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1 I. Objectives and Methodology 1.Background The 2002 National R&D Survey was the first of its kind conducted by Institute of Science and Technology of.

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Presentation on theme: "1 I. Objectives and Methodology 1.Background The 2002 National R&D Survey was the first of its kind conducted by Institute of Science and Technology of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 I. Objectives and Methodology 1.Background The 2002 National R&D Survey was the first of its kind conducted by Institute of Science and Technology of the Royal Academy of Cambodia. The target groups were the researchers of the Government Agencies, Business Enterprises, and Higher Education as well as of the Non Governmental Organization. Since contract signing in September 2003 the Project leader (the national Expert) has set up a project office, collect secondary data from inside the country and from abroad, and ask another teams (e.g. Malaysia, Vietnam) to get experience in order to design questionnaire. The main result of 2002 National R&D Survey in Cambodia

3 2 Several discussions have been made among the staffs of the Institute of Science and Technology and others invited from other departments of the Royal Academy of Cambodia to improve the quality of the questionnaire. 2.Objectives of the Survey The main objectives of the survey were: To provide and overview of the status of R&D in Cambodia. To identified and highlight strengths and priorities of R&D in Cambodia. To recommended strategies and action plans that need to be taken to enhance R&D in Cambodia.

4 3 3.Survey Team In Cambodia, it is not possible to conduct a survey with other method than face-to-face interview. Therefore for the four sectors, 4 field teams (each 3 people) were formed, each team responsible for data collection of a sector (Government Institutions, Higher Education, Business Enterprise or Non Governmental Organizations). A secretary and a technical assistant were also appointed to insure the workflow. 4.Survey Questionnaire After studying material provided from project experts, a questionnaire was draft, translated into Khmer language and two times tested before the monitoring visit of the Malaysian Experts in February A final questionnaire with 27 questions were revised and used to collect data from all sectors after comment of the experts.

5 4 5.Survey Administration From the secondary document we have collected all names and addresses of the possible institutions that could conduct R&D. Face-to-face interview was conducted to collect the data. Field team leaders, sometimes the surveyors themselves contacted first with the target institution in order to make appointment for interview. All surveyors were trained and instructed by an experience researcher.

6 5 Summary of Main Results Research and Development(R&D)Projects Government Sector15 Higher Education Sector18 Business Enterprise Sector23 Private Non Profit Sector54 Total110

7 6 Organizations with R&D SurveyedCompanies Government Sector14 Higher Education Sector11 Business Enterprise Sector21 Private Non Profit Sector48 Total94 Expenditure Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD)8,357.01Mil.CR The GERD/GDP Ratio0.05% Current Expenditure6, Mil.CR Labor Cost 3, Mil.CR Operating Cost 3, Mil.CR Capital Expenditure 1, Mil.CR

8 7 Three Main Fields of Research (FOR) i. F Social Science4, Mil.CR ii. F Med. & Health Science1, Mil.CR iii. F Engineering Science Mil.CR Three Main Socio-Economic Objectives (SEO) i. S Social Dev. and Com. Ser.1, Mil.CR ii. S Health1, Mil.CR iii. S30200-Education and Training1, Mil.CR

9 8 Manpower Total R&D Research Personnel1,625 Total Number of Researchers 744 Total FTE Research Personnel Total FTE Researchers 223 FTE per Research Personnel 30.42% FTE per Researcher 29.97% Degree Holders (PhDs, Masters, Bachelors) 744 Number of Researchers per 10,000 Labor Force 1.2 R&D Cost per Research Personnel 5.14 Mil.CR

10 9 COUNTRY: CAMBODIA COUNTRY: CAMBODIA GDP (1,000USD)* 3,992, GERD (mil.CR) 8, GERD (1,000USD)* 2, GERD / GDP (%) 0.05% Total R&D personnel 1,625 Female R&D personnel 350 * Average Exchange Rate in 2002 (1US$=3,924.65CR) GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D

11 10 BERD, source of fund1,000, CR1, USD% Business enterprises % Direct Government % Higher education % Private non-profit % Funds from abroad % Other % Total BERD % Table M.1: GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D(GERD) BY SECTOR OF PERFORMANCE AND SOURCE OF FUND 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR (BERD)

12 11 GOVERD, source of funds1,000, CR1, USD% Business enterprises % Direct Government % Higher education % Private non-profit % Funds from abroad % Other % Total GOVERD % 2. GOVERNMENT SECTOR (GOVERD)

13 12 HERD, source of funds1,000,000 CR1, USD% Business enterprises % Direct Government % Higher education % Private non-profit % Funds from abroad % Other % Total HERD % 3. HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR (HERD)

14 13 PNP, source of funds1,000, CR1, USD% Business enterprises % Direct Government % Higher education % Private non-profit % Funds from abroad % Other % Total PNP % 4. PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR. (NON-GOVERD)

