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Reschly RTI1 Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education Bill Rynn Regional Consultant Exceptional Childrens Division N C Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Reschly RTI1 Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education Bill Rynn Regional Consultant Exceptional Childrens Division N C Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reschly RTI1 Response to Intervention in General, Remedial, and Special Education Bill Rynn Regional Consultant Exceptional Childrens Division N C Department of Public Instruction November 19, 2008

2 Reschly RTI2 Credits: The following leaders in the RTI movement are credited with much of the information in this presentation: George Batsche Liz Crawford Dan Reschly

3 Reschly RTI3 NC DPI Definition: The practice of providing high quality instruction matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions. Response to Intervention Policy Considerations and Implementation, NASDSE

4 Reschly RTI4 What Is Response to Intervention (RTI)? Scientifically-based instruction/interventions matched to student needs Formative evaluation including frequent progress monitoring in relation to benchmarks, with decision rules applied Decisions driven by student RTI, including genl ed instruction/intervention, remedial services/individual interventions, sp ed eligibility, placement, annual review and exit Implementation requires: Allocating (aligning) resources to deliver effective interventions that produce improved child outcomes

5 Reschly RTI5 RTI Model Differences Restricted vs Comprehensive System Wide LD Identification Do Tiers I and II, then traditional evaluation Or Use RTI in eligibility determination and in the design, implementation, and evaluation of IEPs Academic only or Academic and Behavior False dichotomies: Standard Protocol vs Problem Solving vs Recognition of Both Choices determined by nature of problem Use of both in many situations

6 Reschly RTI6 Purpose of the RTI Process Improve results in academic, behavioral, and emotional regulation domains, through High quality interventions Formative evaluation Student results drive decisions about needs and intensity of interventions Improve, eliminate disproportionate representation Identification of disabilities through procedures that are valid and connected to effective special ed interventions Improve special education results and increase exit from sp ed Prevention and early identification-intervention

7 Reschly RTI7 Building Consensus I a shift to a new paradigm like RTI does not simply involve accepting a new set of skills. It also involves giving up certain beliefs in favor of others. ………….What beliefs might you have to give up in order to embrace RTI? What about your staff? Your colleagues?

8 Reschly RTI8 Why RTI? Dissatisfaction with ach. results Expensive programs with undocumented benefits, General Ed. Title I and Sp Ed Poor overall outcomes re: benchmark tests, graduate rates, early adult outcomes Overrepresentation in sp ed Disjointed programs across general, remedial and special ed.-compromised outcomes and wasted resources

9 Reschly RTI9 RtI is……. Process that uses all resources within a school Well-integrated system of instruction and interventions Guided by student outcome data Early intervention Prevention of academic and behavioral problems RtI

10 Reschly RTI10 RtI is……. Whole school working together Using resources and expertise to help all students Regular monitoring of success/needs Data driven instruction ! RtI

11 Reschly RTI11 RtI is……. Multi-step process High-quality, research-based instruction and interventions Varying levels of intensity Match interventions to students needs RtI

12 Reschly RTI12 Implementation of RtI Three Components: Prevention Intervention Component of SLD determination

13 Reschly RTI13 RtI is Not…. A packaged program A curriculum Special Ed Just for eligibility identification RtI

14 Reschly RTI14 Old Assumptions, cont. Unique Treatment Methods and Teacher Training by Disability But, Same methods work for virtually all High Incidence I SWD, LD, ED, EMR IQ Essential to Accurate Classification-BUT Same kids found with problem solving processes and measures Identifying Disability and Sp Ed Placement Solves Problem Dubious Effects of Special Education

15 Reschly RTI15 Some things do not make sense

16 Reschly RTI16 Progression of Research, Policy, and Legal Requirements RESEARCH: Scientific research with practice demonstrations leading to POLICY: Multiple policy analyses in presented in prestigious reports leading to FEDERAL LAW: Multiple layers of Federal legal requirements leading to STATE LAW: Changes in state rules leading to SCALING UP: Scaling up efforts in states

