Presentation on theme: "NC K-2 Literacy Assessment 2009"— Presentation transcript:
1NC K-2 Literacy Assessment 2009 K-5 English Language ArtsNC DPI
2Housekeeping Restrooms Materials Lunch and Breaks Cell phones Sidebars Please note the location of the restrooms.Participants will have a copy of the 2009 NC K-2 Literacy Assessment. The powerpoint will be sent via .We will have 2 breaks and 1hour for lunch.Please turn cell phones to vibrate or silent.Please refrain from sidebar conversations, as it makes it hard for people to hear the presentation.
3ObjectivesTo understand the components of the 2009 North Carolina K-2 Literacy Assessment.
4NC State Board PolicyThe State Board of Education requires that schools and school districts implement assessments in grades K, 1, and 2.The assessments should be documented, ongoing and individualized.A summative evaluation should be completed at the end of the year.Schools and school districts can use the NC assessment, or ANY assessment that they purchase or develop to assess literacy skills in grades K-2.
5Intended PurposesThe NC K-2 Literacy Assessment is intended to assess the reading and writing skills of students in kindergarten, first, and second grade.It is intended to be a process for formative, interim/benchmark, and summative assessment.
6Formative AssessmentIs process used by teachers and students during instruction.Provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learningHelps students improve their achievement of intended instructional outcomes.Happens minute-to-minute or in short cycles.We are assessing formatively all the time! Formative assessments are not formal, they are intended to help teachers plan appropriate instruction for individual students, small groups of students, and, at times, for an entire class.
7Interim/Benchmark Assessment An assessment given to students periodically throughout the year.Determines how much learning has taken place up to a particular point in time.More formal. Like formative assessment, interim assessments should be used to guide instruction. These assessments are usually given every “quarter” or “marking period.” The results of these assessments should not be the only information teachers use to complete report cards.
8Summative AssessmentIs a measure of achievement providing evidence of student competence or program effectiveness.Is evaluative and is used to categorize students so performance among students can be compared.A formal assessment. These assessments are given at the end of the school year. The results of these assessments should not be the only information teachers use to complete report cards. Should be used by the next years teacher to plan for instruction.
9Frequency of Assessments Formative assessments should be on-going, daily, weekly, as needed.Interim/benchmark assessments should be completed at the beginning and middle of the school year.A summative assessment must be completed at the end of the school year.This is different from the 2005 NC K-2 Literacy Assessment. The 2005 recommends 1 interim and 1 summative, the 2009 recommends 2 interim and 1 summative. This will better show the growth over time and will also provide teachers with more information throughout the year.
10Suggested TimelinesTimelines should serve as a guide for interim/benchmark and summative assessments.Timelines can be adjusted to fit the needs of the student and LEA/district policies.It is not necessary to complete EVERY component during interim/benchmark assessments or at the summative assessment. The timelines are included to help teachers understand what is “typically” necessary for students at a certain time of year in each grade level. We understand that all students learn at a different pace and expect teachers to make necessary adjustments for their students.
11Components Letter and Sound Identification Book and Print Awareness Phonemic AwarenessRunning RecordFluencyOral RetellWriting about Reading (optional)Spelling InventoryWritingAll of the components are ESSENTIAL, there are no longer Targeted Assessments. Writing about Reading is optional and we will discuss this component later in the day. Components in red are new to the NC K-2 Literacy Assessment. They were added because they each provide valuable information for teachers.
12Letter and Sound Identification This assesses children’s ability to recognize letters and the sounds of letters.A student does not need to demonstrate understanding of all letters and sounds before receiving instruction in reading and learning to read.Do not re-assess items that have already been successfully assessed!If a student has already demonstrated an understanding of letters and sounds, it is not necessary to re-assess! It is not an efficient use of teacher or student time!When recording, use a check (√) for correct responses and a dash (-) unknown responses. Record incorrect responses that a student provides, for example if the letter is “b” and the student responds, “p”, the teacher should record a “p” on the recording form.
