3 Objectives of this session Shoulda …Systems to support consistent application of the law by staffWoulda …Practices including FBA to support students with challenging behaviorCoulda …Data to make decisions and monitor progress
4 Designing Comprehensive Systems CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS)Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)4
5 Designing Comprehensive Systems CONTINUUM OF Positive Behavior Intervention & Support (PBIS)Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)5
6 School Improvement Academic Behavior Whole School Effective Classroom Targeted Group InterventionsSmall group instructionFocused academic helpsessionsIntensive, Individual InterventionsTutoringAcademic Remediation PlansSpecially Designed InstructionFunctional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention PlanningSocial Skills instructionReinforcement of specific skillsGroup Behavioral StrategiesClassroom CoachingUniversal InterventionsSchool-wide rules andproceduresSystematic reinforcementSocial Skills InstructionCulturally responsive practicesData-based decision-makingParent & Community PartnershipsEffective instructionalpracticesRecognition of academicachievementCulturally responsive practicesAcademicBehaviorWhole SchoolEffectiveSchoolOrganizationPositive SchoolClimateEffective StaffDevelopmentData BasedDecisionMakingCulturallyResponsivePracticesParent andCommunityPartnershipsInstructionalClassroomPositiveManagementInstructionUniversalDesign/DifferentiatedOngoingScreening andAssessmentClassroom Coachingand ConsultationStruggling StudentsProgressMonitoringBehavioralGroup StrategiesMental HealthAssistanceFocusedResearch-basedAcademic InstructionIndividualsFBA/BIPMentalHealth ServicesConsider-ation forEligibilityECSpeciallyDesignedBehaviorInterventionsRelatedServicesWe know that effective schools seek to provide support at multiple levels so that all students, no matter their individual needs, can be successful. So how do we accomplish this task? We have historically looked to specific practices, programs or people to meet the needs of our students. This means that we might need multiple things to meet the multiple needs of our students. Instead, we should be focusing on a process that can be used by any school, no matter what the needs of their individual students. By adopting a problem-solving approach, (CLICK) schools can effectively conduct needs assessments and build in the layers of support that meet their students’ academic and behavior needs. Here in NC, schools are using PBS as the problem-solving framework that allows them to construct the prevention and intervention needed to address behavior and social skill deficits. You can see some examples of the interventions here. Schools will also need a plan for creating a systematic approach to academic intervention (many schools in NC are implementing Responsiveness to Instruction for this purpose).
7 How do PBIS & RtI match up? IntensiveIntervention5%StrategicInterventions15%CoreCurriculum80%ConsultationTeachers-ParentsTier IBetweenTier IIWith OtherResourcesConsultation withthe Problem SolvingTier IIIAction TeamTier IVConsiderationIEP
8 Shoulda …Known IDEA 2004NC Policies Governing Services for Children with DisabilitiesShoulda had a SYSTEM
9 Authority of School Personnel School personnel may remove a student with a disability from his/her current placement for up to 10 cumulative school days in one academic year for any violation of school code of conduct.These removals may be to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting, another setting, or suspension (to the extent those alternatives are applied to children without disabilities).Services are not required during the first ten cumulative days of removal unless services are provided to students without disabilities.NC (b)(1)Presenter Notes:Activity: “Ten Gold Coins”Selected volunteers are given a bag of 10 gold candy coins. Participants are asked if they were to receive 10 gold coins, what would they do with them? Every EC student in a school begins the year with a bag of 10 gold coins. These coins should be locked in a very special vault and used with care. When the gold coins aka “removal days” are used, it triggers the need for action under federal law and NC Policies.Services are not required during the first 10 cumulative days of removal unless they are provided to nondisabled students during times of removal.FAPE means Free and Appropriate Public Education
10 Authority of School Personnel School personnel may also impose additional removals of the child for not more than 10 consecutive school days in the same school year for separate incidents of misconduct, as long as those removals do not constitute a change of placement (location of and access to services).NC (b)(1)
11 “Change of Placement”Changing a student with a disability’s educational placement (continuum of services) may only be made by an IEP team.Removal of a child with a disability from the child’s current educational placement (location of and access to services) by school personnel may lead to a disciplinary change of placement.
