRESS Number of Papers Received in Science Congress

29 SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Subject-wise breakdown of papers presented in national conferences on S&T Subject 1982 1988 1994 1999 2004 2008 Agriculture 8 (16%) 40 (24%) 33 (18%) 70 (19%) 120 (24%) 156 (24%) Biological Sc 21 (41%) 53 (32%) 32 (17%) 97 (26%) 154 (31%) 303 (47%) Physical Sc 18 (35%) 20 (12%) 27 (14%) 41 (11%) 144 (23%) 11 (17%) Forest & Env. 2 (4%) - 43 (12%) 33 (7%) 87 (13%) Engg & Tech 14 (8%) 28 (15%) 31 (8%) 30 (6%) 44 (7%) Health & Med. 1 (2%) 15 (9%) 10 (5%) 52 (14%) 44 (9%) 78 (12%) General 25 (15%) 24 (13%) 38 (10%) 7 (1%) 27 (4%) Total 51 (100%) 167 (100%) 187 (100%) 372 (100%) 502 (100%) 650 (100%)

30 Disciplinary Development PROFESSIONALS /INCLUSIVENESS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Disciplinary Development PROFESSIONALS /INCLUSIVENESS Professional Society: >100 Journal Publication: >60 Women Participation: Women Scientific Manpower: <15% of the total; 95% engaged in agriculture Marginalized Group in S&T: Negligible

31 Development Plans & Science Policy BUDGET OUTLAYS IN DEV. PLANS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Development Plans & Science Policy BUDGET OUTLAYS IN DEV. PLANS Table. Total outlays and their sector-wise distribution in percent in development plans Periodic Development Plan 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th Total plan-outlay (Rs. in m) 330 670 2500 3540 9170 22300 54110 129565 189580 234029 Sectoral distribution in % Agriculture, forest & irrigation 31.4 14.3 25.9 33.1 33.4 33.2 31.9 26.2 27.1 24.0 Transportation & communication 33.8 23.5 26.8 35.4 27.5 21.4 15.4 21.8 17.6 15.9 Industry, mining & power 16.7 30.9 27.9 20.3 19.5 24.6 22.5 15.1 16.1 Education, health & drinking water 17.1 17.4 16.6 10.8 18.5 20.8 30.2 33.3 38.7 Science & Technology - 0.1 0.2 1.0 Trade & tourism 1.5 Land & housing finance 1.2 Miscellaneous 13.9 2.8 0.4 2.6 0.9 1.8 Total 100

32 Development Plans & Science Policy DEVELOPMENT PLANS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Development Plans & Science Policy DEVELOPMENT PLANS FIVE-YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLAN Since 1956 S&T Policy Statement in Sixth Plan ( ) Science and Technology Policy 2005, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology

33 Development of Service Infrastructure Formation of NCST
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Plan Period Major Achievement Remarks First-Fifth Development of Service Infrastructure Formation of NCST UNESCO recommends S&T Policy and High Level Body Sixth Establishment of NAST 23 Expert Groups to work on Status & Priority Seventh S&T Sector Budget National Policy on S&T Eight Science Ministry Created Restoration of Multi Party System Ninth 20-Year S&T Perspective Plan Tenth New S&T Policy S&T in Constitution Interim R&D Budget Head Govt. Commitments Promulgation of Republic of Nepal

34 Development Plans & Science Policy OVERVIEW
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Development Plans & Science Policy OVERVIEW SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY POLICY Efforts of GON and UNESCO since 1960s National Policy on Science and Technology 1989 forwarded by NAST through First National Conference on S&T Science and Technology Policy 2005, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology

35 Development Plans & Science Policy INVESTMENT IN S&T
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Development Plans & Science Policy INVESTMENT IN S&T Table. R&D Expenditure in Some of the S&T sectors (Average of ) Sector Total Budget (Rs. in millions) R&D Expenditure As % of Total Budget Agriculture and Food 2356 13.3 Forest & Plant Resources 750 6.1 Industry and Mines 932 26.8 Health 807 1.9 Water and Energy 2992 1.5 Land Survey 152 5.8 Education 2782 1.8 Source: Adhikary et al.(1998)

36 Development Plans & Science Policy INVESTMENT IN S&T
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL Development Plans & Science Policy INVESTMENT IN S&T R&D Expenditure % of GDP


Download ppt "SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google