17 Reschly RTI17 Commonalties in Policy Recommendations Accountability-Improved results for all students and better results are possible!! (Gloeckler) Integration of general, remedial, and sp ed through multiple tiers of intervention Scientifically-based interventions with problem solving Progress monitoring with formative evaluation Decisions at all levels driven by child response to intervention Abandon IQ-Achievement discrepancy in LD Identification

18 Reschly RTI18 Major Legal Themes (NCLB, IDEA) Scientifically-based instruction More frequent assessment, progress monitoring, formative evaluation Well integrated multiple tiers of Intervention Decisions driven by child responses to instruction-intervention in general, remedial, and special education Alignment of resources to enhance positive outcomes

19 Reschly RTI19 Changes in Legal Requirements IDEA (2004) (A) IN GENERAL.Notwithstanding section 607(b), when determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in section 602, a local educational agency shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.

20 Reschly RTI20 Response to Intervention (IDEA, 2004) (B) ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY.In deter- mining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as a part of the evaluation procedures described in paragraphs (2) and (3). Does response to intervention appear in the law?

21 Reschly RTI21 Final Regulation NEW AND SIGNIFICANT: (b must consider, as part of the evaluation described data that demonstrates that (1) Prior to, or as a part of the referral process, the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research-based instruction in regular education settings, consistent with section 1111(b)(8)(D) and (E) of the ESEA, including that the instruction was delivered by qualified personnel; and (2) Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, was provided to the child's parents.

22 Reschly RTI22 Prevention-Early Intervention LEA can use 15% of federal IDEA funds to support prevention and early identification- treatment Purpose: minimize over-identification and unnecessary sp ed referrals Provide academic and behavioral supports; and professional development re: early literacy and behavior MUST use the 15% if LEA has significant disproportionality

23 Reschly RTI23 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 5-10% 10-15% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Intervention Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual and Small Groups Intense, Prolonged Interventions Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) Standard protocol reading interventions Targeted Small Group or Individual Interventions Some students (at-risk) Targeted Individual Behavior Interventions 80-85% Universal Interventions Effective Academic In- struction Universal Interventions School-wide positive Behavior Effective classroom and Behavior management Multiple Tiers Implemented Through Progress Monitoring and Formative Evaluation (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002) Enter a School-Wide Systems for Student Success

24 Reschly RTI24 Level I Consultation Between Teachers-Parents Level II Consultation With Other Resources Intensity of Problem Amount of Resources Needed to Solve Problem Level III Consultation with the Problem Solving Action Team Level IV IEP Consideration Where we started… Define the problem Develop a Plan Implement Plan Evaluate

25 Reschly RTI25 Implement Plan (Treatment Integrity) Carry out the intervention Evaluate (Progress Monitoring Assessment) Did our plan work? Define the Problem (Screening and Diagnostic Assessments) What is the problem and why is it happening? Develop a Plan (Goal Setting and Planning) What are we going to do ? Basic Problem Solving (Teachers and School Teams) (Heartland Area Education Agency, Johnston, IA)

26 26 PROBLEM SOLVING CHART Does the *%$# thing work? Dont mess with it! You Idiot! Did you mess with it? Does anyone else know? Will you catch hell? Hide it! You poor slob! Ignore it Can you blame somebody else? NO PROBLEM Yes No

27 Reschly RTI27 Standard Treatment Protocol Approach To Responsive-to-Intervention The standard treatment is for the student to receive a validated, intense intervention The bad news is that all students receive the same intervention The good news is that the interventions are well- specified, sequenced with clear outcomes The interventions are more likely to be delivered with fidelity; training is consistent Increases the consistency of services; easy to check for implementation

28 Reschly RTI28 What types of interventions? 1. Standard Treatment Protocol Interventions From scientific-based education research 2. Evidence-based Interventions From education research 3. Experiential-based Interventions From best practice with like students

