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1 I. Objectives and Methodology 1.Background The 2002 National R&D Survey was the first of its kind conducted by Institute of Science and Technology of.

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Presentation on theme: "1 I. Objectives and Methodology 1.Background The 2002 National R&D Survey was the first of its kind conducted by Institute of Science and Technology of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 I. Objectives and Methodology 1.Background The 2002 National R&D Survey was the first of its kind conducted by Institute of Science and Technology of the Royal Academy of Cambodia. The target groups were the researchers of the Government Agencies, Business Enterprises, and Higher Education as well as of the Non Governmental Organization. Since contract signing in September 2003 the Project leader (the national Expert) has set up a project office, collect secondary data from inside the country and from abroad, and ask another teams (e.g. Malaysia, Vietnam) to get experience in order to design questionnaire. The main result of 2002 National R&D Survey in Cambodia

3 2 Several discussions have been made among the staffs of the Institute of Science and Technology and others invited from other departments of the Royal Academy of Cambodia to improve the quality of the questionnaire. 2.Objectives of the Survey The main objectives of the survey were: To provide and overview of the status of R&D in Cambodia. To identified and highlight strengths and priorities of R&D in Cambodia. To recommended strategies and action plans that need to be taken to enhance R&D in Cambodia.

4 3 3.Survey Team In Cambodia, it is not possible to conduct a survey with other method than face-to-face interview. Therefore for the four sectors, 4 field teams (each 3 people) were formed, each team responsible for data collection of a sector (Government Institutions, Higher Education, Business Enterprise or Non Governmental Organizations). A secretary and a technical assistant were also appointed to insure the workflow. 4.Survey Questionnaire After studying material provided from project experts, a questionnaire was draft, translated into Khmer language and two times tested before the monitoring visit of the Malaysian Experts in February 2004. A final questionnaire with 27 questions were revised and used to collect data from all sectors after comment of the experts.

5 4 5.Survey Administration From the secondary document we have collected all names and addresses of the possible institutions that could conduct R&D. Face-to-face interview was conducted to collect the data. Field team leaders, sometimes the surveyors themselves contacted first with the target institution in order to make appointment for interview. All surveyors were trained and instructed by an experience researcher.

6 5 Summary of Main Results Research and Development(R&D)Projects Government Sector15 Higher Education Sector18 Business Enterprise Sector23 Private Non Profit Sector54 Total110

7 6 Organizations with R&D SurveyedCompanies Government Sector14 Higher Education Sector11 Business Enterprise Sector21 Private Non Profit Sector48 Total94 Expenditure Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD)8,357.01Mil.CR The GERD/GDP Ratio0.05% Current Expenditure6,840.87 Mil.CR Labor Cost 3,516.74 Mil.CR Operating Cost 3,324.13 Mil.CR Capital Expenditure 1,516.16 Mil.CR

8 7 Three Main Fields of Research (FOR) i. F20100- Social Science4,097.84 Mil.CR ii. F11000- Med. & Health Science1,832.33 Mil.CR iii. F11100- Engineering Science 519.03 Mil.CR Three Main Socio-Economic Objectives (SEO) i. S30300- Social Dev. and Com. Ser.1,768.72 Mil.CR ii. S30100- Health1,325.23 Mil.CR iii. S30200-Education and Training1,287.69 Mil.CR

9 8 Manpower Total R&D Research Personnel1,625 Total Number of Researchers 744 Total FTE Research Personnel 494.28 Total FTE Researchers 223 FTE per Research Personnel 30.42% FTE per Researcher 29.97% Degree Holders (PhDs, Masters, Bachelors) 744 Number of Researchers per 10,000 Labor Force 1.2 R&D Cost per Research Personnel 5.14 Mil.CR

10 9 COUNTRY: CAMBODIA COUNTRY: CAMBODIA GDP (1,000USD)* 3,992,000.00 GERD (mil.CR) 8,357.01 GERD (1,000USD)* 2,129.37 GERD / GDP (%) 0.05% Total R&D personnel 1,625 Female R&D personnel 350 * Average Exchange Rate in 2002 (1US$=3,924.65CR) GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D

11 10 BERD, source of fund1,000,000.00 CR1,000.00 USD% Business enterprises451.53115.0544.72% Direct Government0.00 0.00% Higher education0.00 0.00% Private non-profit113.6028.9511.25% Funds from abroad443.91113.1143.97% Other0.560.140.06% Total BERD1009.60257.25100.00% Table M.1: GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D(GERD) BY SECTOR OF PERFORMANCE AND SOURCE OF FUND 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR (BERD)