13Letter and Sound Identification If a student needs help focusing in just 1 row of letters, teachers may use a blank piece of paper to cover up the rows below the row beneath.For letters that produce more than 1 sound (vowels, g, c), students need to produce only 1 correct sound to receive credit.
14Letter and Sound Identification MaterialsLetter cards (1 uppercase, 1 lowercase)Recording formBlank sheet of paper (if needed)Teachers may want to print the letter cards on cardstock or heavy weight paper and laminate to preserve them. An alternative would be to keep them in a plastic sleeve.
15Letter and Sound Identification ProceduresSit beside the student.Place the letter card in front of the student and ask, “Do you know what these are?”Point to each letter going across the card and ask the student, “Can you tell me the name of this letter and what sound it makes?”Sounds do not need to be assessed on both upper and lower case letters. If the student produces the sound on the lowercase letter, they do not need to produce it again. However if they are unable to produce it on the lowercase, ask if they can produce it while assessing uppercase letters and note this on the recording form.
16Letter and Sound Identification Considerations for ELLsDifferent alphabet你好 здравствулте!Different order of learning sound letter conceptsDifferent letter sound associationsAdditional letters/soundsWhen working with ELL students, be sure to consider that:Students may be used to a completely different alphabet: Look at the examples of Chinese and Russian. Chinese is completely different but Russian has some characters that look the same as English. This can cause confusion as well as lengthen the time it takes for students to appropriately recognize the letters. (Both say “Hello” )In the US we tend to teach the association of the shape with the letter name, then the corresponding sounds. Most other countries focus on the corresponding sound. If students already have literacy skills this can cause interference.This next point ties directly to the last two. The Spanish pronunciation for the letter “E” matches that of our long “A”. For a Russian, the letter “B” may trigger completely different connections than what we are expecting in English.Another stumbling block can be the fact that languages differ in the number of sounds that correspond to a letter. In English, 1 letter may have more than one sound i.e. “A,” in Spanish has only 1 sound.To complicate things further, in English a diagraph, like “ch,” is composed of 2 letters making one sound. While the same sound in Korean corresponds to only 1 letter.English may include letters and/or sounds which are not represented in the native language of the students. It is difficult to hear a sound in a second language if you have not been exposed to it in your first.Be sure that what is being assessed is the concept of sound symbol correlation, not only the actual sounds.16
17Give it a Go! Role play with someone at your table. Take turns being the teacher.
18Book and Print Awareness Assesses the foundational skills that facilitate reading and writing at the independent level.Should be assessed during the first 2 years of school.Some items may be more appropriate in first grade.
19Book and Print Awareness The book, No Sandwich is included in the assessment.The Administration Guide is directly linked to the book.Do not re-assess items that have already been successfully assessed!
20Book and Print Awareness MaterialsA copy of the book, No SandwichBook and Print Awareness Administration GuideBook and Print Awareness Individual ChecklistMasking cardsTo make the masking cards, simply cut two 3” X 1” strips of cardstock or index cards.
21Book and Print Awareness ProceduresSit beside the child.Follow the Book and Print Awareness Administration Guide.Record the student’s responses.Record comments.Tally the number of items correct.Plan for instruction.If a student misses a skill and the teacher later observes the student demonstrating an understanding for the skills in small groups or literacy centers, the teacher should check this item as correct on the student response sheet and not re-assess the item again.Be sure to complete the comments section with any significant information observed during the assessment.
22Book and Print Awareness Considerations for ELLsDirectionalityAdditional symbolsWriting ConventionsPunctuationCapitalizationGrammarParagraphingHand me a Japanese Manga book and I will inevitably open it backwards! Why? Because the Japanese read and write from right to left, the opposite of English, ELLs may come with book and print awareness which cause confusion when they are asked to demonstrate these concepts.Think back to the last set of Considerations for ELL’s. How might this interfere with print awareness? (ask for answers and/or give your own)All of these things can cause additional confusion for an ELL who has been exposed to a different set of conventions.22
23Give it a Go! Role play with someone at your table. Take turns being the teacher.
