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Using Documents to Teach American History Kathy White.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Documents to Teach American History Kathy White."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Documents to Teach American History Kathy White

2 Historical Habits of the Mind

3 Cautions! 1.Be careful that students dont judge the past in light of what has happened since then (Jackson and the common man) 2. Help students keep an event/era in context and not be affected by what is next! (Articles and Constitution) 3.Mocassin theorywalk a mile in their shoes

4 What is a primary source? Firsthand documents Original materials (research based on them) Records of events (first described) No interpretation or commentary Information in original form From the time period Original thinking

5 Examples of Documents Speeches Diaries Letters Manuscripts Interviews News film footage Official records Sets of data Art, drawings, political cartoons Journals

6 Benefits of Using Documents Breaks the didactic mode of teaching Engages students Helps with the moccasin theory Improves critical reading skills Requires analysis, not just description Improves basing arguments on evidence Helps students get the big picture Humanizes history

7 Success Stories? Testimonies? Sharing from participants Recommended documents?

8 Why Documents Matter 1. pp US Constitution 1 st draft 1787We the people of the States of NH, MA, RI... FinalWe the people of the US…

9 More examples 2. p. 22 Frederick Douglass 1857 letter to his former master * love you as a person; hate slavery * forgiveness 3. p. 17 Angelica Churchs letter to brother about Burr----handwriting???

10 Visuals P. 26 picture of Abraham Lincoln 1860 and 1863 Posters p. 27, 32, 33, 37, 46, 51, Art (Dorothea LangeMigrant Mother) Political cartoons

11 Example: Abigail to John Adams Abigail Adams to John Adams 31 Mar Butterfield I wish you would ever write me a Letter half as long as I write you; and tell me if you may where your Fleet are gone? What sort of Defence Virginia can make against our common Enemy? Whether it is so situated as to make an able Defence? Are not the Gentery Lords and the common people vassals, are they not like the uncivilized Natives Brittain represents us to be? I hope their Riffel Men who have shewen themselves very savage and even Blood thirsty; are not a specimen of the Generality of the people. I am willing to allow the Colony great merrit for having produced a Washington but they have been shamefully duped by a Dunmore. I have sometimes been ready to think that the passion for Liberty cannot be Eaquelly Strong in the Breasts of those who have been accustomed to deprive their fellow Creatures of theirs. Of this I am certain that it is not founded upon that generous and christian principal of doing to others as we would that others should do unto us.

12 Abigail to John Adams (cont) I long to hear that you have declared an independancy--and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could. If perticuliar care and attention is not paid to the Laidies we are determined to foment a Rebelion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation. That your Sex are Naturally Tyrannical is a Truth so thoroughly established as to admit of no dispute, but such of you as wish to be happy willingly give up the harsh title of Master for the more tender and endearing one of Friend. Why then, not put it out of the power of the vicious and the Lawless to use us with cruelty and indignity with impunity. Men of Sense in all Ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the vassals of your Sex. Regard us then as Beings placed by providence under your protection and in immitation of the Supreem Being make use of that power only for our happiness.

13 John Adams Reply to Abigail John Adams to Abigail Adams 14 Apr Butterfield You ask where the Fleet is. The inclosed Papers will inform you. You ask what Sort of Defence Virginia can make. I believe they will make an able Defence. Their Militia and minute Men have been some time employed in training them selves, and they have Nine Battallions of regulars as they call them, maintained among them, under good Officers, at the Continental Expence. They have set up a Number of Manufactories of Fire Arms, which are busily employed. They are tolerably supplied with Powder, and are successfull and assiduous, in making Salt Petre. Their neighbouring Sister or rather Daughter Colony of North Carolina, which is a warlike Colony, and has several Battallions at the Continental Expence, as well as a pretty good Militia, are ready to assist them, and they are in very good Spirits, and seem determined to make a brave Resistance.--The Gentry are very rich, and the common People very poor. This Inequality of Property, gives an Aristocratical Turn to all their Proceedings, and occasions a strong Aversion in their Patricians, to Common Sense. But the Spirit of these Barons, is coming down, and it must submit.