12 11 GOVERD, source of funds1,000,000.00 CR1,000.00 USD% Business enterprises 0.00 0.00% Direct Government 941.5632239.9144.48% Higher education 0.00 0.00% Private non-profit 323.0282.3115.26% Funds from abroad 852.08217.1140.26% Other 0.00 0.00% Total GOVERD2116.66539.33100.00% 2. GOVERNMENT SECTOR (GOVERD)

13 12 HERD, source of funds1,000,000 CR1,000.00 USD% Business enterprises 0.00 0.00% Direct Government 373.0095.0437.83% Higher education 95.2224.269.66% Private non-profit 329.0083.8333.37% Funds from abroad 188.7048.0819.14% Other 0.00 0.00% Total HERD985.92251.21100.00% 3. HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR (HERD)

14 13 PNP, source of funds1,000,000.00 CR1,000.00 USD% Business enterprises 0.00 0.00% Direct Government 220.0056.065.18% Higher education 0.00 0.00% Private non-profit 3111.84792.9073.31% Funds from abroad 892.44227.3921.02% Other 20.555.240.48% Total PNP4244.831081.58100.00% 4. PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR. (NON-GOVERD)

15 14 GERD, source of funds1,000,000.00 CR1,000 USD% Business enterprises 451.53115.055.40% Direct Government 1,534.56391.0118.36% Higher education 95.2224.261.14% Private non-profit 3,877.46987.9846.40% Funds from abroad 2,377.13605.6928.44% Other 21.115.380.25% Total GERD8,357.012,129.37100.00% 5. NATIONAL TOTAL (GERD)

16 15 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRICE SECTOR BERD by type of research1,000,000.00R1000 USD% Basic research 27.306.962.70% Applied research 856.71218.2984.86% Experimental development 125.6032.0012.44% Total BERD1009.60257.25100.00% Table M.2: GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D(GERD) BY SECTOR OF PERFORMANCE AND TYPE OF RESEARCH

17 16 2. GOVERNMENT SECTOR GOVERD by type of research1,000,000.00 CR1,000.00 USD% Basic research 668.25170.2731.57% Applied research 1440.07366.9368.03% Experimental development 8.352.130.39% Total GOVERD2116.66539.33100.00% 3. HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR HERD by type of research1,000,000.00 CR1,000.00 USD% Basic research 388.7099.0439.43% Applied research 197.2250.2520.00% Experimental development 400.00101.9240.57% Total HERD985.92251.21100.00%

18 17 4 PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR NON-GOVERD by type of research1,000,000.00 CR1,000.00 USD% Basic research 1484.72378.3134.98% Applied research 2661.57678.1762.70% Experimental development 98.5425.112.32% Total NON-GOVERD4244.831081.58100.00% 5. NATIONAL TOTAL (GERD) GERD by type of research1,000,000.00 CR1,000.00 USD% Basic research 2568.96654.5730.74% Applied research 5155.561313.6461.69% Experimental development 632.49161.167.57% Total GERD8357.012129.37100.00%

19 18 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) 11335.0140.36% RSE with Doctor degree 10.300.36% RSE with master degree 113.533.93% RSE with bachelor degree 10131.1836.07% Technicians 6519.0523.21% Other supporting staff 10230.6036.43% Total R&D personnel28084.66100.00% Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

20 19 2.GOVERNMENT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) 394113.0047.36% RSE with Doctor degree 185.402.16% RSE with master degree 5315.906.37% RSE with bachelor degree 32391.7038.82% Technicians 29191.7034.98% Other supporting staff 14744.2017.67% Total R&D personnel832248.90100.00% Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMANCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

21 20 Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT 3.HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) 8827.7656.05% RSE with Doctor degree 207.0012.74% RSE with master degree 309.2719.11% RSE with bachelor degree 3811.4924.20% Technicians 5116.6932.48% Other supporting staff 185.8111.46% Total R&D personnel15750.26100.00%

22 21 4.PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) 1494741.85% RSE with Doctor degree 1443.93% RSE with master degree 401411.24% RSE with bachelor degree 952926.69% Technicians 1344237.64% Other supporting staff 732120.51% Total R&D personnel356110100.00% Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

23 22 5. NATIONAL TOTAL OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) 74422345.78% RSE with Doctor degree 5317.13.26% RSE with master degree 13442.538.25% RSE with bachelor degree 557163.3234.28% Technicians 541169.5733.29% Other supporting staff 340101.7620.92% Total R&D personnel1,625494.28100.00% Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

