Presentation on theme: "Country Presentation: Mongolia Ayush Purevjal (Senior officer) Ministry of Education, Culture and Science 2010 SOUTH ASIAN REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE,TECHNOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:
Country Presentation: Mongolia Ayush Purevjal (Senior officer) Ministry of Education, Culture and Science 2010 SOUTH ASIAN REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE,TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION INDICATORS: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES (Kathmandu, Nepal, December 2010)
Contents 1.Country profile 2.Scientific system 3.Collecting S&T statistics 4.Main results of the collected S&T statistical data 5.Major problems in collecting S&T statistics
1. Country profile
Map of Mongolia
Huge territory mln.sq.km (11 times bigger than Nefal, 2.8 times bigger than France) Rich of natural resources - Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, Coal, Gas… Animal husbandry (40.0 mln: Cow-2.6, Sheep-19.3, Goat-19.6, Horse-2.2, Camel-0.28) –NSO,2009 Cashmere (Second largest exporter) Educational level of people: (about 20% of Government budget dedicated to Education) - literacy rate 97.6% (NSO, 2009) universities, institutes and colleges What we have…
Few population – 2.73 mln., NSO, 2009 (11 times less than Nepal) Extreme (severe continental) climate - +/-35 C No sea access (Between two big Powers: Russia and China) Small market No experience in market economy (during 70 years isolated socialist system ) Economy based on agriculture (animal husbandry) and row material export GDP per capita USD ( NSO, 2009) What we do not have…
2. Scientific system
Education Soviet model of R&D system (before 1990) Universities Institutes under the Academy of Sciences Research institutes under ministries Basic research Applied research and development
S&T under central-command system Government Research Institutes under Ministries State-owned Industry Government-funded R&D
R&D during the Transition (since 1990) During : Scientific expenditure decreased Number of researchers decreased 2.5 times Number of research organizations decreased from 91 to 32 Material investment for laboratory equipments was stopped After 1997: Reorganization of universities and research institutes Tendency to increase budget and number of researchers
Organizational Structure of Mongolian Scientific sector (since 1990) Government MECSOther Ministries MAS NSTF Scientific, technological and Production Corporations Universities Scientific Research Institutes Scientific Research Institutes under MAS NCST
3. Collecting S&T statistics
Legislative framework of S&T statistics Legislation acts: Law on statistics (MP, 1997) Law on S&T (MP, 1998) Main policy documents: State policy on S&T (MP, 1998) S&T Master plan ( ) of Mongolia (MG, 2007) Programme for developing of national innovation system in Mongolia (MG, 2007)
S&T data collection process Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (MECS) UniversitiesScientific research institutions UNESCO National statistical office (NSO) By data collection forms (questionnaires) Official statistical data Official and administrative statistical data Questionnaire UIS/ST
Dissemination formats of results of S&T statistics Publication (annual): Mongolian statistical yearbook, NSO (Mongolian/English) Statistical abstract of Education, Culture and Science sectors, MECS statistical yearbook (Mongolian) Electronic (internet): Statistical data of Education, Culture and Science sectors by NSO (Mongolian/English) Website: Statistical database of Education, Culture and Science sectors by MECS (Mongolian) Website:
Coverage of R&D statistics (by sector) Sector Degree of coverage Completely covered Partially coveredNot covered Business enterprise X GovernmentX Higher educationX Private non-profit Category not applicable. It is included into Business enterprise.
