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OpenURL and OpenURL Framework: Demystifying Link Resolution The promise of OpenURL 1.0 Oliver Pesch Chief Architect, EBSCO Publishing

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Presentation on theme: "OpenURL and OpenURL Framework: Demystifying Link Resolution The promise of OpenURL 1.0 Oliver Pesch Chief Architect, EBSCO Publishing"— Presentation transcript:

1 OpenURL and OpenURL Framework: Demystifying Link Resolution The promise of OpenURL 1.0 Oliver Pesch Chief Architect, EBSCO Publishing

2 ContextObject Referent Referrer Requester Resolver ReferringEntity Namespace Registry OFI URI Profiles Encoding KEV XML Schema By Reference By Value Identifiers Metadata formats Service types HTTP HTTPS GET POST UTF-8 OpenURL 1.0

3 Topics we will cover History Item level linking and link resolvers What is an OpenURL Why OpenURL 1.0 A tour of the standard Future possibilities Evolving challenges Next steps

4 History Mid 1990s digital collections take hold as does desire for interlinking 1998 Van de Sompel & Hoshstenbach begin work on linking solutions 1999 NISO sponsors workshops about reference linking. Appropriate copy problem emerged as the major issue SFX linking server created and OpenURL (0.1) specification published 2000-today OpenURL (0.1) sees wide adoption by information providers 2001 Van de Sompel & Beit-Arie approach NISO to make OpenURL an official standard 2001 – NISO Committee AX formed Committee AX works to generalize and allow extensibility 2003 – OpenURL 1.0 available for trial use

5 Full text DBs Full text DBs Ehost EJS Google ISI British Library British Library A&I service A&I service Publisher sites ingenta Scholarly institutions have many resources from many vendors

6 Full text DBs Full text DBs Ehost EJS Google ISI British Library British Library A&I service A&I service Publisher sites Publisher sites ingenta Some services offer links to selective resources User

7 Full text DBs Full text DBs Ehost EJS Google ISI British Library British Library A&I service A&I service Publisher sites Publisher sites ingenta User Some services offer links to selective resources

8 Ehost EJS Google ISI British Library British Library A&I service A&I service Publisher sites Publisher sites ingenta Predefined links inconsistent and their management complex Full text DBs Full text DBs For the library, when it is possible to control links at these services, they must manage on each service. This could means 100s of places to control links, update holdings, etc. For the online service it is a burden to try and link to each other with only bi-lateral agreements Strict service-to-service linking DOES NOT SCALE and often does not involve the library.

9 Full text DBs Full text DBs Ehost EJS Google ISI British Library British Library A&I service A&I service Publisher sites Publisher sites ingenta Introducing a link resolver allows more comprehensive and easier to manage linking Link Resolver Resolver can link to the resources. Information sources need only to know how to link to a link resolver. Resolver controlled by library. One place to manage holdings and links. Information Source need not worry about bi-lateral development. A solution that definitely scales

10 Full text DBs Full text DBs Ehost EJS Google ISI British Library British Library A&I service A&I service Publisher sites Publisher sites ingenta User A A Library subscribes Pay per view $$$ Without link resolver user may not access the appropriate copy With a predefined link, the user may be presented with a link and not have a choice where that link goes

11 Full text DBs Full text DBs Ehost EJS Google ISI British Library British Library A&I service A&I service Publisher sites Publisher sites ingenta User A A Library subscribes Pay per view $$$ Link Resolver With a link resolver the institution can determine which copy is appropriate With the resolver, the library can control where the link goes and get the user to the appropriate copy. As long as the A&I service knows the user has a resolver and where it is, it can create the link.

12 What is OpenURL (0.1) An accepted standard syntax for creating a link between an information source and a link resolver Pre-defines sets of data elements to use in describing an item Relies on HTTP protocol for transmission

13 OpenURL INFORMATION SOURCE INFORMATION SOURCE Link Resolver OpenURL Author: Narayanan, Ranga Title: Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms Journal: Journal of Banking and Finance ISSN: Date: Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Page: 395 OpenURL is the connection between the Information Source and the link resolver. OpenURL is transferring the information about an item (article) from the Information Source to the resolver.

