Presentation on theme: "Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators of Nepal"— Presentation transcript:
1 Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators of Nepal A country ReportChiranjivi RegmiGanesh Kumar PokhrelCapacity building workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators: Current Issues and Challenges for South Asia 6-9 December, Kathmandu, Nepal
2 Outlines of Presentation Introduction Historical Background Development Plans S&T Indicators Collecting R&D statistics Major Findings Institutional Profile Human Resources Investment in S&T S&T Equipment Recommendations
3 IntroductionInformation on status of S&T is necessary for developing overall plan and policies of the country.It is important to have an updated status report on S&T to know the strengths, weaknesses, lacunas, shortcomings, problems and priorities.UNESCO also has been constantly urging developing countries to keep and update S&T data base.The study was carried out by NAST in collaboration with and financial support of Ministry of Science & Technology (MoST)
4 Historical Background Four distinct phases can be recognized to complement the development of S&TRana Era (before1950)Transitional decade ( )Panchayat Era ( )Democratic Era (After 1990)
5 Rana Era (before1950) Prithvi Bir hospital -1890 AD Pharping hydropowerAgriculture office -1924Civil medical school -1934Dept Livestock Services -1939Training school for sub-overseers-1942Forestry Training institute for rangers -1947Science education at intermediate level was started in 1919 AD, upgraded to bachelor level in at Trichandra College
6 Transitional decade (1951-1960) Tribhuvan University, the first UniversityDepartment of Forest-1955Department of Soil Sciences- 1956Department of Geology & Mines-1958Department of Survey-1958Central Bureau of Statistics- 1958Department of Medicinal Plants, Botanical Survey and National Herbarium- 1960
7 Panchayat Era (1961-1990) Research Laboratories Corporations/companies Establishment of government departments continued.Research LaboratoriesRoyal Drugs Research Laboratory (1964)Central Food Research Laboratory (1966)Corporations/companiesRoyal Drugs Limited (1972)Nepal Telecommunication Corporation (1975)Herbs Production and Processing Company Limited (1981)National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) 1976(Royal) Nepal Academy of Science and TechnologyWater and Energy Commission (1981)(King Mahendra) National Trust for Nature Conservation (1982).Five Institutions were established in 1972 under TU.
8 Democratic Era (After 1990) At present there is a possibility of getting higher education in different fields of science and technologyKathmandu University (1991)B.P. Koirala Institue of Health Sciences (1993)Purbanchal University (1996)Pokhara University (1997) andNational Academy of Medical Sciences (2004)Several constituent and affiliated technical colleges have been established.Government Research organizations -Nepal Agricultural Research Council (1991), Nepal Health Research Council (1991), Environmental Protection Council (1992) and High Level Information Technology Commission (1997)Ministry of Science and Technology came into existence.R&D organizations in private and public sector are coming up
9 Development PlansAdopted in Nepal since 1956 with the inception of first five Year PlanS&T is being mentioned only since sixth Five Year PlanInterim plan( ) is running with the goals;to contribute towards the national goal of poverty alleviation by uplifting the living standard of the people of Nepal through the development and utilization of S&T,to increase national capacity through institutional strengthening of S&T sector, and human resource development and utilizationto increase competitive capacity of production and service sectors through research and development of S&T and utilization of suitable technology.
