Presentation on theme: "Innovation Survey on Chinese Industrial Enterprises"— Presentation transcript:
1Innovation Survey on Chinese Industrial Enterprises Department of Social, Sciences and Technology StatisticsNational Bureau of Statistics of China (NBS)December 2010, Nepal
2The presentation outline: The background and motivation for carrying out the first innovation survey in ChinaThe Structure of the Chinese questionnaireThe similarities and differences between Chinese questionnaire and CIS questionnaireThe Survey MethodologyThe preliminary results from the first innovation of ChinaThe concluding remarks and future plan for the development of innovation survey
3Background & motivation 1. Needs from the perspective of policy-making2. Needs for achieving international comparability through exchange and mutual learning.3. Needs for further developing the statistical system of China
4Needs from the perspective of policy-making In the Chinese process of building a well-off society in an all-round way, the economic reform and openness will remain as crucial development strategies.Beyond the introduction of advanced foreign technology, indigenous innovation capacity building will be the focus of future development strategies when promoting the openness of the Chinese economy.
5Needs from the perspective of policy-making On the other hand, improving the enterprise’ innovation ability is very important to transforming the economic growth mode and reducing the consumption of resource and energy.In this background, the Chinese government declared the new development strategy in 2006, namely to transfer China to an innovation-oriented and strong indigenous innovation capacity.
6Needs from the perspective of policy-making At the current stage, there are a large number of innovation policy instruments, which are being implemented by the Chinese government.To meet the information needs of such macroeconomic management and to reflect/measure the effects of these innovation policies, the S&T statistical agency in China have an important task.
7Needs for achieving international comparability through exchange and mutual learning In recent years, the innovation capacity and activities of Chinese enterprises have received considerably attention, from many foreign/ European governmental agencies and researchers from universities and research institutes. Some proposals for research co-operation with the NBS regarding innovation of enterprises in China have been developed.
8Needs for achieving international comparability through exchange and mutual learning At the same time, China also considers innovative countries in Europe a target to catch up. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out international comparative studies to meet the need for benchmarking with more advanced innovative countries.
9Needs for further developing and completing the statistical system of China In the last two decades, only R&D statistics was included in the national indicator system. While most of EU countries have carried out Community Innovation Survey (CIS) on a regular basis, China did not have regular innovation survey praxis. Human resources involved in S&T indicator system has been also limited.
10Needs for further developing and completing the statistical system of China Due to these restraints, it leaves large room for improvement, in terms of international comparability, in fields of survey practices, personnel training, data quality, research methodology and data collection.Therefore, we would like to take this opportunity when S&T and innovation are becoming increasingly important issues, not only for the Chinese government but also for the international community, in the face of globalization, to develop the S&T statistics system, and to establish the regular innovation survey system.
11Background & motivation Based on the above perspectives, according to the standard /spirit of Oslo manual and CIS4, with the technical aids from Nordic experts, the first innovation survey of China in the scope of industrial enterprise was conducted in 2007.
12The structure of the questionnaire The survey aims to collect information for the period , regarding the industrial enterprises’ innovation in terms of expenditure, effects and influencing factors as well as the understanding (perception) of innovation of the CEOs (at the managing /decision-making level).The survey questionnaire is divided into two parts. The first part is Information on Industrial Enterprises’ Innovation, the second part is the Manager/CEO Survey.
13The structure of the questionnaire Part 1: Industrial Enterprises’ Innovation informationS1. General information about the enterpriseS2. Product innovationS3. Process innovationS4. Ongoing or abandoned innovation activities and reasons for abandoning innovation activities
14The structure of the questionnaire S5. Innovation activities and expenditureS6. Output of InnovationS7. Intellectual property rights Protection
15The structure of the questionnaire Part 2:Manager/CEO Survey QuestionnaireS1. Information about the manager /CEOS2. Opinion on the importance of innovationS3. The effects of product and process innovationS4. Source of information of innovation
16The structure of the questionnaire S5. Promoting factors for the success of innovationS6. Incentive for innovationS7-S8. Effect of various government policies on innovationS9. Future innovation strategy
17The similarities and differences between Chinese questionnaire and CIS questionnaire The structure presented above shows considerable similarities between the Chinese survey questionnaire and the CIS questionnaire.In briefly, to a large extent, the Chinese questionnaire covers the same topics and the same questions as in the CIS questionnaire.
18The similarities and differences between Chinese questionnaire and CIS questionnaire On the other hand, there are also some differences, which can be summarised as follows :1. The questionnaire is divided into two parts. the first part is supposed to be completed jointly by units of S&T management, coordination and accounting, organised by the responsible for innovation activities of the enterprise. The second part is expected to be completed by the manager/CEO who is in charge/responsible for decision making concerning innovation activities of the enterprise.
19The similarities and differences between Chinese questionnaire and CIS questionnaire 2. In the CEO questionnaire, there are a number of China-specific questions, such as promoting factors, incentive instruments, effects of various government policies and enterprises’ future innovation strategy. They are of great policy interest.