29 Reschly RTI29 Multi-Tiered Academic Interventions of Increasing Intensity and Measurement Precision Tier I: General Education: All students; Effective instruction, 80-85% at benchmarks Tier II: Standard Protocol and Problem Solving: (about 10 to 20 weeks) Small group and individualized interventions Decision Making: Continue Program, Modifications, Comprehensive Evaluation?? Tier III: More Intensive, Sustained Instruction in General Key Mechanism: Formative Evaluation Tier IV: Repeat the process and/or refer to Special Education

30 Reschly RTI30 Formative Evaluation Frequent assessment of progress Referenced to goals based on benchmarks toward passing state tests Decision rules regarding modification of goals or instructional programs All decisions about student needs and instructional intensity are based on child RTI

31 Reschly RTI31 Characteristics of Effective Formative Evaluation Measures Direct measures of skills Natural settings Efficient re: costs and time required Sensitive to small increments of growth in relevant skills Results can be graphed in relation to goals Reliable in terms of stability Valid re: relationship to broad indicators of competence Example: CBM oral reading fluency and reading comprehension

32 Reschly RTI32 Tier I: General Education, Universal Stage, Primary Prevention Academics and Behavior Scientifically-based Explicit instruction Systematic intervention Inter-related, reciprocal relationships, mutually supported Discuss separately here, but acknowledge the essential inter-relationship of academics and behavior

33 Reschly RTI33 Tier I: Academic Interventions Scientifically-based instruction in reading Curricula-content-Big ideas, e.g., reading Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic principles Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Study of IHEs pre-service preparation in rdg 14 of 72 taught all 5 components and many taught none, see

34 Reschly RTI34 Tier I: Academic Interventions Teaching Methodology Explicit Instruction Modeling, guided practice, practice to automaticity, integration; You do it with feedback, You do it independently, You do it automatically Frequent responding with feedback, Brisk pace Systematic Instruction Sequential, Hierarchical Include all reading components each day Beat the odds teachers: _Kindergarten_Teachers.html _Kindergarten_Teachers.html

35 Reschly RTI35 Tier I: Assessment: Academics Routine Assessment of Progress Screen all students, begin in kindergarten; 3 times per year with appropriate early literacy measures More intense instruction and monitoring within classroom for students below trajectories toward passing state benchmark tests Grouping, instructional materials, time, paraprofessionals Pat Vadasy at U of WA Increase assessment to 2 Xs per month

36 Reschly RTI36 Reading Benchmarks (DIBELS) Age/GradeMeasure Fluency (FL)Criterion Winter KTGLetter Naming Fl Initial Sound Fl 25 sounds per minute (pm) Spring KTGPhoneme Seg35 sounds pm Winter 1 st gr. Spring 1 st gr. Spring 2 nd gr. Spring 3 rd gr. Nonsense WD Oral Rdg Fluency Oral Reg Fluency 50 sounds pm 40 wds pm 90 wds pm 110 wds pm

37 Reschly RTI37 Foundations of CBM Deno & Mirkin (1977) Breakthrough Brief samples of behavior Use of oral reading fluency samples Production per unit of time Fluency and accuracy combined Words read correct per minute Math-digits correct Spelling-letters correct

38 Reschly RTI38 Importance of Standardized CBM Procedures Standardized meaning uniformity in administration, scoring, interpretation Prerequisite to use of data in Determining risk status within classroom or school Measuring change for individuals or groups Predicting later performance

39 Reschly RTI39 Oral Reading Fluency What is it? Reading aloud fluently and accurately from text. Why do it? Indicator of proficiency in reading that is sensitive to growth Highly correlated with performance on standardized tests and tests of comprehension Provides information that may be used to evaluate effects of instruction Word Calling Myth