14 Journal: Journal of Banking and Finance ISSN: Date: Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Page: 395 Author: Narayanan, Ranga Title: Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms genre=article& title=Journal of Banking and Finance& issn= & date= & volume=24& issue=3& spage=395& aulast=Narayanan& aufirst=Ranga& atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& sid=InfoSource OpenURL 0.1 HTTP Transport Title=Journal of Banking and Finance& issn= & date= & volume=24& issue=3& spage=395& aulast=Narayanan& aufirst=Ranga& atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& sid=InfoSource Address Article metadata is tagged using predefined element set. Genre is added to give the resolver information on the nature of the item being referenced. The source of the link is added as an SID. Add the address and now the link is ready. The OpenURL is a self- contained link very much tied to HTTP protocol.

15 OpenURL limitations HTTP Transport Title=Journal of Banking and Finance& issn= & date= & volume=24& issue=3& spage=395& aulast=Narayanan& aufirst=Ranga& atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms sid=InfoSource Address genre=article& title=Journal of Banking and Finance& issn= & date= & volume=24& issue=3& spage=395& aulast=Narayanan& aufirst=Ranga& atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& sid=InfoSource OpenURL 0.1 is tied to HTTP transport Only provides for key- value pair (HTTP GET or POST) representation of metadata. Allowable metadata genres and elements pre-defined with no means to define new ones Context of link limited to -resolver (address) -item -source (sid)

16 Why OpenURL as a NISO standard? Ensure wide acceptance Address specific shortcomings Support additional genres Support richer data formats Provide more complete context description Allow ability to send request by reference Support transports other than HTTP Provide environment for OpenURL to evolve in a controlled way

17 New genres OpenURL 0.1 (genres) Journal Article Preprint Book Book item Conference Proceeding OpenURL 1.0 (format/genres) Journal Issue Article Conference Proceeding Preprint Book Book item Report Document Dissertation Patent Dublin CORE Others can be registered

18 Richer data formats OpenURL 0.1 Physical representation Key encoded values OpenURL 1.0 Physical representation Key encoded values XML Others can be registered Constraint languages Matrix XML Schema Others can be registered

19 Goals of the standard Create an OpenURL Framework Separate the information package from the transport Formalize the framework for the information package and for OpenURL itself Provide a means to extend Allow practical application of a generalized framework

20 Deliverables from NISO Committee AX 2 part standard Part 1: General Framework Part 2: Initial Registry content Registry Community profiles Implementation guidelines

21 Part 1: Context Object and Transport Mechanisms Defines the general framework for bundling contextual metadata Introduces the ContextObject Defines Formats and other elements Defines the registry Defines the notion of Community Profiles

22 OpenURL 0.1 example genre=article& title=Journal of Banking and Finance& issn= & date= & volume=24& issue=3& spage=395& aulast=Narayanan& aufirst=Ranga& atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& sid=InfoSource In original OpenURL, you can see the information package can be separated. It contains the genre, the item description and the referrer. However, nothing within this package describes the nature what is in the package. It is just assumed to be key-value pair and based on genre only one element set. It does not accommodate different character encodings. To offer ability to extend to different element sets, and representations (e.g. XML), this information package must contain information about its make up.

23 The ContextObject The information package At the heart of the standard Describes a referenced item and the context within which it is being referenced Allows independence from transport method Formalizes expression of context

24 The ContextObject contains… ServiceType Referent Resolver ReferringEntity Referrer Requester Administrative Version control, character encodings, timestamp, etc. Item being referenced. E.G. bibliographic reference in full text article. User making the request Service creating the link. E.G. where the user found the reference. The item which contains the reference. E.G. the article in which the bibliographic reference was found. The target of the link. E.G. the link server of the users institution The desired services from the Resolver. E.G. Full text, ILL, Abstract, etc.

25 Referent Resolver Referrer Administrative KEV ContextObject example rfr_id=info:sid/InfoSource.com& rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal& rft.genre=article& rft.title=Journal of Banking and Finance& rft.issn= & rft.date= & rft.volume=24& rft.issue=3& rft.spage=395& rft.aulast=Narayanan& rft.aufirst=Ranga& rft.atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& res_id=http://lib.example.edu/resolver.cgi ctx_ver=Z & ctx_tim= & rfr_id=info:sid/InfoSource.com& Resolver Referrer Referent Administrative ContextObject