15 14 GERD, source of funds1,000, CR1,000 USD% Business enterprises % Direct Government 1, % Higher education % Private non-profit 3, % Funds from abroad 2, % Other % Total GERD8, , % 5. NATIONAL TOTAL (GERD)

16 15 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRICE SECTOR BERD by type of research1,000,000.00R1000 USD% Basic research % Applied research % Experimental development % Total BERD % Table M.2: GROSS DOMESTIC EXPENDITURE ON R&D(GERD) BY SECTOR OF PERFORMANCE AND TYPE OF RESEARCH

17 16 2. GOVERNMENT SECTOR GOVERD by type of research1,000, CR1, USD% Basic research % Applied research % Experimental development % Total GOVERD % 3. HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR HERD by type of research1,000, CR1, USD% Basic research % Applied research % Experimental development % Total HERD %

18 17 4 PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR NON-GOVERD by type of research1,000, CR1, USD% Basic research % Applied research % Experimental development % Total NON-GOVERD % 5. NATIONAL TOTAL (GERD) GERD by type of research1,000, CR1, USD% Basic research % Applied research % Experimental development % Total GERD %

19 18 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) % RSE with Doctor degree % RSE with master degree % RSE with bachelor degree % Technicians % Other supporting staff % Total R&D personnel % Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

20 19 2.GOVERNMENT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) % RSE with Doctor degree % RSE with master degree % RSE with bachelor degree % Technicians % Other supporting staff % Total R&D personnel % Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMANCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

21 20 Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT 3.HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) % RSE with Doctor degree % RSE with master degree % RSE with bachelor degree % Technicians % Other supporting staff % Total R&D personnel %

22 21 4.PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) % RSE with Doctor degree % RSE with master degree % RSE with bachelor degree % Technicians % Other supporting staff % Total R&D personnel % Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

23 22 5. NATIONAL TOTAL OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) % RSE with Doctor degree % RSE with master degree % RSE with bachelor degree % Technicians % Other supporting staff % Total R&D personnel1, % Table M.3: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

24 23 1. BUSINESS ENTERPRISE SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scient./Engin.(RSE) – females % RSE females with Doctor degree % RSE female with Master degree % RSE females with Bachelor degree % Technicians females % Supporting staff females % Total R&D personnel females % Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

25 24 Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT 2. GOVERNMENT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scient./Engin.(RSE) – females % RSE females with Doctor degree % RSE female with Master degree % RSE females with Bachelor degree % Technicians females % Supporting staff females % Total R&D personnel females %

26 25 3. HIGHER EDUCATION SECTOR OCCUPATION - FemalesHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scient./Engin.(RSE) – females % RSE females with Doctor degree % RSE female with Master degree % RSE females with Bachelor degree % Technicians females % Supporting staff females % Total R&D personnel females % Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

27 26 4. PRIVATE NON-PROFIT SECTOR OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) – females % RSE females with Doctor degree % RSE female with Master degree % RSE females with Bachelor degree % Technicians females % Supporting staff females % Total R&D personnel females % Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT

28 27 Table M.4: TOTAL R&D PERSONNEL FEMALES BY SECTOR OF PERFORMENCE UNIT: HEADCOUNT 5. NATIONAL TOTAL OCCUPATIONHEADCOUNTFTE% Researchers/Scientists/Engineers (RSE) – females % RSE females with Doctor degree % RSE female with Master degree % RSE females with Bachelor degree % Technicians females % Supporting staff females % Total R&D personnel females %

29 28 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Minimum Requirement Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD): 1.Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D -- GERD (million current PPP$)NA NA NA 1.a. GERD (million national currency - for euro area, pre-EMU euro or EUR) NA NA NA 8, NA 2.GERD as a percentage of GDP NA 0.05 NA 3.GERD -- (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices) a.GERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices) GERD per capita population (current PPP $) NA 0.84 NA 5.Estimated Civil GERD as a percentage of GDP NA 0.05 NA 6.Basic research expenditure as a percentage of GDP NA NA

30 29 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition R&D Personnel (FTE): 7.Total researchers (FTE) a.Total researchers -- Compound annual growth rate NA 8.Total researchers per thousand total employment a.Total researchers per thousand labor force Total R&D personnel (FTE) a.Total R&D personnel -- Compound annual growth rate NA 10.Total R&D personnel per thousand total employment a.Total R&D personnel per thousand labor force

31 30 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition GERD by source of funds: 11.Industry-financed GERD as a percentage of GDP Government-financed GERD as a percentage of GDP Percentage of GERD financed by industry Percentage of GERD financed by government Percentage of GERD financed by other national sources Percentage of GERD financed by abroad GERD by performance sectors: 17.Percentage of GERD performed by the Business Enterprise sector Percentage of GERD performed by the Higher Education sector Percentage of GERD performed by the Government sector Percentage of GERD performed by the Private Non-Profit sector 50.79