24Phonemic Awareness Assesses student’s ability to manipulate sounds. Helps students develop knowledge of sounds through the exposure of oral and written language.Make students aware that language is made up of individual words, and that words are made of syllables and syllables are made up of phonemes.Phonemic Awareness is assessed in grades K-2. Most students will not be assessed on ALL subsets in one grade. Teachers should refer to the Suggested Timelines section for more information on which subsets are likely to be completed at each grade level. The subsets are in a developmental sequence.
25Phonemic AwarenessThere are 15 different subsets with 6 tasks in each.Picture cards can be used for subsets 4 and 11 if needed.Do not re-assess items that have already been successfully assessed!
26Phonemic Awareness Subsets 1-4 1. Orally recognizes rhyme.2. Orally generates rhyme.3. Orally identifies beginning sounds.4. Orally identifies words that begin the same.
27Phonemic Awareness Subsets 5-11 5. Blends onset and rime.6. Segments onset and rime.7. Orally blends phonemes into words.8. Orally segments words into phonemes.9. Orally divides words into syllables10. Orally identifies ending sounds11. Orally identifies words that end the same.
28Phonemic Awareness Subsets 12-15 12. Orally substitutes one phoneme for another.13. Phoneme deletion of final sound.14. Phoneme deletion of initial sound.15. Phoneme substitution of medial sound.This is the developmental sequence for Phonemic Awareness. However, if a student demonstrates understanding of a certain skill in this sequence, continue to teach the other skills.
29Phonemic Awareness Materials Phonemic Awareness Inventory recording formsPicture cards (if needed)It is recommended that teachers copy the cards on cardstock or heavy weight paper and laminate to preserve them. Teachers will need to cut the cards out and label the back with the correct label, which can be found in the Addendum.
30Phonemic Awareness Procedures Sit beside the child. Follow the script on the recording forms.Record the student’s responses.Tally the number of items correct.Plan for instruction.If a student misses a skill and the teacher later observes the student demonstrating an understanding for the skills in small groups or literacy centers, the teacher should check this item as correct on the student response sheet and not re-assess the item again.
31Phonemic Awareness Considerations for ELLs In general, similar Correspondence mismatch of sound to letter, sound combinationsPhonological: Rhyming – consonant rhyming vs– vowels rhymingSpanish: azul, canesuThis are is the most similar for all languages.repeated from previous slides – what needs to be highlighted here?A phonological point to consider. With rhyming: English looks at a final consonant while Spanish considers the following a rhyme due to the final vowel.31
32Give it a Go! Role play with someone at your table. Take turns being the teacher.
33A Running RecordTo assess the child’s ability to read continuous text (decode print and construct meaning) at specific levels of difficulty.To record the child’s oral reading for analysis of skills/strategies and for documentation of growth over time.Running Records are used for teachers to observe how a student is reading. The purpose of a Running Record is NOT to “get a student” to a certain text level. The observed reading behaviors and strategies, and the analysis of the running record is what teachers need to focus on, as this is what will guide instruction and move students forward.
34Formative Running Records Teachers should be doing informal running records often during guided reading groups.For some students running records may need to be done daily, for others weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly running records will be appropriate. These formative assessments will assist the teacher when selecting text for interim/benchmark and summative purposes. If a teacher has been conducting informal running records throughout the school year, they will not have to assess a student on several different texts to find the instructional level, which will save time for teachers and frustration for students!
35Interim/benchmark and Summative Running Records Interim/benchmark and summative running records must be conducted using secure text.Secured texts are used for assessment only and not for reading instruction, general checkout, school library or leveled book rooms.NC has a new leveled book list. It uses Fountas and Pinnell Guided Reading levels (A-N). The list contains both fiction and nonfiction at every level (except level A, which is only nonfiction). Schools/school districts can purchase these book sets or use any leveled text that they choose, as long as they keep these texts secure. A correlation chart that shows the Fountas and Pinnell levels is included in the addendum.