14 John Adams to Abigail (cont) As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh. We have been told that our Struggle has loosened the bands of Government every where. That Children and Apprentices were disobedient--that schools and Colledges were grown turbulent--that Indians slighted their Guardians and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters. But your Letter was the first Intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerfull than all the rest were grown discontented.--This is rather too coarse a Compliment but you are so saucy, I wont blot it out. Depend upon it, We know better than to repeal our Masculine systems. Altho they are in full Force, you know they are little more than Theory. We dare not exert our Power in its full Latitude. We are obliged to go fair, and softly, and in Practice you know We are the subjects. We have only the Name of Masters, and rather than give up this, which would compleatly subject Us to the Despotism of the Peticoat, I hope General Washington, and all our brave Heroes would fight. I am sure every good Politician would plot, as long as he would against Despotism, Empire, Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, or Ochlocracy.--A fine Story indeed. I begin to think the Ministry as deep as they are wicked. After stirring up Tories, Landjobbers, Trimmers, Bigots, Canadians, Indians, Negroes, Hanoverians, Hessians, Russians, Irish Roman Catholicks, Scotch Renegadoes, at last they have stimulated the to demand new Priviledges and threaten to rebell.

15 Analyze learning that can take place with these letters How would you use this in your classroom? What questions would you ask to stimulate the learning you want to occur?

16 Sources s.html s.html artoons.htm artoons.htm

17 Why Documents Matter Constitution First Draft: August 1787 We the People of the States of new- Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Provident Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North- Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, do ordain, declare, and establish, the following Constitution for the Government of Ourselves and our Posterity…….

18 ConstitutionSept. 17, 1787 We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves an our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

19 Analyze learning that can take place with these letters How would you use this in your classroom? What questions would you ask to stimulate the learning you want to occur?

20 Ways to Analyze Documents APPARTS (College Board) AUTHOR: Who created the source? What do you know about the author? What is the authors point of view? PLACE and TIME: Where and when was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the source? PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: What additional things do you know that help you further understand the primary source (symbols?)?

21 APPARTS (continued) AUDIENCE: For whom was the source created and how might this affect the reliability of the source? REASON: Why was this source produced at the time it was produced? THE MAIN IDEA: What point is the source trying to convey? SIGNIFICANCE: Why is the source important? Inferences you can draw? So what?

22 SOAPST SPEAKER? Voice OCCASION: Time and placecontext? AUDIENCE: Readers to whom its directed PURPOSE: Reason behind the text SUBJECT: What its about TONE: Attitude of author (diction, syntax, and imagery)

23 Socratic Seminar/Questioning Whole class discussion Open-ended questions that are thought- provoking Students refer to text for evidence and must give reasons for their comments High level questions and critical thinking Students ask questions, too Teachers questions are critical

24 Levels of Questions Knowledge and comprehension questions may be used in study guides, but seminars should focus on Apply Analyze Evaluate Create

25 Essential Questions Reflect most historically important issues Make students think like an expert Open-ended; no single correct answer Stimulate debate, inquiry, further questions Can be re-examined over time Thought-provoking to students Engage students in sustained, focused inquiries, culminating in meaningful performances

26 Political cartoons Photographs















41 Practice with Excerpts Depression: Bernice Kelly Harris Gilded Age: George Washington Plunkitt How would you use these? What are two or three questions you would ask students about each excerpt?

42 Letter from a Birmingham Jail Read excerpts and mark key passages Write at least two questions for classroom Think/pair/share Brainstorm a lesson plan

43 Douglass, What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? Mark key passages Think/pair/share Design a full lesson using primary source Share questions you would ask students What are your goals? Expected outcomes?

44 Getting Started Document Project

45 # 1 What do you want students to know, understand, and be able to do? Select your learning target Select curriculum goal/objective Unpack standard for better understanding Clarify your purpose/goal

46 # 2 How do you know that they know? Assessment Essential questions that probe and require analysis Evidence of application and evaluation (critical thinking)

47 # 3 Lesson Plan Teaching the content Teaching the skill of analysis Alignment of (#1) goal, (#2) assessment, (#3) lesson plan

48 Enjoy!!

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