40 Reschly RTI40 Middle and High School RTI Applications Same principles and goals: Improve Results Evidence-based interventions matched to student needs implemented with good fidelity Data-based, progress monitoring with formative evaluation, that is, data on initial status, goals related to benchmarks, progress monitoring against goals, and changes in interventions based on progress Decisions based on student responses to interventions

41 Reschly RTI41 Middle and High School RTI Applications Frequent Goals at Middle and High School Academic skills deficits Teach skills in basic areas including reading and math See Florida web site for teaching reading to adolescents at CBM used, progress at > 1 word correct growth per week, goals, graphs, formative evaluation, etc. Significant needs for basic instruction

42 Reschly RTI42 Middle and High School RTI Applications Effort and Work Completion Can Do But Wont Do Unintended reinforcement for poor effort and low productivity Interventions do improve both effort and productivity Data are critical!!! Data followed by interventions, etc.

43 Reschly RTI43 Middle and High School RTI Applications School Involvement and Drop Out Drop out not an event, but a process Encouragement to leave or to stay?? Drop out prevention measures Find at risk kids Ensure teacher encouragement, someone who cares, monitors, encourages Formal programs like Check and Connect

44 Reschly RTI44 Middle and High School RTI Applications Problem Solving Example Drop Out Scientifically-based interventions Identify proxies for drop out to permit early intervention, e. g., school attendance, disciplinary referrals, failing courses, etc. Gather data on current conditions Establish goals Implement interventions Monitor progress and change intervention if results do not meet reasonable goals

45 Reschly RTI45 Summary of Tier I Universal level, all students Scientifically-based, right content and direct instruction Greater intensity and increased measurement precision for students below benchmark trajectories Criterion for success? 80% to 85% are at or above benchmarks Assess classrooms, schools, districts Identify students needing additional assistance

46 Reschly RTI46 Tier II: Academic and Behavioral Interventions Individual behavior interventions in general education that meet all criteria for problem solving Individual or small group academic interventions, following Standard protocol interventions (reading) Individualized academic Evidence based practices.

47 Reschly RTI47 Tier II Behavior: Problem Solving Criteria cont. Development of an intervention plan that is written, systematic, and based on scientifically-based instructional or behavioral intervention principles Implementation of the plan with treatment fidelity checks

48 Reschly RTI48 Tier II Academic Interventions (Vaughn et al., 2003 Exceptional Children) Goals: Move performance to benchmark trajectories and, If needed, consider more intensive interventions Example of Tier II academic intervention Small group, N=4-5, pull out, similar needs 30 to 35 minutes per day in addition to classroom instruction Progress monitoring weekly 10 to 20 weeks of instruction 5-component reading interventions, with emphasis on weak components

49 Reschly RTI49 Tier II: Academics and Behavior Targeted individual interventions in classrooms and in standard protocol academic settings Behavior (attention and on task) predict outcomes of academic interventions) Standard protocol interventions use a point system to prompt and reinforce task engagement Improved behavior often is crucial to persistence of academic interventions effects over time and generalization to classroom settings

50 Reschly RTI50 Standard Protocol Reading Models for Tier II U Texas, Vaughn Florida State Torgesen Reading five domains taught each day Direct instruction Weekly progress monitoring Individual graphs, progress against goals referenced to benchmarks Decisions determined by student response Fade Tier II and return to general education Consider Tier III based on insufficient response

51 Reschly RTI51 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Graph Current Status Benchmark=24 Egbert=11

52 Reschly RTI52 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egbert Goal: 2 wd growth per week Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line

53 Reschly RTI53 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Monitor Egberts Progress Relative to Goal Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line

54 Reschly RTI54 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Formative Evaluation: Change Intervention Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention

55 Reschly RTI55 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention

56 Reschly RTI56 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Raise Goal to 2.5 WCM Growth Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention Change Goal

57 Reschly RTI57 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Continue Intervention and Monitor Progress Class=24 Egbert=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line Change Intervention Change Goal Fade Tier II