10 S&T IndicatorsFollowing indicators were identified for collection of S&T data.Institutional ProfileType of the organization (Government, Educational, Private nonprofit, Business)Activities of the organization (policy formation, R&D, Analytical services etc)Publication of S&T Journal/statisticsS&T Human ResourcesProduction of S&T Human ResourcesSector wise Human ResourcesHuman Resources by QualificationHuman Resources by genderPhD Personnel in Science & Technology
11 S&T Indicators S&T Budget S&T Equipment Total allocated budget Source of fundingR&D expenditureS&T EquipmentNameCompanyCostOrder/out of order
12 Collecting R&D Statistics Study was conducted by NAST & MoST by visiting and contacting various S&T institutions of the countryQuestionnaire was developed for information collectionList of institutions was prepared based on the following criteria;-Government organization directly related to S&T-Universities and institutions providing higher educations-Large Industries within the Industrial Estate-Metropolitan and sub-metropolitan cities-National level NGOs and INGOs related to S&TCollected data were analyzed and a comprehensive report was prepared
13 Collecting R&D Statistics… During our survey we covered most of the Government and higher education institutions.Regarding private nonprofit and business institutions we covered partly only.We didn’t survey the institutions related to Social science and Humanities.We have made head counts only for the calculation of R&D human resources in the country.We have also collected the information related to PhD human resources and S&T equipments
14 S&T Institutions covered by study Major FindingsS&T Institutions covered by studyS.N.S&T Organizations/InstitutionsNumber1Government institutions1442Higher education institutions553Private/ non-profit organizations234Business enterprises5Other institutionsTotal Surveyed230
15 S&T Institutions Government Institutions Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST)Water and Energy Commission (WECs)Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC)Department of Forest Research and SurveyDepartment of Food Technology and Quality ControlDepartment of National Parks and Wildlife ConservationDepartment of Plant Resources (DPR)Department of Mines and Geology (DMG)Department of Hydrology and Metrology (DHM)Department of SurveyDepartment of Water Induced Disaster and Prevention
16 Government Cont…. Department of Roads Department of Irrigation S&T InstitutionsGovernment Cont…. Department of Roads Department of IrrigationEducational InstitutionsTribhuvan University (TU)Kathmandu University (KU)Pokhara University (PoU)Purbanchal University (PU)Nepal Sanskrit University (NSU)B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Science (BPKIHS)National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS)
17 S&T InstitutionsSector wise status of publication of S&T journal
18 S&T Human Resources Production of Human Resources SN Subject 1985* 2005*200820101Engineering23891123415801206932Natural Sciences (Botany, Zoology, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Geology, Meteorology, Env.Sc., Microbiology, Computer Sc)190973478819100223Medical Science16585496573277694Agriculture13963004333436165Forestry7197989199256Food Technology165224 2753327Pharmacy-687Total Number8,23628,103 34,88044,044
19 S&T Human ResourcesHuman Resources by sector wise employment
20 S&T Human ResourcesHuman resources by field of science and sector of employmentField of scienceGovernmentHigher educationPrivate nonprofitBusiness enterpriseNot specifiedTotalNatural sciences328214933101114035,599Engineering & technology1148125579905666-20,694Medical and health sciences2178181117308626,581Agricultural sciences7559585418,185446406852
21 S&T Human ResourcesHuman resources by academic qualification
22 Number of PhD Personnel S&T Human ResourcesDistribution of PhD Personnel in different disciplines of S&TDisciplineNumber of PhD PersonnelPercentage (%)Agriculture21820.88Engineering21420.50Botany11310.82Chemistry11911.40Medicine827.85Physics696.61Zoology424.02Veterinary353.35Mathematics312.97Geology302.87Forestry191.82MicrobiologyStatistics171.63Biology121.15Environment90.86Natural Science70.67Food Technology40.38Public HealthTotal =1066100
23 S&T Human ResourcesDecade wise PhD Personnel in of S&T
24 Number of PhD Personnel S&T Human ResourcesPhD Personnel by gender and ethnic groupSNEthnic groupNumber of PhD Personnel1Madheshi1292Janajati3583Dalit94Others570Total1066
25 Investment in S&T Government investment on R&D S.NTitle2006/072007/082008/091GDP at Producer Price (CBS, 2008) in million7281788184019600112Total Government Investment in R&D (in NRs 000)4436113Investment on R&D by percentage of GDP0.06090.3130.3754This is calculated based on allocated budget for major S&T institutions of the government
26 Investment in S&TSector wise funding source of R&D institutions
27 S&T EquipmentSector wise status of present need of the S&T Equipment
28 S&T EquipmentSector wise repair and maintenance of the Equipment
29 RecommendationsSince, the preparation of S&T data base is continuous process requiring regular updating of the information, this has to be institutionalized. NAST is the appropriate institution for this. So, the Government of Nepal is requested to allocate annual budget to NAST for S&T database.Technology Information and Transfer Program (TITP) has to carry out this task on regular basis, accordingly NAST has to develop capacity of TITP in terms of human resources and necessary tools.There is no information about the Non Resident Nepalese (NRN) S&T human resources, it is most desirable to keep their records, and a separate study has to be carried out involving Non Resident Nepalese Association.Cooperation with international organizations such as UNESCO and other organizations for developing S&T related database and technology transfer is necessary.
30 AcknowledgementsWe are most grateful to Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) for financial support to carry out the study.Sincere thank goes to Prof. Dr. Surendra Kafle, Vice chancellor and Prof. Dr. Praksh Chandra Adhikari, Secretary of NAST.We are thankful to other members; Mr. Ishwor Khanal, Mr. Sanu Kaji Desar, Mr. Vijaya Singh and Mr. Dev Kumar Shah of the study team.We also thank all the institutions who had provided the valuable information during the study.