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NC K-2 Literacy Assessment 2009

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1 NC K-2 Literacy Assessment 2009
K-5 English Language Arts NC DPI

2 Housekeeping Restrooms Materials Lunch and Breaks Cell phones Sidebars
Please note the location of the restrooms. Participants will have a copy of the 2009 NC K-2 Literacy Assessment. The powerpoint will be sent via . We will have 2 breaks and 1hour for lunch. Please turn cell phones to vibrate or silent. Please refrain from sidebar conversations, as it makes it hard for people to hear the presentation.

3 Objectives To understand the components of the 2009 North Carolina K-2 Literacy Assessment.

4 NC State Board Policy The State Board of Education requires that schools and school districts implement assessments in grades K, 1, and 2. The assessments should be documented, ongoing and individualized. A summative evaluation should be completed at the end of the year. Schools and school districts can use the NC assessment, or ANY assessment that they purchase or develop to assess literacy skills in grades K-2.

5 Intended Purposes The NC K-2 Literacy Assessment is intended to assess the reading and writing skills of students in kindergarten, first, and second grade. It is intended to be a process for formative, interim/benchmark, and summative assessment.

6 Formative Assessment Is process used by teachers and students during instruction. Provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning Helps students improve their achievement of intended instructional outcomes. Happens minute-to-minute or in short cycles. We are assessing formatively all the time! Formative assessments are not formal, they are intended to help teachers plan appropriate instruction for individual students, small groups of students, and, at times, for an entire class.

7 Interim/Benchmark Assessment
An assessment given to students periodically throughout the year. Determines how much learning has taken place up to a particular point in time. More formal. Like formative assessment, interim assessments should be used to guide instruction. These assessments are usually given every “quarter” or “marking period.” The results of these assessments should not be the only information teachers use to complete report cards.

8 Summative Assessment Is a measure of achievement providing evidence of student competence or program effectiveness. Is evaluative and is used to categorize students so performance among students can be compared. A formal assessment. These assessments are given at the end of the school year. The results of these assessments should not be the only information teachers use to complete report cards. Should be used by the next years teacher to plan for instruction.

9 Frequency of Assessments
Formative assessments should be on-going, daily, weekly, as needed. Interim/benchmark assessments should be completed at the beginning and middle of the school year. A summative assessment must be completed at the end of the school year. This is different from the 2005 NC K-2 Literacy Assessment. The 2005 recommends 1 interim and 1 summative, the 2009 recommends 2 interim and 1 summative. This will better show the growth over time and will also provide teachers with more information throughout the year.

10 Suggested Timelines Timelines should serve as a guide for interim/benchmark and summative assessments. Timelines can be adjusted to fit the needs of the student and LEA/district policies. It is not necessary to complete EVERY component during interim/benchmark assessments or at the summative assessment. The timelines are included to help teachers understand what is “typically” necessary for students at a certain time of year in each grade level. We understand that all students learn at a different pace and expect teachers to make necessary adjustments for their students.

11 Components Letter and Sound Identification Book and Print Awareness
Phonemic Awareness Running Record Fluency Oral Retell Writing about Reading (optional) Spelling Inventory Writing All of the components are ESSENTIAL, there are no longer Targeted Assessments. Writing about Reading is optional and we will discuss this component later in the day. Components in red are new to the NC K-2 Literacy Assessment. They were added because they each provide valuable information for teachers.

12 Letter and Sound Identification
This assesses children’s ability to recognize letters and the sounds of letters. A student does not need to demonstrate understanding of all letters and sounds before receiving instruction in reading and learning to read. Do not re-assess items that have already been successfully assessed! If a student has already demonstrated an understanding of letters and sounds, it is not necessary to re-assess! It is not an efficient use of teacher or student time! When recording, use a check (√) for correct responses and a dash (-) unknown responses. Record incorrect responses that a student provides, for example if the letter is “b” and the student responds, “p”, the teacher should record a “p” on the recording form.