36A Running Record Materials Leveled book Running Record recording form Fluency rubricRetelling formThe recording form is blank (there are no texts typed). It is recommended that teachers use a blank form in order to focus the assessment on the reading behaviors that the child demonstrates during the assessment. Having the text typed out can often be a distraction. Also, during formative running records, teachers will not have every guided reading book in their classroom typed up.
37A Running Record Procedures: Before reading Find a quiet place. Sit beside the child.Read the introductory statement.Ask the child to preview the story.
38A Running Record Procedures: During reading Ask the child to read the book orally.Record the oral reading on the Running Record response form.
39A Running Record Procedures: After reading Compute the error rate, accuracy rate, and self-correction rate.Analyze the miscues and self-corrections.M= Did the error make sense? (meaning)S= Did the error sound like language? (syntax)V= Did it look and sound right? (visual)Plan for instruction.The revised form includes a Conversion Table, instructions on calculating error rate, accuracy, and self-correction rate, as well as a place to record text analysis information.
40A Running Record Considerations for ELLs “Does it make sense? Does it sound right?” Don’t have background knowledgeMiscue analysis- check for semantic errors 1st – can decode farther than understand.Comprehension before decodingIn order to get a true picture of an ELL student’s reading level, it is essential that the teacher/assessor selects a text from a set of a secure texts that contains vocabulary and concepts that they know are familiar to the student, based on lessons and themes taught in class, during guided reading groups, and reading/writing workshop. As proficiency grows, the need for text containing familiar vocabulary and concepts becomes less essential.As with ALL students, data from Running Records should be used to guide instruction! Running Records are NOT intended to be used as a benchmark for retention or placement in special programs.40
41FluencyAssesses the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with expression.Assesses all students using the Qualitative Fluency Rubric.Assesses students reading a level G or above using both the Qualitative and Quantitative Fluency Rubrics.Fluency is assessed during the Running Record at the students instructional level (90%-94% accuracy). Beginning readers that are reading text below level G should not be assessed quantitatively, as most of these texts do not contain enough words to get a good rate.It is important that the teacher looks at both the Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM) and the Qualitative Fluency Rubric. Students reading a typical amount of WCPM should also be reading with appropriate expression and phrasing.
42Fluency Materials Qualitative Fluency Rubric Quantitative Fluency Rubric (if level G or above)Stopwatch (if level G or above)
43Qualitative Fluency Rubric Rubric Score 1:All reading is done word by word.Long pauses between words.Little evidence of phrasing.Little awareness of punctuation.There may be 2 word phrases, but word groupings are often awkward.
44Qualitative Fluency Rubric Rubric Score 2:Most reading is done word by word.Some 2 word phrasing.Expressive interpretation may result in longer examples of phrasing.Inconsistent application of punctuation and syntax with rereading for problem solving.
45Qualitative Fluency Rubric Rubric Score 3:Reading is done as a mixture of word by word reading, fluent reading, and phrased reading.Attention to punctuation and syntax with rereading for problem solving
46Qualitative Fluency Rubric Rubric Score 4:Reading is in large, meaningful phrases.Few slow-downs for problem solving of words or to confirm accuracy.Expressive interpretation is evident throughout reading.Attention to punctuation and syntax is present.
47Quantitative Fluency Rubric Calculate the words read correctly:Total words read – errors = words read correctlyCalculate the number of words per minute:Total # of words read correctly ÷ # of seconds X 60 = WCPM
48Quantitative Fluency Rubric After calculating the WCPM, refer to the Quantitative Fluency Rubric for the percentiles for grades 1-3.Students below the 50th percentile may need for their teacher to model fluency often!