32 31 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Researchers (headcount): 21.Total researchers (headcount) a.Women researchers (headcount) Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) a.Business Enterprise Sector: Total researchers (headcount) b.Business Enterprise Sector: Women researchers (headcount) c. Business Enterprise Sector: Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) d.Government Sector: Total researchers (headcount) e.Government Sector: Women researchers (headcount) f. Government Sector: Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) g.Higher Education sector: Total researchers (headcount) h.Higher Education sector: Women researchers (headcount) i. Higher Education sector: Women researchers as a percentage of total researchers (based on headcount) 18.18

33 32 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Business Enterprise Expenditure on R&D (BERD): 23. Business Enterprise Expenditure on R&D -- BERD (million current PPP $) a. BERD (million national currency - for euro area, pre- EMU euro or EUR) 1, BERD as a percentage of GDP BERD -- (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices ) a. BERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices) BERD as a percentage of value added in industry NA

34 33 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Business Enterprise R&D Personnel (FTE): 27.Business Enterprise researchers (FTE) a. Business Enterprise researchers -- Compound annual growth rate NA 28. Business Enterprise researchers as a percentage of national total Business Enterprise researchers per thousand employment in industry Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel (FTE) a. Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel – Compound annual growth rate NA 31. Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel as a percentage of national total Total Business Enterprise R&D personnel per thousand employment in industry 0.53

35 34 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition BERD by source of funds: 33. Industry-financed BERD -- (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices and PPP) a. Industry-financed BERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices) Industry-financed BERD as a percentage of value added in industry Percentage of BERD financed by industry Percentage of BERD financed by government Percentage of BERD financed by other national sources Percentage of BERD financed by abroad 43.97

36 35 Main Science and Technology Indicators List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition BERD performed in selected industries: 39.BERD performed in the aerospace industry (million current PPP $) a.Percentage of BERD performed in the aerospace industry BERD performed in the electronic industry (million current PPP $) a.Percentage of BERD performed in the electronic industry BERD performed in the office machinery and computer industry (million current PPP $) a. Percentage of BERD performed in the office machinery and computer industry BERD performed in the pharmaceutical industry (million current PPP $) a.Percentage of BERD performed in the pharmaceutical industry BERD performed in the instruments industry (million current PPP $) a.Percentage of BERD performed in the instruments industry BERD performed in service industries (million current PPP $) a.Percentage of BERD performed in service industries 0.0

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38 37 List of indicators - Excel file and electronic edition Main Science and Technology Indicators 2002 NA Government Total R&D personnel -- Compound annual growth rate 58.a Government Total R&D personnel (FTE) Government researchers as a percentage of national total57. NA Government researchers -- Compound annual growth rate56.a Government researchers (FTE)56. Government R&D Personnel (FTE): 0.00 Percentage of GOVERD financed by industry GOVERD -- Compound annual growth rate (constant prices)54.a GOVERD (million 1995 dollars -- constant prices) GOVERD as a percentage of GDP53. 2, GOVERD (million national currency - for euro area, pre-EMU euro or EUR) 52.a Government Intramural Expenditure on R&D -- GOVERD (million current PPP $) 52. Government Expenditure on R&D:

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40 39 Conclusion Cambodia does not have tradition in doing Research and Development. The result of the 2002 national survey on Research and Development has shown, that only 0.05% of the GDP has been spend on R&D. The lack of financial resources is the main obstacle in implementing R&D activities in all the 4 sectors (government, higher education, private non profit institution, and business enterprise). On the other hand the lack of government incentive was considered as the major external limitation of doing the R&D.

41 40 In compare to other ASEAN countries, Cambodia does not have much researcher, only 1.2 per 10,000 labor force (In 1999 Singapore has 69.6 and 2000 up to 83.5 per 10,000 labor force. Malaysia has 15.5 per 10,000-labor force in 2000). The share of GERD of Cambodia looks different from the other development countries. The business enterprise sector performed only 12.08% of GERD, whereas in the United State spent 74% for the experimental development and 64% for applied research in 1999, in Singapore 62% in 2000 and in the same year the private sector in Malaysia contribute 57.9%.

42 41 The Private Non Profit Sector performed most of the GERD (50.79%) and most of it for the applied research, which concentrates more in social science. The first National Survey on R&D in Cambodia for the financial Year 2002 has generally shown Cambodias place internationally in R&D. In this respect, Cambodia needs to strengthen their R&D activities in all sectors. It should begin from the policy makers that they can make policy towards R&D.

43 42 The private sector should concentrate on its own research and development instate of import on technology. The university and the other higher education institution should cooperate more with private or public institution in order to make their own students or researchers apply their theory into practice.

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