20The similarities and differences between Chinese questionnaire and CIS questionnaire 3.The key concepts and definitions are slightly different, such as product innovation, process innovation and new product, etc. (due to the article space limitations, the concrete differences no longer are pointed out in this report. If you are interested in these issues, please contact with us)
21The similarities and differences between Chinese questionnaire and CIS questionnaire In a word, there are some modifications in the Chinese innovation survey questionnaire compared to the CIS questions, which are motivated by the need to maintain the international comparability as well as the need to reflect the China-specific context.
22The survey methodology The time periodThe innovation survey of China covers the period , whereas the CIS4 covers the observation period
23The survey methodology 2. The survey object: Industrial enterprisesLarge and Medium-sized industrial Enterprises (LMEs)Small-sized industrial enterprises with annual turnover above 5 million RMBClassification of Large, Medium and Small EnterprisesLargeMediumSmallEmployment (Person)2000+300-Turnover (Million Yuan)300+30-30030-Total assets (Million Yuan)400+40-40040-Firms are classified as large if all three criteria in column (1) are satisfied. The remaining firms are classified as medium if all three lower bounds in column (2) are satisfied. Otherwise they are classified as small
24The Survey methodology Census survey on LMEsSample survey on small-sized enterprises3. Coverage of the surveyTotally 67,242 LMEs and small enterprises were includedThe sample size of small-sized enterprises drawn by NBS were 42,600 and the sampling ratio was equal to 16.3%the response rate was 82%The non-responses were caused by the changes (deviation) in the population frame, i.e. some of small enterprises no longer exist.
25The Survey methodology The survey is organized by the department of Social, Science and Technology statistics of NBS. It is responsible for organisation and leadership, and undertakes the specific statistics work, including the questionnaire and guideline design, Provincial and Municipal statistician training, data processing and publishing, and so on. Provincial and Municipal Bureaus of statistics are responsible for enterprises’ personnel training, collecting and processing data, submitting the data to NBS, etc. The questionnaires are filled out by the enterprises’ respondents after being trained and reading the guideline.
26The survey results Innovation activity during 2004-2006. Who developed product and process innovations?Innovation expenditures in 2006.Information source of innovation duringEffects of innovations.Share of revenue in 2006 from product innovations.Promoting factors for success of innovations.Hampering factors for innovations.
27Innovation activity during 2004-2006 28.8 % of surveyed enterprises conducted innovation activityof which:19.9% introduced both product and process innovations.3.6% introduced product innovations only.4.4% process innovations only.0.9% had ongoing or abandoned innovation activity.
29Electricity, Gas and Water Innovation activity by size & industry (Share of enterprises with innovation activities, %)SizeAllMiningManufacturingElectricity, Gas and WaterLarge83.572.385.670.8Medium55.930.558.731.6Small25.28.827.610.528.812.230.015.7Large enterprises were most likely to conduct innovation activity
30Innovation activity in LMEs by ownership (Share of LMEs with innovation activities, %) Domestic61.8Overseas from Hong Kong, Macao & Taiwan49.6Foreign53.0All58.2
31Who developed innovations Who developed innovations? (Share of different forms of conducting innovation, %)Product and process innovations were mostly developed by the enterprise or enterprise group % of product innovations and 69.9% of process innovations respectively.A larger share of process innovations were developed by others compared to product innovations.
32Who developed innovations in LMEs ? By ownership (product innovation,%) ItselfTogetherOtherDomestic77.817.94.3Overseas from Hong Kong, Macao &Taiwan126.96.36.199Foreign82.612.74.7All79.616.1
33Who developed innovations in LMEs ? By ownership (process innovation,%) ItselfTogetherOtherDomestic67.517.614.9Overseas from Hong Kong, Macao &Taiwan75.411.513.1Foreign75.810.713.5All70.015.714.4
34Innovation expenditures 2006 (Share in total expenditure, %) The total expenditure amounted to billion RMB, up by 23.1 percent over the previous year, it accounted for 1.86 percent of turnover.