24 23 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scient./Engin.(RSE) – females 154.4027.78% RSE females with Doctor degree 00.000.00% RSE female with Master degree 00.000.00% RSE females with Bachelor degree 154.4027.78% Technicians females 92.5516.67% Supporting staff females 3011.7555.56% Total R&D personnel females5418.7100.00% Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

25 24 Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT 2. GOVERNMENT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scient./Engin.(RSE) – females 8628.0044.33% RSE females with Doctor degree 00.000.00% RSE female with Master degree 30.901.55% RSE females with Bachelor degree 8327.1042.78% Technicians females 5817.4029.90% Supporting staff females 5015.0025.77% Total R&D personnel females19460.40100.00%

26 25 3. HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR OCCUPATION - FemalesHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scient./Engin.(RSE) – females 165.4355.17% RSE females with Doctor degree 62.4020.69% RSE female with Master degree 20.636.90% RSE females with Bachelor degree 82.4027.59% Technicians females 92.9631.03% Supporting staff females 41.2013.79% Total R&D personnel females299.59100.00% Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

27 26 4. PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) – females 3712.5650.68% RSE females with Doctor degree 51.566.85% RSE female with Master degree 62.458.22% RSE females with Bachelor degree 268.5535.62% Technicians females 154.3520.55% Supporting staff females 216.1028.77% Total R&D personnel females7323.01100.00% Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

28 27 Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT 5. NATIONAL TOTAL OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) – females 15450.3944.00% RSE females with Doctor degree 113.963.14% RSE female with Master degree 113.983.14% RSE females with Bachelor degree 13242.4537.71% Technicians females 9127.2626.00% Supporting staff females 10534.0530.00% Total R&D personnel females350111.70100.00%

29 28 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Minimum Requirement Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD): 1.Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D -- GERD (million current PPP$)NA NA 11.16 NA 1.a. GERD (million national currency - for euro area, pre-EMU euro or EUR) NA NA NA 8,357.01 NA 2.GERD as a percentage of GDP NA 0.05 NA 3.GERD -- (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices)1.9791.9992.08 2.13 2.119 3.a.GERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices)4.01.04.1 2.38 -0.5 4.GERD per capita population (current PPP $) NA 0.84 NA 5.Estimated Civil GERD as a percentage of GDP NA 0.05 NA 6.Basic research expenditure as a percentage of GDP NA 0.016 NA

30 29 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition R&D Personnel (FTE): 7.Total researchers (FTE) 223.00 7.a.Total researchers -- Compound annual growth rate NA 8.Total researchers per thousand total employment 0.12 8.a.Total researchers per thousand labor force 0.11987 9.Total R&D personnel (FTE) 494.28 9.a.Total R&D personnel -- Compound annual growth rate NA 10.Total R&D personnel per thousand total employment 0.2631 10.a.Total R&D personnel per thousand labor force 0.2618

31 30 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition GERD by source of funds: 11.Industry-financed GERD as a percentage of GDP 0.00 12.Government-financed GERD as a percentage of GDP 0.0135 13.Percentage of GERD financed by industry 0.00 14.Percentage of GERD financed by government 18.36 15.Percentage of GERD financed by other national sources 0.00 16.Percentage of GERD financed by abroad 28.44 GERD by performance sectors: 17.Percentage of GERD performed by the Business Enterprise sector 12.08 18.Percentage of GERD performed by the Higher Education sector 11.80 19.Percentage of GERD performed by the Government sector 25.33 20.Percentage of GERD performed by the Private Non-Profit sector 50.79

32 31 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Researchers (headcount): 21.Total researchers (headcount) 744.00 21.a.Women researchers (headcount) 154.00 22. Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) 20.70 22.a.Business Enterprise Sector: Total researchers (headcount) 113.00 22.b.Business Enterprise Sector: Women researchers (headcount) 15.00 22.c. Business Enterprise Sector: Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) 13.27 22.d.Government Sector: Total researchers (headcount) 394.00 22.e.Government Sector: Women researchers (headcount) 86.00 22.f. Government Sector: Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) 21.83 22.g.Higher Education sector: Total researchers (headcount) 88.00 22.h.Higher Education sector: Women researchers (headcount) 16.00 22.i. Higher Education sector: Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) 18.18