13 Letter and Sound Identification
If a student needs help focusing in just 1 row of letters, teachers may use a blank piece of paper to cover up the rows below the row beneath. For letters that produce more than 1 sound (vowels, g, c), students need to produce only 1 correct sound to receive credit.

14 Letter and Sound Identification
Materials Letter cards (1 uppercase, 1 lowercase) Recording form Blank sheet of paper (if needed) Teachers may want to print the letter cards on cardstock or heavy weight paper and laminate to preserve them. An alternative would be to keep them in a plastic sleeve.

15 Letter and Sound Identification
Procedures Sit beside the student. Place the letter card in front of the student and ask, “Do you know what these are?” Point to each letter going across the card and ask the student, “Can you tell me the name of this letter and what sound it makes?” Sounds do not need to be assessed on both upper and lower case letters. If the student produces the sound on the lowercase letter, they do not need to produce it again. However if they are unable to produce it on the lowercase, ask if they can produce it while assessing uppercase letters and note this on the recording form.

16 Letter and Sound Identification
Considerations for ELLs Different alphabet 你好 здравствулте! Different order of learning sound letter concepts Different letter sound associations Additional letters/sounds When working with ELL students, be sure to consider that: Students may be used to a completely different alphabet: Look at the examples of Chinese and Russian. Chinese is completely different but Russian has some characters that look the same as English. This can cause confusion as well as lengthen the time it takes for students to appropriately recognize the letters. (Both say “Hello” ) In the US we tend to teach the association of the shape with the letter name, then the corresponding sounds. Most other countries focus on the corresponding sound. If students already have literacy skills this can cause interference. This next point ties directly to the last two. The Spanish pronunciation for the letter “E” matches that of our long “A”. For a Russian, the letter “B” may trigger completely different connections than what we are expecting in English. Another stumbling block can be the fact that languages differ in the number of sounds that correspond to a letter. In English, 1 letter may have more than one sound i.e. “A,” in Spanish has only 1 sound. To complicate things further, in English a diagraph, like “ch,” is composed of 2 letters making one sound. While the same sound in Korean corresponds to only 1 letter. English may include letters and/or sounds which are not represented in the native language of the students. It is difficult to hear a sound in a second language if you have not been exposed to it in your first. Be sure that what is being assessed is the concept of sound symbol correlation, not only the actual sounds. 16

17 Give it a Go! Role play with someone at your table.
Take turns being the teacher.

18 Book and Print Awareness
Assesses the foundational skills that facilitate reading and writing at the independent level. Should be assessed during the first 2 years of school. Some items may be more appropriate in first grade.

19 Book and Print Awareness
The book, No Sandwich is included in the assessment. The Administration Guide is directly linked to the book. Do not re-assess items that have already been successfully assessed!

20 Book and Print Awareness
Materials A copy of the book, No Sandwich Book and Print Awareness Administration Guide Book and Print Awareness Individual Checklist Masking cards To make the masking cards, simply cut two 3” X 1” strips of cardstock or index cards.

21 Book and Print Awareness
Procedures Sit beside the child. Follow the Book and Print Awareness Administration Guide. Record the student’s responses. Record comments. Tally the number of items correct. Plan for instruction. If a student misses a skill and the teacher later observes the student demonstrating an understanding for the skills in small groups or literacy centers, the teacher should check this item as correct on the student response sheet and not re-assess the item again. Be sure to complete the comments section with any significant information observed during the assessment.

22 Book and Print Awareness
Considerations for ELLs Directionality Additional symbols Writing Conventions Punctuation Capitalization Grammar Paragraphing Hand me a Japanese Manga book and I will inevitably open it backwards! Why? Because the Japanese read and write from right to left, the opposite of English, ELLs may come with book and print awareness which cause confusion when they are asked to demonstrate these concepts. Think back to the last set of Considerations for ELL’s. How might this interfere with print awareness? (ask for answers and/or give your own) All of these things can cause additional confusion for an ELL who has been exposed to a different set of conventions. 22

23 Give it a Go! Role play with someone at your table.
Take turns being the teacher.

24 Phonemic Awareness Assesses student’s ability to manipulate sounds.
Helps students develop knowledge of sounds through the exposure of oral and written language. Make students aware that language is made up of individual words, and that words are made of syllables and syllables are made up of phonemes. Phonemic Awareness is assessed in grades K-2. Most students will not be assessed on ALL subsets in one grade. Teachers should refer to the Suggested Timelines section for more information on which subsets are likely to be completed at each grade level. The subsets are in a developmental sequence.

25 Phonemic Awareness There are 15 different subsets with 6 tasks in each. Picture cards can be used for subsets 4 and 11 if needed. Do not re-assess items that have already been successfully assessed!

26 Phonemic Awareness Subsets 1-4
1. Orally recognizes rhyme. 2. Orally generates rhyme. 3. Orally identifies beginning sounds. 4. Orally identifies words that begin the same.

27 Phonemic Awareness Subsets 5-11
5. Blends onset and rime. 6. Segments onset and rime. 7. Orally blends phonemes into words. 8. Orally segments words into phonemes. 9. Orally divides words into syllables 10. Orally identifies ending sounds 11. Orally identifies words that end the same.

28 Phonemic Awareness Subsets 12-15
12. Orally substitutes one phoneme for another. 13. Phoneme deletion of final sound. 14. Phoneme deletion of initial sound. 15. Phoneme substitution of medial sound. This is the developmental sequence for Phonemic Awareness. However, if a student demonstrates understanding of a certain skill in this sequence, continue to teach the other skills.

29 Phonemic Awareness Materials
Phonemic Awareness Inventory recording forms Picture cards (if needed) It is recommended that teachers copy the cards on cardstock or heavy weight paper and laminate to preserve them. Teachers will need to cut the cards out and label the back with the correct label, which can be found in the Addendum.

30 Phonemic Awareness Procedures Sit beside the child.
Follow the script on the recording forms. Record the student’s responses. Tally the number of items correct. Plan for instruction. If a student misses a skill and the teacher later observes the student demonstrating an understanding for the skills in small groups or literacy centers, the teacher should check this item as correct on the student response sheet and not re-assess the item again.

31 Phonemic Awareness Considerations for ELLs In general, similar
Correspondence mismatch of sound to letter, sound combinations Phonological: Rhyming – consonant rhyming vs– vowels rhyming Spanish: azul, canesu This are is the most similar for all languages. repeated from previous slides – what needs to be highlighted here? A phonological point to consider. With rhyming: English looks at a final consonant while Spanish considers the following a rhyme due to the final vowel. 31

32 Give it a Go! Role play with someone at your table.
Take turns being the teacher.

33 A Running Record To assess the child’s ability to read continuous text (decode print and construct meaning) at specific levels of difficulty. To record the child’s oral reading for analysis of skills/strategies and for documentation of growth over time. Running Records are used for teachers to observe how a student is reading. The purpose of a Running Record is NOT to “get a student” to a certain text level. The observed reading behaviors and strategies, and the analysis of the running record is what teachers need to focus on, as this is what will guide instruction and move students forward.

34 Formative Running Records
Teachers should be doing informal running records often during guided reading groups. For some students running records may need to be done daily, for others weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly running records will be appropriate. These formative assessments will assist the teacher when selecting text for interim/benchmark and summative purposes. If a teacher has been conducting informal running records throughout the school year, they will not have to assess a student on several different texts to find the instructional level, which will save time for teachers and frustration for students!

35 Interim/benchmark and Summative Running Records
Interim/benchmark and summative running records must be conducted using secure text. Secured texts are used for assessment only and not for reading instruction, general checkout, school library or leveled book rooms. NC has a new leveled book list. It uses Fountas and Pinnell Guided Reading levels (A-N). The list contains both fiction and nonfiction at every level (except level A, which is only nonfiction). Schools/school districts can purchase these book sets or use any leveled text that they choose, as long as they keep these texts secure. A correlation chart that shows the Fountas and Pinnell levels is included in the addendum.

36 A Running Record Materials Leveled book Running Record recording form
Fluency rubric Retelling form The recording form is blank (there are no texts typed). It is recommended that teachers use a blank form in order to focus the assessment on the reading behaviors that the child demonstrates during the assessment. Having the text typed out can often be a distraction. Also, during formative running records, teachers will not have every guided reading book in their classroom typed up.

37 A Running Record Procedures: Before reading Find a quiet place.
Sit beside the child. Read the introductory statement. Ask the child to preview the story.

38 A Running Record Procedures: During reading
Ask the child to read the book orally. Record the oral reading on the Running Record response form.

39 A Running Record Procedures: After reading
Compute the error rate, accuracy rate, and self-correction rate. Analyze the miscues and self-corrections. M= Did the error make sense? (meaning) S= Did the error sound like language? (syntax) V= Did it look and sound right? (visual) Plan for instruction. The revised form includes a Conversion Table, instructions on calculating error rate, accuracy, and self-correction rate, as well as a place to record text analysis information.

40 A Running Record Considerations for ELLs
“Does it make sense? Does it sound right?” Don’t have background knowledge Miscue analysis- check for semantic errors 1st – can decode farther than understand. Comprehension before decoding In order to get a true picture of an ELL student’s reading level, it is essential that the teacher/assessor selects a text from a set of a secure texts that contains vocabulary and concepts that they know are familiar to the student, based on lessons and themes taught in class, during guided reading groups, and reading/writing workshop. As proficiency grows, the need for text containing familiar vocabulary and concepts becomes less essential. As with ALL students, data from Running Records should be used to guide instruction! Running Records are NOT intended to be used as a benchmark for retention or placement in special programs. 40

41 Fluency Assesses the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with expression. Assesses all students using the Qualitative Fluency Rubric. Assesses students reading a level G or above using both the Qualitative and Quantitative Fluency Rubrics. Fluency is assessed during the Running Record at the students instructional level (90%-94% accuracy). Beginning readers that are reading text below level G should not be assessed quantitatively, as most of these texts do not contain enough words to get a good rate. It is important that the teacher looks at both the Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM) and the Qualitative Fluency Rubric. Students reading a typical amount of WCPM should also be reading with appropriate expression and phrasing.

42 Fluency Materials Qualitative Fluency Rubric
Quantitative Fluency Rubric (if level G or above) Stopwatch (if level G or above)

43 Qualitative Fluency Rubric
Rubric Score 1: All reading is done word by word. Long pauses between words. Little evidence of phrasing. Little awareness of punctuation. There may be 2 word phrases, but word groupings are often awkward.

44 Qualitative Fluency Rubric
Rubric Score 2: Most reading is done word by word. Some 2 word phrasing. Expressive interpretation may result in longer examples of phrasing. Inconsistent application of punctuation and syntax with rereading for problem solving.

45 Qualitative Fluency Rubric
Rubric Score 3: Reading is done as a mixture of word by word reading, fluent reading, and phrased reading. Attention to punctuation and syntax with rereading for problem solving

46 Qualitative Fluency Rubric
Rubric Score 4: Reading is in large, meaningful phrases. Few slow-downs for problem solving of words or to confirm accuracy. Expressive interpretation is evident throughout reading. Attention to punctuation and syntax is present.

47 Quantitative Fluency Rubric
Calculate the words read correctly: Total words read – errors = words read correctly Calculate the number of words per minute: Total # of words read correctly ÷ # of seconds X 60 = WCPM

48 Quantitative Fluency Rubric
After calculating the WCPM, refer to the Quantitative Fluency Rubric for the percentiles for grades 1-3. Students below the 50th percentile may need for their teacher to model fluency often!

49 Fluency Considerations for ELLs
Cadence differs – may develop after understanding – word and sentence. Although an ELL may know the words and be able to read them, fluency may be hindered by the difference in cadence when examining rhythm and intonation. Due to exposure to different cadences in the native language, “fluency” as scored in the test may lag behind understanding both at the word and sentence levels. 49

50 Oral Retell Assesses how well a student approaches a text that they have read. Assesses a student’s ability to retell a text in their own words and to connect the text with other texts or experiences that they have read at their instructional level (90%-94%). These skills need to be taught and modeled beginning in kindergarten! Some concepts are more difficult for some students to understand, especially author’s purpose and connections. Teachers need to model and work collaboratively with students on these concepts during read aloud and guided reading groups.

51 Oral Retell Materials Instructional level text (used in the Running Record) Oral Retell Response form Retelling Prompts Oral Retell Rubric Teachers need to be sure that they have the and laminate to preserve them. The Oral Retell Rubric is the same for both fiction and nonfiction.

52 Oral Retell Procedures Ask the student to tell you about the text.
Record any information provided by the student in the unaided portion of the Oral Retell recording form.   Prompt the student regarding any information they did not include during the unaided retelling and record it in the aided portion of the Oral Retell recording form. It is not expected that the teacher records every word the child states as part of their retell, just the key points that will support their rubric score.

53 Oral Retell Calculating the score:
Score each portion of the retell using the rubric. Circle the score in each portion. Add the rubric score from each portion together to get a Summative Rubric Score. Please note that the Summative Rubrics have changed on the 2009 assessment.

54 Oral Retell: Unaided vs. Aided
A child’s retell score is not affected by unaided or aided responses. The teacher should consider the amount of aided responses when planning for instruction.

55 Oral Retell: Unaided Ask the child to retell the story as if they were telling it to someone who has never seen/heard/read the story before. Any information is recorded in the Unaided section of the Oral Retell form. *The teacher can ask open-ended questions to prompt the child. Some examples of open ended prompts: What can you tell me about that story? What was that story about? What can you remember about that story? These are general, non-specific prompts.

56 Oral Retell: Aided After the child has been given an opportunity to retell the story without direct assistance, the teacher will give direct prompts the child in order to complete the retelling. The teacher may use the prompts provided or prompts that they created. Any information added by the student is recorded in the Aided section of the Oral Retell form It is important that every student has an opportunity to retell the story without direct prompts first. This will help teachers plan instruction.

57 Oral Retell Considerations for ELLs
May be a strength – may be acquired before print awareness May not correspond to actual story heard – cultural not reading related In many cultures, including the African American culture, retelling a story, especially with embellishment is highly valued and praised. For that reason, using the language they command, an ELL may add details to a story that they are asked to retell. These details may not seem to correspond to the original story. Again, this may be related to culture and not directly to the student’s level of understanding of the story read to them. 57

58 Give it a Go! Let’s practice taking Running Records!
For this activity, trainers will need to prepare in advance scripted running records to recite (with errors and self-corrects) in order for participants to practice. Any leveled text will do! The amount of practice will depend on the level of experience the participants have, though it is recommended that everyone “brushes up” their skills! Trainers will also need to prepare “mock” oral retells for participants to analyze. If you prefer you can use copies of actual Oral Retells from your class, just be sure to take off names and scores.

59 This assessment should not replace the Oral Retell portion.
Writing About Reading To use as an optional assessment after students have completed a Running Record and Oral Retell assessment. This assessment should be considered for students that have a difficulty with oral expression. This assessment should not replace the Oral Retell portion. This assessment may also be appropriate for advanced students to assess if they can express themselves in writing as well as they can orally. Students may use the forms provided or a blank sheet paper. Students should be allowed to refer back to the text if needed.

60 Writing About Reading Procedures
Complete the Running Record and Oral Retell (instructional level). Allow the student to return to their seat (or a quiet place in the classroom) and complete the student form (or a blank sheet of paper). Use the rubric to score the sample.

61 Writing About Reading Rubric
Score 3: The drawing or writing reflects sufficient understanding of the text. Score 4: The drawing or writing reflects understanding of the text beyond grade level expectations. Score 1: The drawing or writing reflects little or no understanding of the text. Score 2: The drawing or writing reflects some understanding of the text.