26 KEV ContextObject example HTTP Transport edu/resolver.cgi? url_ver=Z & url_tim= & url_ctx_fmt=info:of i/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx& Referent Resolver Referrer Administrative rfr_id=info:sid/InfoSource.com& rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal& rft.genre=article& rft.title=Journal of Banking and Finance& rft.issn= & rft.date= & rft.volume=24& rft.issue=3& rft.spage=395& rft.aulast=Narayanan& rft.aufirst=Ranga& rft.atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& res_id=http://lib.example.edu/resolver.cgi ctx_ver=Z & ctx_tim= & Referent Resolver Referrer Administrative rfr_id=info:sid/InfoSource.com& rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal rft.genre=article& rft.title=Journal of Banking and Finance& rft.issn= & rft.date= & rft.volume=24& rft.issue=3& rft.spage=395& rft.aulast=Narayanan& rft.aufirst=Ranga& rft.atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& res_id=http://lib.example.edu/resolver.cgi ctx_ver=Z & ctx_tim= & url_ver=Z & url_tim= & url_ctx_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx& Load ContextObject on transport To make OpenURL we add the URL of the resolver. Note the additional descriptive information. url_ctx_fmt tag says that the ContextObject in the back of the transport is formatted using key/encoded values (KEV) as describe by the matrix (MTX) for the ContextObject (CTX) that is found on the registry using the identifier: info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx Address and packing slip to driver

27 KEV ContextObject example HTTP Transport edu/resolver.cgi? url_ver=Z & url_tim= & url_ctx_fmt=info:of i/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx& Referent Resolver Referrer Administrative rfr_id=info:sid/InfoSource.com& rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal& rft.genre=article& rft.title=Journal of Banking and Finance& rft.issn= & rft.date= & rft.volume=24& rft.issue=3& rft.spage=395& rft.aulast=Narayanan& rft.aufirst=Ranga& rft.atitle=Insider Trading and the Voluntary Disclosure of Information by Firms& res_id=http://lib.example.edu/resolver.cgi ctx_ver=Z & ctx_tim= & Link is ready for clicking. The payload of the link, the ContextObject is on the back, the driver has the address (baseURL) and there is the packing slip that describes to the recipient what is in the back and how it can be interpreted

28 Format A concrete method of expression for a class of information constructs. It is a triple comprising: (1) a Physical Representation; (2) a Constraint Language; and (3) a set of constraints expressed in that Constraint Language

29 Physical element representation is key-encoded- values. E.G. aulast=Smith Example of metadata Format info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal Describing a format Namespace: to do with OpenURL Constraint language is a table (matrix). This is the form used to describe the list of possible elements. Other examples are DTD or XML Schema. The actual set of elements that have been defined.

30 Matrix for info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal

31 ?url_ver=z &url_ctx_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx &rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal &rfr_id=info:sid/myid.com:mydb &rft_id=info:doi/ /science &rft_id=info:pmid/ &rft.genre=article &rft.atitle=Isolation of a common receptor for coxsackie B &rft.title=Science &rft.aulast=Bergelson &rft.auinit=J &rft.date=1997 … ContextObject Format Metadata Format Using Format in a sentence

32 Elements of the general Framework ServiceType Referent Resolver ReferringEntity Referrer Requester Administrative Entities ContextObject Formats Metadata Formats Identifiers Namespaces Character encodings Transports Profiles ContextObject

33 Part 2: Initial Registry Content KEV and XML OpenURL instances Bootstrap standard for initial use by scholarly information community Defines HTTP-based transport methods

34 Registry Entries Namespaces Character encodings Physical representations Constraint languages ContextObject Formats Metadata Formats Transports Community Profiles

35

36 ContextObject Formats

37 KEV ContextObject Format

38

39 Metadata formats in registry

40 Journal KEV Metadata Format

41 Community Profiles San Antonio Level 1 Built around Key/Encoded Value Provide close compatibility with original OpenURL Metadata Formats support new genres San Antonio Level 2 Built around XML representations Similar Metadata Formats as SAP1 Dublin Core XML based Dublin Core Metadata Format

42 Implementation Guidelines Centered on SAP1 For implementers Describe necessary bits of the standard How to create KEV OpenURLs Demonstrates the upgrade path from OpenURL 0.1 to OpenURL 1.0 Includes hybrid OpenURLs

43 The future for OpenURL Adoption of OpenURL 0.1 very solid OpenURL 1.0 can be extended to meet evolving needs Provides focal point standardizing link-to syntaxes Potential use in server-to-server applications

44 Evolving Challenges Adoption of the standard Data quality issues Knowledgebase Identifiers Authentication Extending interest within scholarly information communities and beyond

45 Next steps though NISO Standard will go to ballot Assign Maintenance Agency Advisory Committee Registration policies Assign Registration Agency Facilitate community interest groups Develop new uses for OpenURL or ContextObject Create additional profiles Register additional metadata formats and identifier namespaces

46 Thank you Oliver Pesch


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