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Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators of Nepal

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1 Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators of Nepal
A country Report Chiranjivi Regmi Ganesh Kumar Pokhrel Capacity building workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators: Current Issues and Challenges for South Asia 6-9 December, Kathmandu, Nepal

2 Outlines of Presentation
Introduction Historical Background Development Plans S&T Indicators Collecting R&D statistics Major Findings Institutional Profile Human Resources Investment in S&T S&T Equipment Recommendations

3 Introduction Information on status of S&T is necessary for developing overall plan and policies of the country. It is important to have an updated status report on S&T to know the strengths, weaknesses, lacunas, shortcomings, problems and priorities. UNESCO also has been constantly urging developing countries to keep and update S&T data base. The study was carried out by NAST in collaboration with and financial support of Ministry of Science & Technology (MoST)

4 Historical Background
Four distinct phases can be recognized to complement the development of S&T Rana Era (before1950) Transitional decade ( ) Panchayat Era ( ) Democratic Era (After 1990)

5 Rana Era (before1950) Prithvi Bir hospital -1890 AD
Pharping hydropower Agriculture office -1924 Civil medical school -1934 Dept Livestock Services -1939 Training school for sub-overseers-1942 Forestry Training institute for rangers -1947 Science education at intermediate level was started in 1919 AD, upgraded to bachelor level in at Trichandra College

6 Transitional decade (1951-1960)
Tribhuvan University, the first University Department of Forest-1955 Department of Soil Sciences- 1956 Department of Geology & Mines-1958 Department of Survey-1958 Central Bureau of Statistics- 1958 Department of Medicinal Plants, Botanical Survey and National Herbarium- 1960

7 Panchayat Era (1961-1990) Research Laboratories Corporations/companies
Establishment of government departments continued. Research Laboratories Royal Drugs Research Laboratory (1964) Central Food Research Laboratory (1966) Corporations/companies Royal Drugs Limited (1972) Nepal Telecommunication Corporation (1975) Herbs Production and Processing Company Limited (1981) National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) 1976 (Royal) Nepal Academy of Science and Technology Water and Energy Commission (1981) (King Mahendra) National Trust for Nature Conservation (1982). Five Institutions were established in 1972 under TU.

8 Democratic Era (After 1990)
At present there is a possibility of getting higher education in different fields of science and technology Kathmandu University (1991) B.P. Koirala Institue of Health Sciences (1993) Purbanchal University (1996) Pokhara University (1997) and National Academy of Medical Sciences (2004) Several constituent and affiliated technical colleges have been established. Government Research organizations -Nepal Agricultural Research Council (1991), Nepal Health Research Council (1991), Environmental Protection Council (1992) and High Level Information Technology Commission (1997) Ministry of Science and Technology came into existence. R&D organizations in private and public sector are coming up

9 Development Plans Adopted in Nepal since 1956 with the inception of first five Year Plan S&T is being mentioned only since sixth Five Year Plan Interim plan( ) is running with the goals; to contribute towards the national goal of poverty alleviation by uplifting the living standard of the people of Nepal through the development and utilization of S&T, to increase national capacity through institutional strengthening of S&T sector, and human resource development and utilization to increase competitive capacity of production and service sectors through research and development of S&T and utilization of suitable technology.

10 S&T Indicators Following indicators were identified for collection of S&T data. Institutional Profile Type of the organization (Government, Educational, Private nonprofit, Business) Activities of the organization (policy formation, R&D, Analytical services etc) Publication of S&T Journal/statistics S&T Human Resources Production of S&T Human Resources Sector wise Human Resources Human Resources by Qualification Human Resources by gender PhD Personnel in Science & Technology

11 S&T Indicators S&T Budget S&T Equipment Total allocated budget
Source of funding R&D expenditure S&T Equipment Name Company Cost Order/out of order

12 Collecting R&D Statistics
Study was conducted by NAST & MoST by visiting and contacting various S&T institutions of the country Questionnaire was developed for information collection List of institutions was prepared based on the following criteria; -Government organization directly related to S&T -Universities and institutions providing higher educations -Large Industries within the Industrial Estate -Metropolitan and sub-metropolitan cities -National level NGOs and INGOs related to S&T Collected data were analyzed and a comprehensive report was prepared

13 Collecting R&D Statistics…
During our survey we covered most of the Government and higher education institutions. Regarding private nonprofit and business institutions we covered partly only. We didn’t survey the institutions related to Social science and Humanities. We have made head counts only for the calculation of R&D human resources in the country. We have also collected the information related to PhD human resources and S&T equipments