33 32 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Business Enterprise Expenditure on R&D (BERD): 23. Business Enterprise Expenditure on R&D -- BERD (million current PPP $) 1.35 23.a. BERD (million national currency - for euro area, pre- EMU euro or EUR) 1,009.60 24.BERD as a percentage of GDP 0.0064 25.BERD -- (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices ) 0.239 0.2410.251 0.257 0.256 25.a. BERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices) 4.01.04.1 2.38 -0.5 26.BERD as a percentage of value added in industry NA

34 33 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Business Enterprise R&D Personnel (FTE): 27.Business Enterprise researchers (FTE) 35.01 27.a. Business Enterprise researchers -- Compound annual growth rate NA 28. Business Enterprise researchers as a percentage of national total 15.70 29. Business Enterprise researchers per thousand employment in industry 0.22 30.Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel (FTE) 84.66 30.a. Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel – Compound annual growth rate NA 31. Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel as a percentage of national total 17.23 32. Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel per thousand employment in industry 0.53

35 34 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition BERD by source of funds: 33. Industry-financed BERD -- (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices and PPP) 0.00 33a. Industry-financed BERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices) 0.00 34. Industry-financed BERD as a percentage of value added in industry 0.00 35.Percentage of BERD financed by industry 0.00 36.Percentage of BERD financed by government 0.00 37.Percentage of BERD financed by other national sources 0.06 38.Percentage of BERD financed by abroad 43.97

36 35 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 199920002001 2002 2003 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition BERD performed in selected industries: 39.BERD performed in the aerospace industry (million current PPP $) 0.0 39.a.Percentage of BERD performed in the aerospace industry 0.0 40.BERD performed in the electronic industry (million current PPP $) 0.0 40.a.Percentage of BERD performed in the electronic industry 0.0 41. BERD performed in the office machinery and computer industry (million current PPP $) 0.0 41.a. Percentage of BERD performed in the office machinery and computer industry 0.0 42. BERD performed in the pharmaceutical industry (million current PPP $) 0.0 42.a.Percentage of BERD performed in the pharmaceutical industry 0.0 43.BERD performed in the instruments industry (million current PPP $) 0.0 43.a.Percentage of BERD performed in the instruments industry 0.0 44.BERD performed in service industries (million current PPP $) 0.0 44.a.Percentage of BERD performed in service industries 0.0

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38 37 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition 2003 2002 200120001999 Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 NA Government Total R&D personnel -- Compound annual growth rate 58.a. 248.90 Government Total R&D personnel (FTE)58. 50.67 Government researchers as a percentage of national total57. NA Government researchers -- Compound annual growth rate56.a. 113.00 Government researchers (FTE)56. Government R&D Personnel (FTE): 0.00 Percentage of GOVERD financed by industry55 -0.5 2.38 4.11.04.0GOVERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices)54.a. 0.537 0.539 0.530.5060.50GOVERD (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices)54. 0.01 GOVERD as a percentage of GDP53. 2,116.66 GOVERD (million national currency - for euro area, pre-EMU euro or EUR) 52.a. 2.83 Government Intramural Expenditure on R&D -- GOVERD (million current PPP $) 52. Government Expenditure on R&D:

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40 39 Conclusion Cambodia does not have tradition in doing Research and Development. The result of the 2002 national survey on Research and Development has shown, that only 0.05% of the GDP has been spend on R&D. The lack of financial resources is the main obstacle in implementing R&D activities in all the 4 sectors (government, higher education, private non profit institution, and business enterprise). On the other hand the lack of government incentive was considered as the major external limitation of doing the R&D.

41 40 In compare to other ASEAN countries, Cambodia does not have much researcher, only 1.2 per 10,000 labor force (In 1999 Singapore has 69.6 and 2000 up to 83.5 per 10,000 labor force. Malaysia has 15.5 per 10,000-labor force in 2000). The share of GERD of Cambodia looks different from the other development countries. The business enterprise sector performed only 12.08% of GERD, whereas in the United State spent 74% for the experimental development and 64% for applied research in 1999, in Singapore 62% in 2000 and in the same year the private sector in Malaysia contribute 57.9%.

42 41 The Private Non Profit Sector performed most of the GERD (50.79%) and most of it for the applied research, which concentrates more in social science. The first National Survey on R&D in Cambodia for the financial Year 2002 has generally shown Cambodias place internationally in R&D. In this respect, Cambodia needs to strengthen their R&D activities in all sectors. It should begin from the policy makers that they can make policy towards R&D.

43 42 The private sector should concentrate on its own research and development instate of import on technology. The university and the other higher education institution should cooperate more with private or public institution in order to make their own students or researchers apply their theory into practice.

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