35Innovation expenditures in LMEs, 2006 By ownership DomesticOverseasForeignInnovation expenditures (Billion RMB)355.4832.5184.34Intramural R&D(%)33.646.236.8Extramural R&D3.33.05.9Acquisition of machinery, equipment and software (%)57.142.641.9Acquisition of other external knowledge6.08.215.4
36Information source for innovation Degree of importanceHighAll(%)LMESOwn33.135.6Enterprise group16.426.3Clients and Customers58.663.0Suppliers21.621.0Competitors29.833.0Technology market & consulting org.17.020.2
37Information source for innovation Degree of importanceHighAll(%)LMESIndustrial associations14.719.0Universities8.911.8Independent Institutions12.417.1Governmental authorities12.315.0Trade fairs, exhibitions26.027.4S&T literature11.914.4Internet information17.517.3
38Effect of innovation Degree of importance High All (%) LMEs Product oriented effects1. Increased range of goods54.161.52. Improved quality of goods56.662.73. Entered new markets or increased market share58.964.1
39Effect of innovation Degree of importance High All (%) LMEs Process oriented effects4. Improved flexibility of production38.341.15. Increased capacity of production56.360.06. Reduced labour costs per unit output37.941.4
40Effect of innovation Degree of importance High All (%) LMEs Process oriented effects7. Reduced materials per unit output35.441.58. Reduced energy per unit output36.142.59. Reduced environmental impacts39.443.510. Improved working conditions and enhanced safety42.345.0
41Effect of innovation in LMEs by Ownership Degree of importancehighDomestic (%)Overseas(%)ForeignProduct oriented effects1. Increased range of goods61.560.362.72. Improved quality of goods63.359.763.23. Entered new markets or increased market share64.562.663.9
42Effect of innovation in LMEs by Ownership Degree of importancehighDomestic (%)Overseas(%)ForeignProduct oriented effects4. Improved flexibility of production40.342.143.65. Increased capacity of production60.358.159.96. Reduced labour costs per unit output42.039.540.4
43Effect of innovation in LMEs by Ownership Domestic (%)overseas(%)ForeignProcess oriented effects7. Reduced materials per unit output42.337.940.88. Reduced energy per unit output43.938.140.39. Reduced environmental impacts44.340.610. Improved working conditions and enhanced safety46.041.543.8
44Share of revenue from product innovation 12.7 % of revenue in 2006 came from new products.6.8% from new to the market.5.9% from new to the firm.
45Share of revenue from product innovations ( by size & degree of novelty) Size classNew for marketNew forfirmLarge10.08.6Medium6.15.0Small4.03.8All6.85.9
46Share of revenue from product innovations in LMEs (by Ownership & degree of novelty) New for marketNew forfirmDomestic7.26.4Overseas10.55.2Foreign10.09.4All8.27.0
47Promoting factor for success of innovation Degree of importancehighAll(%)LMEsManager /CEO with innovative spirit66.072.9Sufficient financial support44.854.3Highly qualified human resource57.066.7Commitment of employees41.846.9
48Promoting factor for success of innovation Degree of importancehighAll(%)LMEsIncentive instruments40.646.9Effective technological strategies & planning.44.653.2Fluent information channels40.043.6Reliable partners in innovation co-operation30.234.0Favourable governmental support30.833.6
49Hampering factors for innovation Degree of importancehighAll(%)LMEImmature technology37.937.4Mismatch b/w new technology & production capacity27.122.5Emergence of newer/better technology or product29.133.5Lack of technical personnel or brain drain28.023.8
50Hampering factors for innovation Degree of importancehighAll(%)LMELack of funds during process of industrialisation34.125.8Reduction of market demand40.353.0Counterfeiting or import competition12.312.5Policy or regulation constraints10.913.3
51The concluding remarks and future plan for the development of Innovation survey The first innovation survey of China can be considered a great step forward accomplished by the NBS in a close co-operation with its Nordic partners. It is a promising start for an enlarged and deepened capacity building in the S&T indicator system of China and its co-operation with a broad international community.
52The concluding remarks and future plan for the development of Innovation survey The Survey has also provided us with rich information on the China-specific economic and social context and greatly enhanced our understanding of the innovation environment, in which enterprises in China are operating. Although there is no obvious evidence of the use of these results for policy making, the related government departments hope that NBS of China continues to conduct this survey in the future. It was well known that it is a valuable survey.
53The concluding remarks and future plan for the development of Innovation survey With respect to the coordination with the R&D survey, you can find that the R&D expenditures of large- and medium sized enterprises in 2006 were approximately equal in both surveys, because we used the data of R&D survey in innovation survey. In fact, the R&D expenditure in innovation survey is larger than it in the R&D survey. We believe that the data quality of R&D survey is higher because the R&D survey was conducted every year.
54The concluding remarks and future plan for the development of Innovation survey However, we can also see that the first innovation survey of China leaves large room for improvement, in terms of international comparability regarding survey practices and methodology. More specifically, departing from the current achievement, the NBS plans to continue their work on the innovation survey in the following directions:
55The concluding remarks and future plan for the development of Innovation survey To set up a regular innovation survey system and to enlarge the scope of the Survey, covering enterprises in service sector.To increase types of innovation in the Survey, including organisational and marketing innovation.To make the coverage and time point for survey as consistent as possible with the CIS.
56AcknowledgementsMany helps was provided from international experts during our first innovation survey:Mrs Birgitta Mannfelt at Statistics Sweden and Mr. Mikael Åkerblom at Statistics Finland provided us many technical assistances for the questionnaire design.Ms. Maria Säfström (Statistics Sweden) and Ms.Viveca Koch (Statistics Sweden) provided us the excellent training course.Dr. Nannan Lundin (Research Institutes of Industrial Economics, IFN) provided considerable assistance in co-coordinating the cooperation project.we deeply appreciate their helps and hope that more international experts can cooperate with us on our S&T statistics including innovation survey.