14 S&T Institutions covered by study
Major Findings S&T Institutions covered by study S.N. S&T Organizations/Institutions Number 1 Government institutions 144 2 Higher education institutions 55 3 Private/ non-profit organizations 23 4 Business enterprises 5 Other institutions Total Surveyed 230

15 S&T Institutions Government Institutions
Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) Water and Energy Commission (WECs) Nepal Agriculture Research Council (NARC) Department of Forest Research and Survey Department of Food Technology and Quality Control Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Department of Plant Resources (DPR) Department of Mines and Geology (DMG) Department of Hydrology and Metrology (DHM) Department of Survey Department of Water Induced Disaster and Prevention

16 Government Cont…. Department of Roads Department of Irrigation
S&T Institutions Government Cont…. Department of Roads Department of Irrigation Educational Institutions Tribhuvan University (TU) Kathmandu University (KU) Pokhara University (PoU) Purbanchal University (PU) Nepal Sanskrit University (NSU) B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Science (BPKIHS) National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS)

17 S&T Institutions Sector wise status of publication of S&T journal

18 S&T Human Resources Production of Human Resources SN Subject 1985*
2005* 2008 2010 1 Engineering 2389 11234 15801 20693 2 Natural Sciences (Botany, Zoology, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Statistics, Geology, Meteorology, Env.Sc., Microbiology, Computer Sc) 1909 7347 8819 10022 3 Medical Science 1658 5496 5732 7769 4 Agriculture 1396 3004 3334 3616 5 Forestry 719 798 919 925 6 Food Technology 165 224  275 332 7 Pharmacy - 687 Total Number 8,236 28,103  34,880 44,044

19 S&T Human Resources Human Resources by sector wise employment

20 S&T Human Resources Human resources by field of science and sector of employment Field of science Government Higher education Private nonprofit Business enterprise Not specified Total Natural sciences 3282 1493 310 111 403 5,599 Engineering & technology 11481 2557 990 5666 - 20,694 Medical and health sciences 2178 1811 1730 862 6,581 Agricultural sciences 7559 585 41 8,185 446 406 852

21 S&T Human Resources Human resources by academic qualification

22 Number of PhD Personnel
S&T Human Resources Distribution of PhD Personnel in different disciplines of S&T Discipline Number of PhD Personnel Percentage (%) Agriculture 218 20.88 Engineering 214 20.50 Botany 113 10.82 Chemistry 119 11.40 Medicine 82 7.85 Physics 69 6.61 Zoology 42 4.02 Veterinary 35 3.35 Mathematics 31 2.97 Geology 30 2.87 Forestry 19 1.82 Microbiology Statistics 17 1.63 Biology 12 1.15 Environment 9 0.86 Natural Science 7 0.67 Food Technology 4 0.38 Public Health Total = 1066 100

23 S&T Human Resources Decade wise PhD Personnel in of S&T

24 Number of PhD Personnel
S&T Human Resources PhD Personnel by gender and ethnic group SN Ethnic group Number of PhD Personnel 1 Madheshi 129 2 Janajati 358 3 Dalit 9 4 Others 570 Total 1066

25 Investment in S&T Government investment on R&D
S.N Title 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 1 GDP at Producer Price (CBS, 2008) in million 728178 818401 960011 2 Total Government Investment in R&D (in NRs 000) 443611 3 Investment on R&D by percentage of GDP 0.0609 0.313 0.3754 This is calculated based on allocated budget for major S&T institutions of the government

26 Investment in S&T Sector wise funding source of R&D institutions

27 S&T Equipment Sector wise status of present need of the S&T Equipment

28 S&T Equipment Sector wise repair and maintenance of the Equipment

29 Recommendations Since, the preparation of S&T data base is continuous process requiring regular updating of the information, this has to be institutionalized. NAST is the appropriate institution for this. So, the Government of Nepal is requested to allocate annual budget to NAST for S&T database. Technology Information and Transfer Program (TITP) has to carry out this task on regular basis, accordingly NAST has to develop capacity of TITP in terms of human resources and necessary tools. There is no information about the Non Resident Nepalese (NRN) S&T human resources, it is most desirable to keep their records, and a separate study has to be carried out involving Non Resident Nepalese Association. Cooperation with international organizations such as UNESCO and other organizations for developing S&T related database and technology transfer is necessary.

30 Acknowledgements We are most grateful to Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) for financial support to carry out the study. Sincere thank goes to Prof. Dr. Surendra Kafle, Vice chancellor and Prof. Dr. Praksh Chandra Adhikari, Secretary of NAST. We are thankful to other members; Mr. Ishwor Khanal, Mr. Sanu Kaji Desar, Mr. Vijaya Singh and Mr. Dev Kumar Shah of the study team. We also thank all the institutions who had provided the valuable information during the study.

31 Thank You for your Attention…..

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