12 When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Scenario 1:A disciplinary change in placement occurs when a student is removed for more than 10 consecutive school days:NC (a)(1)
13 When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Scenario 2:A disciplinary change in placement occurs if the child has been subjected to a series of removals that constitute a pattern –Because the series of removals total more than 10 school days in a school year;Because the child’s behavior is substantially similar to the child’s behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals; ANDBecause of such additional factors as the length of eachremoval, the total amount of time the child has been removed and the proximity of the removals to one another.NC (a)(2)
14 When does a disciplinary change in placement occur? Important Information:The LEA determines on a case by case basis whether a pattern of removals constitutes a change in placementThis determination is subject to review through due process and judicial proceedings.NC (b)(1)(2)Presenter Notes:The “public agency” is interpreted as the LEA. At the individual school level, this often is translated as school personnel to include the principal. This does not mean that the principal of the school cannot consult with others in order to make the decision.
15 When imposing discipline for a violation of the student code of conduct after the “FAPE Free Zone” days (10 cumulative), school personnel must always be mindful of the disciplinary history of the student and ask, “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?”
16 “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” If the answer is “NO”:School personnel can proceed with the removal.Services must be provided.School personnel, in consultation with at least one of the child’s teachers, determine what services will be provided.A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be either developed to address the behavior or if a BIP has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary.NC (b)(2)(d)(1)Presenter Notes:School personnel who are making this decision are encouraged to develop a system of personal documentation as to the rationale for this decision. The statute of limitations for this decision to be challenged is one year. Having a system of documentation in place will serve to jog the memory of the individual(s) who have made the decision should it come into question.
17 “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” If the answer is “YES”:A manifestation meeting must occur within 10 school days.On the day school personnel decide to remove the student, they must issue the LEA disciplinary removal form, Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a), and the Handbook on Parents’ Rights.Services must be provided immediately upon removal.The student’s IEP team must determine these services. NC (b)(2)(d)(1)A FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) and BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan) must be developed to address the behavior or if one has already been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary.NC (b)(2)(d)(1)
18 “Will this removal constitute a change in placement?” If the answer is “YES”, can the student be removed pending the manifestation determination meeting?The law is silent in this circumstance.However, it is clear that services during the removal must be determined by the IEP team and be designed so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and to progress toward meeting the annual goals set out in the child’s IEP and receive a FBA and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior NC (b)(2)(d)(1)(5)Presenter Notes:Although the law is silent, it is best practice to try to keep the child in the current educational setting unless the student is posing a danger to himself or others in the educational environment. It is also important to remember that the services during the removal pending manifestation are to be determined by the IEP team, of which, the parent is a member.
19 Services-No Change in Placement For subsequent suspensions of not more than 10 school days that are not a change of placement, school personnel in consultation with at least one of the child’s teachers determine what services are needed so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and progress toward meeting the goals set out in the child’s IEP, and receive a FBA, and BIP and modifications that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur. If a BIP already has been developed, it must be reviewed and modified, as necessary, to address the behavior.NC (d)(1)
20 Services-Change in Placement If it is determined that a removal or series of removals constitutes a change of placement, the IEP team determines appropriate services.
21 If school personnel determine the removal will constitute a change in placement they must send home Prior Written Notice (DEC 5a) and a Handbook on Parents’ Rights with the LEA disciplinary action form. This notifies the parent a manifestation meeting will occur.
22 REVIEW: Removals Resulting in a Change in Placement Parents must be notified and given full explanation of procedural safeguards (LEA Disciplinary Action Form, DEC 5a & Handbook on Parents Rights).The DEC 5a serves as notice to attend the meeting.The manifestation team (like that of the IEP team) must convene within 10 school days to determine if the behavior was a manifestation of the child’s disability.If the student begins the removal (suspension) prior to the manifestation determination, services must be determined by the IEP team.Presenter Notes:Manifestation must occur within 10 school days; however, if the student is to begin serving the removal prior to the manifestation determination meeting, the IEP team must determine the services. Manifestation should be expedited.If there is the possibility that the student’s IEP may need to be amended, it would be best practice to configure your manifestation team to meet the requirements of an IEP team.
23 Woulda … Used Best Practice “Standards of good professional practice dictate a problem solving approach to managing behaviors in the school” (Crone & Horner, 2003)Woulda utilized PRACTICES!
25 Functional Behavioral Assessment “A process for gathering information used to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of behavioral support” (O’Neill et al., 1997)Operational definition of behaviorIdentification of events that are functionally related to behaviorIdentification of consequences that maintain behaviorHypothesis about function of behaviorDirect observation to confirm/support hypothesisFunctional AssessmentFBA begins with defining the behavior; what does the behavior look like, when does the behavior occur, how frequent, how intense, where (setting), etc.Teachers implementing FBA go through a process of identifying events that are functionally related to the behavior.Consequences that maintain the behavior will be identified.The data will be used to develop a hypothesis about the function of the behavior.Direct observation will be used to confirm or refute the hypothesis.The complete reference is: O’Neill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Storey, K., & Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Reprinted with permission.
26 Four Basic Recommendations Never stop doing what is already workingAlways look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effectAvoid defining a large number of goalsDo a small number of things wellDo not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possibleCollect and use data for decision making
27 Three Important Themes Create systems, not just programs, to support all studentsEarlier rather than laterEvidence, not opinion
28 Steps for Conducting a FBA and Developing a BIP Identify the strengths of the student.2. Identify the problem behavior.3. Gather Information.4. Generate a hypothesis statement.5. Build a “Competing Behavior Pathway” to identify possible elements of a Behavior Intervention Plan.6. Design & Evaluate a Behavioral Intervention Plan.7. Plan for effective implementation of the Behavior Intervention Plan.8. Monitor regularly and modify based on observed progress.Adapted from Crone, D.A. and Horner,R.H., 200328
29 Diagram Behavior (FBA Process) SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesDefine Alternative or Competing BehaviorThe next step in the process is defining acceptable alternative behavior. This is highlighted in the yellow box on the slide.
30 Designing Functional Interventions: Rasheed When Rasheed is left unattended by the teacher for longer than 5 minutes (setting event), and he is given independent or small group work (antecedent) he leaves his seat/area (behavior) to obtain adult attention (function).Developing Functional Interventions: RasheedHandout#9 Designing functional interventions: RasheedReview the hypothesis statement for Rasheed that we discussed yesterday.The boxes at the bottom show each component of this hypothesis.Refer participants to Handout #9, Designing Functional Interventions: Rasheed.SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesNo Teacher contact for 5 minutesSmall group or independent workOut-of-seatOff-taskTeacherAttention
31 Define Alternative or Competing Behavior DesiredAlternativeAcceptableMaintainingConsequencesSettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorDefine Alternative or Competing BehaviorThe next step in the process is defining acceptable alternative behavior. This is highlighted in the yellow box on the slide.
32 No Teacher contact for 5 minutes Small group or independent work DesiredBehaviorOn-taskMaintainingConsequencesWorkCompletion& GradesSettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesNo Teacher contact for 5 minutesSmall group or independent workOut-of-seatOff-taskTeacherAttentionDesigning Functional Interventions: RasheedHandout#9 Designing Functional Interventions: RasheedWalk the participants through the form describing how the information provided on the form relates to the hypothesis (this is where this information came from).For Rasheed, the plan is to teach him to be on task and seek teacher help. These behaviors will be maintained by teacher attention, work completion and grades.AcceptableAlternativeAsk for help/Recruitfeedback
33 DESIGNING FUNCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS SettingEventManipulationsAntecedentBehaviorTeachingConsequenceDesiredAlternativeAcceptableMaintainingConsequencesEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemDesigning Functional InterventionsHandout# 8 Designing Functional InterventionsThis form was designed to help with the problem solving process of developing a PBS plan.The functional assessment and hypothesis tell us the setting events, predictors or triggering antecedents, the problem behavior and the maintaining consequences.To complete the plan, the desired alternative behaviors and maintaining consequences need to be designed. The plan will consist of manipulating the events, the antecedents, teaching the desired behavior and manipulating the consequences.Refer participants to Handout #8, Designing Functional Interventions.
34 Intervention & Support Strategies EventManipulationsMentoringProgramScheduleindependentor smallgroup workafter wholegroupactivities in-volvingactiveparticipationand groupresponseAntecedentCheck in frequently withRasheed duringwork periods.Precorrect Rasheed on appropriate way to ask for teacher help/attentionDesign lessons to provide more whole group response/ active participationBehaviorTeachingRe-teach class rules and routines that address ‘in seat’ and ‘class movement’Teach Rasheed how to request teacher help / attentionTeach Rasheed how to tolerate delays in getting attentionConsequencesIgnore out of seat requests for assistanceRespond immediately if he asks appropriately for teacher attentionIntervention & Support StrategiesHandout#9 Designing Functional Interventions: RasheedDiscuss this slide with participants. It provides an example based on Rasheed.Note how many of these strategies require changes in adult behavior.Refer participants to the bottom half of Handout #9, Designing Functional Interventions: Rasheed.
35 What if we can’t figure out what the function of the behavior is?
36 Assessing FunctionLook for patterns of behavior, even very diverse behaviors can serve the same functionDon’t see a pattern? May need more dataUtilize functional behavior checklists
37 So how does Functional Behavior Assessment align with the Tiers?
38 What does Tier 1 look like for PBIS Is an FBA completed at this level?
39 What does Tier II look like for PBIS? Chart behavior to determine function and develop hypothesisMake contact with team that manages Secondary PBIS practices if any of those practices meet a functional needDesign a plan that incorporates existing intervention options and behavior remediation
40 Tier II InterventionDeveloped by teacher, parent, consultant with some expertise in area of student needConsider Tier I informationDefine/analyze/problemDevelop hypothesisCollect baseline dataCreate/implement plan (measureable Goal)EvaluateDecide next stepsContinue/modify/discontinue planMove to Tier III
41 What does Tier III look like for PBIS? More complex team-implemented processRequires team member with behavioral backgroundIncludes (peer-referenced) observations, and record reviewBIP identifies set of replacement behaviors to be taughtBIP takes into account antecedent and consequence strategies, as well as contextual fitEvaluation planned several weeks after implementation
42 Tier III Intervention Team approach Consider Tier I, II information Define/analyze/problemDevelop Hypothesis/ Validate performance with data collectionCreate/implement plan (Goal and measurement strategy)Evaluate (amount of progress/discrepancy)Decide next stepsContinue/modify/discontinue planMove to Tier IV
43 What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? NOT tied to special ed referral (but could be part)Most intensive – still occurs as a tertiary interventionFunctional analysis requires in-depth and lengthy data collectionIncludes direct observations & systematic manipulation of the environment to confirm hypothesis
44 What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? Requires behavioral expertiseSchool teams strongly encouraged to include agencies and other community partners involved with the family (Systems of Care, Child & Family Team)BIP structured to intervene at each possible level
45 What does Tier IV look like for PBIS? BIP plans intensive teaching of replacement behavior, generalization strategies and who will teachBIP defines reinforcement & consequence strategiesEvaluation planned to determine success of BIP & any modifications necessary to make it more efficient or effectiveMay require crisis plan to be put in place during data collection and planning
46 Tier IV Intervention Re-initiate problem-solving process Add/modify interventionInitiate referral to IEP team
47 Coulda … Utilized tools to collect data and document progress Made a differenceCoulda used DATA to make a difference in the success of a student with challenging behavior
48 PBIS Tools for Tier II Behavior Charting Data Collection: DBRs ChecklistsSystem of Secondary Interventions
49 Data Collection: Checklists Motivation Assessment ScaleProject FACILE
50 Data Collection: DBRs Daily Behavior Report = DBR The DBR involves a briefrating of target behaviorover a specified period of timeExample in toolkitAdditional examples at
51 Secondary PBIS Practices that could support this student MentoringAdult listener/buddyCheck-in/Check-outDaily progress report with behavior coachingSmall Group Intensive Social Skills InstructionSpecific topics to fill in social skills gaps
52 Tools for Tier III Social Developmental History (RtI) Peer-Referenced Behavior Observation Forms (RtI)Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS – A & B)
53 Tier IV ToolsFunctional Interventions in Versatile Environments Questionnaire (FIVE-Q)Functional Behavior Assessment Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP) Protocol