4. Main results of the collected S&T statistical data
Number of institutions covering R&D statistics (data of MECS) SectorType of institutions Number of institutions Business enterprise Private Scientific Research Institutions 4750 Government Public Scientific Research Institutions 49 Higher education Universities59 Total5668
Scientific research institutions (by forms): –Scientific research institutions of MAS – 22 –Scientific, technological and production corporations – 5 –Scientific research institutions of public universities – 14 –Scientific research institutions under Ministries – 9 –Private scientific research institutions – 9 Scientific research institutions (by field of science): –Engineering and technology – 12 –Natural sciences – 20 –Agricultural sciences – 7 –Medical and health sciences – 5 –Social sciences and Humanities – 15 Source: MECS, 2009 Scientific research institutions
Total full-time R&D personal by occupation (Headcount data for statistics of MECS) Year Total full- time R&D personal Occupation Researchers (including Administrative staff) Engineering and technical staff Other supporting staff
Total full-time R&D personal by sex (Headcount data for statistics of MECS) Year Total full-time R&D personal of which: Researchers (including Administrative staff) TOTALFemale % of female in total TOTALFemale % of female in total
Total full-time R&D personal by sector of employment (Headcount data for statistics of MECS, 2009) Sector Total full-time R&D personal % of total Researchers (including Administrative staff) % of total TOTAL Business enterprise Government Higher education
Researchers by formal qualification and sector of employment (Headcount data for statistics of MECS, 2009) Qualification Total researchers Sector % of qualification in Total researchers Business enterprise Govern- ment Higher education TOTAL I.ISCED II.ISCED 5A III.ISCED 5B IV. All other qualifications -----
Researchers by field of science and sector of employment (Headcount data for statistics of MECS, 2009) Field of science Total researchers Sector % of field of science in Total researchers Business enterprise Government Higher education TOTAL I. Natural sciences II. Engineering and technology III. Medical and health sciences IV. Agricultural sciences V. Social sciences and humanities
Researchers by age structure (Headcount data for statistics of MECS)
Total researchers per thousand total employments (data for statistics of MECS and NSO) Indicators Total employments (thousand persons) Total researchers Total researchers per thousand total employments
Expenditure on R&D (data for statistics of MECS and NSO) Year Total expenditure on R&D Gross domestic product (GDP), at current prices Ratio to GDP, % Millions, Mongolian tugrik (T)
Sources of finds of R&D expenditure Government budget (central) Local budget Private organizations Higher education Foreign funds Money from basic and supporting activities of scientific research organizations Other resources
Expenditure on R&D by sources of funds (data of MECS, 2009) Total expenditure Source of funds Business enterprise Government Higher education Fund of abroad Not specified % Expenditure by sector of performance: Government -80.9% Business enterprise -6.9% Higher education -12.2% Most of R&D carried out in public sector research institutes and universities Central government main source of R&D funding Private sector R&D not assessed
Expenditure by type of R&D activity (%, data MECS, 2009)
5. Major problems in collecting S&T statistics
Major problems in collecting S&T statistics in Mongolia: Not established a national integrated system of S&T information and statistics. Non-existence of completely information or data on Industry and Business enterprise involvement into the S&T sector and that makes difficult to determine the current condition of S&T sector in Mongolia. Sometimes S&T statistical data and methodology on data collection is different in Mongolia. For example: we dont use theFull-time equivalence (FTEs) indicator and dont know how to calculate them. Also some of indicators such as (researchers, publications) should be calculated in accordance with the internationally recognized methods.
Major problems in collecting S&T statistics in Mongolia: The importance and role of the S&T statistical information is very limited and public awareness on the S&T statistical information is poor in Mongolia. Capacity of Institutional statisticians in the S&T sector is very low and un experienced. Use of advanced ICT is the main negative factor for collecting, processing and aggregating statistical data as well as distributing this information to users. Lack surveys on monitoring and evaluation of S&T statistical information and indicators at qualified level.
Future suggestions and actions to improve the S&T statistics in Mongolia: Collecting and integrating S&T information and statistics according to international classification and standards: To increase the number of internationally comparable S&T statistical data; to develop a guideline on definitions of the main S&T indicators and methodologies these calculations. Calculating an Industry and Business enterprise involvement into the S&T sector: Expanding the degree of coverage of the Business enterprise and Industrial institutions to the S&T statistical information; under this framework need to integrate the National Statistical Office of Mongolia, and use its human resource and national statistical information network capacity.
Future suggestions and actions to improve the S&T statistics in Mongolia: Collecting and integrating innovation statistics and data according to international standards: developing of Law on Innovation; to determine the main indicators for respective innovation statistics need to be developed. Introduction of modern advanced ICT (software and hardware) for collecting, processing and aggregating of S&T statistical information. With the purpose of improving the capacity and exchange of experiences of the statistical officials, to involve and invite to the International or national seminars and training workshops widely.