58 Reschly RTI58 Decisions Re: Egbert Fade Tier II academic intervention Reduce number of weekly sessions Monitor progress to ensure continued progress Evaluate behavioral intervention (not shown here) Depending on results, consider enhancing, fading, or discontinuing Do NOT consider more intensive interventions

59 Reschly RTI59 Case II: Egberta, Academic Intervention Egberta (Egberts twin sister) Similar performance in reading No behavioral issues, described as quiet, cooperative child who tries hard and does not disrupt the class Would not have been referred by teacher, but discovered through universal screening

60 Reschly RTI60 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Egberta: Determine Goal: Class=1.5 wd growth per week; Egberta Goal: 2 wd growth per week Class=24 Egberta=11 Benchmark Egbert goal line

61 Reschly RTI61 Tier III Intended for students who do not respond at Tier 2. Provide more intensive individualized and/or small group research-based Instruction/intervention targeted to eliminate discrepancies in student performance in deficit areas Regular Education offerings plus training on specific curriculum and progress monitoring Scientifically-based, right content and direct instruction Expand Problem Solving Team to include diagnostician or other support personnel

62 Reschly RTI62 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Monitor Egbertas Progress Relative to Goal Class=24 Egberta=11 Benchmark Egberta goal line

63 Reschly RTI63 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Change Egbertas Intervention Class=24 Egberta=11 Benchmark Egberta goal line Change Intervention

64 Reschly RTI64 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Implement Revised Intervention and Continue to Monitor Progress Benchmark Egberta goal line Change Intervention

65 Reschly RTI65 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Implement Second Intervention Revision Benchmark Egberta goal line Change Intervention

66 Reschly RTI66 Weeks Words Correct Per Minute Gap Not Closing: Consider Eligibility and More Intensive Interventions Benchmark Change Intervention Class WCM=54 Egberta WCM=32

67 Reschly RTI67 Egberta Consideration of Eligibility Levels Difference: Large performance differences compared to peers and benchmark expectations in relevant domains of behavior Rate Difference: Large differences in rate of learning compared to peers and trajectories toward benchmark standards when provided with high quality interventions implemented over a significant period Documented Adverse Impact on Education Documented Need for Special Education Exit Criteria Exclusion Factors: Rule out MR etc.

68 Reschly RTI68 What is a Comprehensive Evaluation Note Federal Regulation, (g) The child is assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability, including, if appropriate, health, vision, hearing, social and emotional status, general intelligence, academic performance, communicative status, and motor abilities. (34 C.F.R Meaning? Note if appropriate

69 Reschly RTI69 Federal Requirements Multiple domains must be considered Screening in multiple domains followed by, if appropriate, …… If potential educationally related deficits are suggested by screening, THEN In depth assessment in the domain Principle: If screening suggests adequate functioning, then in depth assessment is wasteful and irrelevant

70 Reschly RTI70 Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier III DomainScreeningIf depth, if appropriate Possible Decision HealthNurse, records Referral MD Eval Medical condition VisionNurse, records OphthalmologyVisual Impairment HearingNurse, records Otological, Audiologist Hearing Impairment IntelligenceRecords, Tch ratings, ach. tests Psychologist, Genl Intell Functioning (GIF) Sig subaverage GIF, possible MR, possible sp ed

71 Reschly RTI71 DomainScreeningIn Depth, If Appropriate Possible Decision ReadingClass work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed MathClass work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Adaptive Behavior Records, Tch checklist Observations Parent interview Possible eligibility for MR Written Language Class work, Tch eval., CBM, group tests Individual tests, diagnostic tests More intense intervention, possible sp ed Comprehensive Evaluation: After Tier III

72 Reschly RTI72 DomainScreeningIn depth, if appropriate Possible Decision CommunicationTchr Observations, Sp/L screening Sp/L eval, tests, obs. Sp/Lang need, therapy BehaviorTchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention Emotional Regulation Tchr judgment, checklists, nomination Observation, Interview, