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Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda The Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plan Process.

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Presentation on theme: "Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda The Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plan Process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shoulda … Woulda … Coulda The Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plan Process

2 Systems Supporting Staff Behavior Practices Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Data Supporting Decision Making

3 Objectives of this session Shoulda … –Systems to support consistent application of the law by staff Woulda … –Practices including FBA to support students with challenging behavior Coulda … –Data to make decisions and monitor progress

4 Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002) Designing Comprehensive Systems CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS)

5 Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002) Designing Comprehensive Systems CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS)

6 Whole School Effective School Organization Positive School Climate Effective Staff Development Data Based Decision Making Culturally Responsive Practices Parent and Community Partnerships Effective Instructional Practices Classroom Effective Instructional Practices Positive Classroom Management Culturally Responsive Instruction Universal Design/ Differentiated Instruction Ongoing Screening and Assessment Classroom Coaching and Consultation Struggling Students Progress Monitoring Behavioral Group Strategies Mental Health Assistance Focused Research-based Academic Instruction Individuals FBA/BIP Mental Health Services Consider- ation for Eligibility EC Specially Designed Instruction Behavior Interventions Related Services School Improvement Targeted Group Interventions Small group instruction Focused academic help sessions Intensive, Individual Interventions Tutoring Academic Remediation Plans Specially Designed Instruction Intensive, Individual Interventions Functional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention Planning Targeted Group Interventions Social Skills instruction Reinforcement of specific skills Group Behavioral Strategies Classroom Coaching Universal Interventions School-wide rules and procedures Systematic reinforcement Social Skills Instruction Culturally responsive practices Data-based decision- making Parent & Community Partnerships Universal Interventions Effective instructional practices Recognition of academic achievement Culturally responsive practices Data-based decision- making Parent & Community Partnerships AcademicBehavior

7 How do PBIS & RtI match up? Intensive Intervention 5% Strategic Interventions 15% Core Curriculum 80% Tier I Consultation Between Teachers-Parents Tier II Consultation With Other Resources Tier III Consultation with the Problem Solving Action Team Tier IV IEP Consideration

8 Shoulda … Known IDEA 2004 –NC Policies Governing Services for Children with Disabilities –Shoulda had a SYSTEM

9 Authority of School Personnel School personnel may remove a student with a disability from his/her current placement for up to 10 cumulative school days in one academic year for any violation of school code of conduct. These removals may be to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting, another setting, or suspension (to the extent those alternatives are applied to children without disabilities). Services are not required during the first ten cumulative days of removal unless services are provided to students without disabilities. NC (b)(1)

10 Authority of School Personnel School personnel may also impose additional removals of the child for not more than 10 consecutive school days in the same school year for separate incidents of misconduct, as long as those removals do not constitute a change of placement (location of and access to services). NC (b)(1)

11 Change of Placement Changing a student with a disabilitys educational placement (continuum of services) may only be made by an IEP team. Removal of a child with a disability from the childs current educational placement (location of and access to services) by school personnel may lead to a disciplinary change of placement.

12 When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Scenario 1: A disciplinary change in placement occurs when a student is removed for more than 10 consecutive school days: NC (a)(1)

13 When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Scenario 2: A disciplinary change in placement occurs if the child has been subjected to a series of removals that constitute a pattern – Because the series of removals total more than 10 school days in a school year; Because the childs behavior is substantially similar to the childs behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals; AND Because of such additional factors as the length of each removal, the total amount of time the child has been removed and the proximity of the removals to one another. NC (a)(2)

14 When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Important Information: The LEA determines on a case by case basis whether a pattern of removals constitutes a change in placement This determination is subject to review through due process and judicial proceedings. NC (b)(1)(2)

15 When imposing discipline for a violation of the student code of conduct after the FAPE Free Zone days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask, Will this removal constitute a change in placement?

16 Will this removal constitute a change in placement? If the answer is NO: School personnel can proceed with the removal. Services must be provided. School personnel, in consultation with at least one of the childs teachers, determine what services will be provided. A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be either developed to address the behavior or if a BIP has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary. NC (b)(2)(d)(1)

17 Will this removal constitute a change in placement? If the answer is YES: A manifestation meeting must occur within 10 school days. On the day school personnel decide to remove the student, they must issue the LEA disciplinary removal form, Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a), and the Handbook on Parents Rights. Services must be provided immediately upon removal. The students IEP team must determine these services. NC (b)(2)(d)(1) A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be developed to address the behavior or if one has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary. NC (b)(2)(d)(1)

18 Will this removal constitute a change in placement? If the answer is YES, can the student be removed pending the manifestation determination meeting? The law is silent in this circumstance. However, it is clear that services during the removal must be determined by the IEP team and be designed so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and to progress toward meeting the annual goals set out in the childs IEP and receive a FBA and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior. NC (b)(2)(d)(1)(5)

19 Services-No Change in Placement For subsequent suspensions of not more than 10 school days that are not a change of placement, school personnel in consultation with at least one of the childs teachers determine what services are needed so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and progress toward meeting the goals set out in the childs IEP, and receive a FBA, and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior. NC (d)(1)

20 Services-Change in Placement If it is determined that a removal or series of removals constitutes a change of placement, the IEP team determines appropriate services.

21 If school personnel determine the removal will constitute a change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a Handbook on Parents Rights with the LEA disciplinary action form. This notifies the parent a manifestation meeting will occur.

22 REVIEW: Removals Resulting in a Change in Placement Parents must be notified and given full explanation of procedural safeguards (LEA Disciplinary Action Form, DEC 5a & Handbook on Parents Rights). The DEC 5a serves as notice to attend the meeting. The manifestation team (like that of the IEP team) must convene within 10 school days to determine if the behavior was a manifestation of the childs disability. If the student begins the removal (suspension) prior to the manifestation determination, services must be determined by the IEP team.

23 Woulda … Used Best Practice –Standards of good professional practice dictate a problem solving approach to managing behaviors in the school ( Crone & Horner, 2003 ) –Woulda utilized PRACTICES!

24 Functional Behavior Assessments

25 Functional Behavioral Assessment A process for gathering information used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral support (ONeill et al., 1997) –Operational definition of behavior –Identification of events that are functionally related to behavior –Identification of consequences that maintain behavior –Hypothesis about function of behavior –Direct observation to confirm/support hypothesis

26 Four Basic Recommendations Never stop doing what is already working Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect –Avoid defining a large number of goals –Do a small number of things well Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible Collect and use data for decision making

27 Three Important Themes Create systems, not just programs, to support all students Earlier rather than later Evidence, not opinion

28 Steps for Conducting a FBA and Developing a BIP 1.Identify the strengths of the student. 2.Identify the problem behavior. 3. Gather Information. 4.Generate a hypothesis statement. 5.Build a Competing Behavior Pathway to identify possible elements of a Behavior Intervention Plan. 6.Design & Evaluate a Behavioral Intervention Plan. 7.Plan for effective implementation of the Behavior Intervention Plan. 8.Monitor regularly and modify based on observed progress. Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 2003

29 Diagram Behavior (FBA Process) Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences

30 Designing Functional Interventions: Rasheed When Rasheed is left unattended by the teacher for longer than 5 minutes (setting event), and he is given independent or small group work (antecedent) he leaves his seat/area (behavior) to obtain adult attention (function). Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences No Teacher contact for 5 minutes Small group or independent work Out-of-seat Off-task Teacher Attention

31 Define Alternative or Competing Behavior Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Maintaining Consequences Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences

32 Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences No Teacher contact for 5 minutes Small group or independent work Out-of-seat Off-task Teacher Attention Desired Behavior On-task Maintaining Consequences Work Completion & Grades Acceptable Alternative Ask for help/ Recruit feedback

33 DESIGNING FUNCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Behavior Teaching Consequence Manipulations Desired Alternative Acceptable Alternative Maintaining Consequences Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences

34 Event Manipulations Mentoring Program Schedule independent or small group work after whole group activities in- volving active participation and group response Antecedent Manipulations Check in frequently with Rasheed during work periods. Precorrect Rasheed on appropriate way to ask for teacher help/attention Design lessons to provide more whole group response/ active participation Behavior Teaching Re-teach class rules and routines that address in seat and class movement Teach Rasheed how to request teacher help / attention Teach Rasheed how to tolerate delays in getting attention Consequences Manipulations Ignore out of seat requests for assistance Respond immediately if he asks appropriately for teacher attention Intervention & Support Strategies

35 What if we cant figure out what the function of the behavior is?

36 Assessing Function Look for patterns of behavior, even very diverse behaviors can serve the same function Dont see a pattern? May need more data Utilize functional behavior checklists

37 So how does Functional Behavior Assessment align with the Tiers?

38 What does Tier 1 look like for PBIS Is an FBA completed at this level?

39 What does Tier II look like for PBIS? Chart behavior to determine function and develop hypothesis Make contact with team that manages Secondary PBIS practices if any of those practices meet a functional need Design a plan that incorporates existing intervention options and behavior remediation

40 Tier II Intervention Developed by teacher, parent, consultant with some expertise in area of student need Consider Tier I information Define/analyze/problem Develop hypothesis Collect baseline data Create/implement plan (measureable Goal) Evaluate Decide next steps –Continue/modify/discontinue plan –Move to Tier III

41 What does Tier III look like for PBIS? More complex team-implemented process Requires team member with behavioral background Includes (peer-referenced) observations, and record review BIP identifies set of replacement behaviors to be taught BIP takes into account antecedent and consequence strategies, as well as contextual fit Evaluation planned several weeks after implementation

42 Tier III Intervention Team approach Consider Tier I, II information Define/analyze/problem Develop Hypothesis/ Validate performance with data collection Create/implement plan (Goal and measurement strategy) Evaluate (amount of progress/discrepancy) Decide next steps –Continue/modify/discontinue plan –Move to Tier IV

43 What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? NOT tied to special ed referral (but could be part) Most intensive – still occurs as a tertiary intervention Functional analysis requires in-depth and lengthy data collection Includes direct observations & systematic manipulation of the environment to confirm hypothesis

44 What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? Requires behavioral expertise School teams strongly encouraged to include agencies and other community partners involved with the family (Systems of Care, Child & Family Team) BIP structured to intervene at each possible level

45 What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? BIP plans intensive teaching of replacement behavior, generalization strategies and who will teach BIP defines reinforcement & consequence strategies Evaluation planned to determine success of BIP & any modifications necessary to make it more efficient or effective May require crisis plan to be put in place during data collection and planning

46 Tier IV Intervention Re-initiate problem-solving process Add/modify intervention Initiate referral to IEP team

47 Coulda … Utilized tools to collect data and document progress Made a difference –Coulda used DATA to make a difference in the success of a student with challenging behavior

48 PBIS Tools for Tier II Behavior Charting Data Collection: –DBRs –Checklists System of Secondary Interventions

49 Data Collection: Checklists Motivation Assessment Scale Project FACILE

50 Data Collection: DBRs Daily Behavior Report = DBR The DBR involves a brief rating of target behavior over a specified period of time Example in toolkit Additional examples at /interventions/behavior/behrptcd.php /interventions/behavior/behrptcd.php

51 Secondary PBIS Practices that could support this student Mentoring –Adult listener/buddy Check-in/Check-out –Daily progress report with behavior coaching Small Group Intensive Social Skills Instruction –Specific topics to fill in social skills gaps

52 Tools for Tier III Social Developmental History (RtI) Peer-Referenced Behavior Observation Forms (RtI) Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS – A & B)

53 Tier IV Tools Functional Interventions in Versatile Environments Questionnaire (FIVE-Q) Functional Behavior Assessment Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP) Protocol

54 Questions? Answers? Ideas?

55 References and Resources Your PBIS regional Coordinator nator/ nator/

56 Presented by: Dana Rusher, Joe Simmons,


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