49Fluency Considerations for ELLs Cadence differs – may develop after understanding – word and sentence.Although an ELL may know the words and be able to read them, fluency may be hindered by the difference in cadence when examining rhythm and intonation. Due to exposure to different cadences in the native language, “fluency” as scored in the test may lag behind understanding both at the word and sentence levels.49
50Oral RetellAssesses how well a student approaches a text that they have read.Assesses a student’s ability to retell a text in their own words and to connect the text with other texts or experiences that they have read at their instructional level (90%-94%).These skills need to be taught and modeled beginning in kindergarten! Some concepts are more difficult for some students to understand, especially author’s purpose and connections. Teachers need to model and work collaboratively with students on these concepts during read aloud and guided reading groups.
51Oral RetellMaterialsInstructional level text (used in the Running Record)Oral Retell Response formRetelling PromptsOral Retell RubricTeachers need to be sure that they have the and laminate to preserve them. The Oral Retell Rubric is the same for both fiction and nonfiction.
52Oral Retell Procedures Ask the student to tell you about the text. Record any information provided by the student in the unaided portion of the Oral Retell recording form. Prompt the student regarding any information they did not include during the unaided retelling and record it in the aided portion of the Oral Retell recording form.It is not expected that the teacher records every word the child states as part of their retell, just the key points that will support their rubric score.
53Oral Retell Calculating the score: Score each portion of the retell using the rubric.Circle the score in each portion.Add the rubric score from each portion together to get a Summative Rubric Score.Please note that the Summative Rubrics have changed on the 2009 assessment.
54Oral Retell: Unaided vs. Aided A child’s retell score is not affected by unaided or aided responses.The teacher should consider the amount of aided responses when planning for instruction.
55Oral Retell: UnaidedAsk the child to retell the story as if they were telling it to someone who has never seen/heard/read the story before.Any information is recorded in the Unaided section of the Oral Retell form.*The teacher can ask open-ended questions to prompt the child.Some examples of open ended prompts: What can you tell me about that story? What was that story about? What can you remember about that story? These are general, non-specific prompts.
56Oral Retell: AidedAfter the child has been given an opportunity to retell the story without direct assistance, the teacher will give direct prompts the child in order to complete the retelling.The teacher may use the prompts provided or prompts that they created.Any information added by the student is recorded in the Aided section of the Oral Retell formIt is important that every student has an opportunity to retell the story without direct prompts first. This will help teachers plan instruction.
57Oral Retell Considerations for ELLs May be a strength – may be acquired before print awarenessMay not correspond to actual story heard – cultural not reading relatedIn many cultures, including the African American culture, retelling a story, especially with embellishment is highly valued and praised. For that reason, using the language they command, an ELL may add details to a story that they are asked to retell. These details may not seem to correspond to the original story. Again, this may be related to culture and not directly to the student’s level of understanding of the story read to them.57
58Give it a Go! Let’s practice taking Running Records! For this activity, trainers will need to prepare in advance scripted running records to recite (with errors and self-corrects) in order for participants to practice. Any leveled text will do! The amount of practice will depend on the level of experience the participants have, though it is recommended that everyone “brushes up” their skills!Trainers will also need to prepare “mock” oral retells for participants to analyze. If you prefer you can use copies of actual Oral Retells from your class, just be sure to take off names and scores.
59This assessment should not replace the Oral Retell portion. Writing About ReadingTo use as an optional assessment after students have completed a Running Record and Oral Retell assessment.This assessment should be considered for students that have a difficulty with oral expression.This assessment should not replace the Oral Retell portion.This assessment may also be appropriate for advanced students to assess if they can express themselves in writing as well as they can orally. Students may use the forms provided or a blank sheet paper. Students should be allowed to refer back to the text if needed.
60Writing About Reading Procedures Complete the Running Record and Oral Retell (instructional level).Allow the student to return to their seat (or a quiet place in the classroom) and complete the student form (or a blank sheet of paper).Use the rubric to score the sample.
61Writing About Reading Rubric Score 3:The drawing or writing reflects sufficient understanding of the text.Score 4:The drawing or writing reflects understanding of the text beyond grade level expectations.Score 1:The drawing or writing reflects little or no understanding of the text.Score 2:The drawing or writing reflects some understanding of the text.