62 Writing About Reading Considerations for ELLs Writing for reading
Many cultures write to read, not read to write. The reversal of the concept can be confusing to ELLs. Use of drawing as part of this optional additional assessment is a useful tool for assessing the students grasp of the concept versus the specific language.

63 Spelling Inventory Assesses the word knowledge students have to bring to the tasks of reading and spelling. Students are not to study these words. Studying the words would invalidate the purpose of the inventory, which is to find out what they truly know about how words work.

64 Spelling Inventory Materials Sentences for words
Individual Score Sheet Class Composite Sheet Blank paper for students

65 Spelling Inventory Procedures
Call out the word and use it in a sentence (just as you would for any spelling test). Score each student’s assessment and record results on the Individual Score Sheet. Record class results on the Class Composite. The words are ordered in terms of their relative difficulty for children in grades K-5. For this reason you only need to administer the words which sample features your students are likely to master during the year. You will find the recommended words per grade level in the assessment materials.

66 Spelling Inventory Scoring
1. Check off or highlight the features for each word which are spelled according to the descriptors at the top. 2. Assign 1 point for each feature (some words are scored for some features but not others).

67 Spelling Inventory Scoring
3. Add an additional point in the “Word Correct” column for entire words that are spelled correctly. 4. Total the number of points across each word and under each feature. 5. Review the feature columns in order to determine the individual needs of your students.

68 Spelling Inventory Scoring
Considerations for ELLs Won’t know high frequency words if low level Phonetic spelling from oral knowledge May spell those not really known We reiterate the fact that this assessment is to be used for instructional purposes. A low level ELL will NOT know the typical high frequency words due to lack of exposure to them both verbally and in writing. Oral knowledge will often transfer into the phonetic nature of the spelling of the high frequency as well as other words.

69 Give it a Go! Let’s practice scoring the Spelling Inventory!
Trainers will also need to prepare “mock” Spelling Inventories for participants to analyze. If you prefer, you can use copies of actual Spelling Inventories from your class, just be sure to take off names and scores.

70 Writing Continuum Used to analyze student writing throughout the year for the purposes of formative, interim/benchmark, and summative assessment. It is strongly recommended that teachers keep a portfolio of student writing samples throughout the year to document progress over time. It is also recommended that students write about experiences, people, places, and things that are familiar to them. Prompts do not necessarily lend themselves to this! If teachers choose to use prompts, they need to be very cautious about creating prompts that are accessible to ALL students.

71 Writing Continuum Formative assessment:
Teachers should examine student writing from everyday writing experiences that occur during the writing process.

72 Writing Continuum Interim/benchmark and summative assessment:
Teachers should collect a writing sample from students completed during a controlled writing experience.

73 Writing Continuum: A Controlled Experience
Students produce a writing sample without teacher assistance. The sample should be handwritten by the student, unless the student has modifications per an IEP. The teacher should follow typical prewriting procedures that reflect regular classroom writing experiences.

74 Writing Continuum: A Controlled Experience
The teacher should not remove resources such as word walls, word charts, or dictionaries that are used during typical writing experiences. The teacher should maintain a positive writing environment. This is not a writing test! It is an opportunity for students to write independently. If students are writing everyday and teachers are conferring with them and providing students with descriptive feedback, the pieces that are completed during a controlled experience should not be too different from other pieces in their portfolio.

75 Assessing Writing Read through the student’s piece of writing.
Review the rubric and the criteria of each stage.

76 Assessing Writing Decide which stage the piece best represents based on both content and conventions. There is not a certain number of content or conventions criteria needed for each stage. Each piece should be reviewed in its entirety.

77 Assessing Writing Remember:
A student’s writing often shows characteristics of more than one stage. Depending on the type of writing or the length of the piece, it may not display every single characteristic of a particular stage, but the characteristics that are present will be most representative of a particular stage.

78 Assessing Writing Considerations for ELLs Diagnostic
Pictorial representation Differentiating expectations

79 Contact Information Tara Almeida (919) Carolyn Southerland (919) Glenda Harrell (919) Ivanna Mann Thrower (919)


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