62Writing About Reading Considerations for ELLs Writing for reading Many cultures write to read, not read to write. The reversal of the concept can be confusing to ELLs. Use of drawing as part of this optional additional assessment is a useful tool for assessing the students grasp of the concept versus the specific language.
63Spelling InventoryAssesses the word knowledge students have to bring to the tasks of reading and spelling.Students are not to study these words. Studying the words would invalidate the purpose of the inventory, which is to find out what they truly know about how words work.
64Spelling Inventory Materials Sentences for words Individual Score SheetClass Composite SheetBlank paper for students
65Spelling Inventory Procedures Call out the word and use it in a sentence (just as you would for any spelling test).Score each student’s assessment and record results on the Individual Score Sheet.Record class results on the Class Composite.The words are ordered in terms of their relative difficulty for children in grades K-5. For this reason you only need to administer the words which sample features your students are likely to master during the year. You will find the recommended words per grade level in the assessment materials.
66Spelling Inventory Scoring 1. Check off or highlight the features for each word which are spelled according to the descriptors at the top.2. Assign 1 point for each feature (some words are scored for some features but not others).
67Spelling Inventory Scoring 3. Add an additional point in the “Word Correct” column for entire words that are spelled correctly. 4. Total the number of points across each word and under each feature. 5. Review the feature columns in order to determine the individual needs of your students.
68Spelling Inventory Scoring Considerations for ELLsWon’t know high frequency words if low levelPhonetic spelling from oral knowledgeMay spell those not really knownWe reiterate the fact that this assessment is to be used for instructional purposes.A low level ELL will NOT know the typical high frequency words due to lack of exposure to them both verbally and in writing.Oral knowledge will often transfer into the phonetic nature of the spelling of the high frequency as well as other words.
69Give it a Go! Let’s practice scoring the Spelling Inventory! Trainers will also need to prepare “mock” Spelling Inventories for participants to analyze. If you prefer, you can use copies of actual Spelling Inventories from your class, just be sure to take off names and scores.
70Writing ContinuumUsed to analyze student writing throughout the year for the purposes of formative, interim/benchmark, and summative assessment.It is strongly recommended that teachers keep a portfolio of student writing samples throughout the year to document progress over time.It is also recommended that students write about experiences, people, places, and things that are familiar to them. Prompts do not necessarily lend themselves to this! If teachers choose to use prompts, they need to be very cautious about creating prompts that are accessible to ALL students.
71Writing Continuum Formative assessment: Teachers should examine student writing from everyday writing experiences that occur during the writing process.
72Writing Continuum Interim/benchmark and summative assessment: Teachers should collect a writing sample from students completed during a controlled writing experience.
73Writing Continuum: A Controlled Experience Students produce a writing sample without teacher assistance.The sample should be handwritten by the student, unless the student has modifications per an IEP.The teacher should follow typical prewriting procedures that reflect regular classroom writing experiences.
74Writing Continuum: A Controlled Experience The teacher should not remove resources such as word walls, word charts, or dictionaries that are used during typical writing experiences.The teacher should maintain a positive writing environment.This is not a writing test! It is an opportunity for students to write independently. If students are writing everyday and teachers are conferring with them and providing students with descriptive feedback, the pieces that are completed during a controlled experience should not be too different from other pieces in their portfolio.
75Assessing Writing Read through the student’s piece of writing. Review the rubric and the criteria of each stage.
76Assessing WritingDecide which stage the piece best represents based on both content and conventions.There is not a certain number of content or conventions criteria needed for each stage. Each piece should be reviewed in its entirety.
77Assessing Writing Remember: A student’s writing often shows characteristics of more than one stage.Depending on the type of writing or the length of the piece, it may not display every single characteristic of a particular stage, but the characteristics that are present will be most representative of a particular stage.
78Assessing Writing Considerations for ELLs Diagnostic Pictorial representationDifferentiating expectations
79Contact InformationTara Almeida(919)Carolyn Southerland(919)Glenda Harrell(919)Ivanna Mann Thrower(919)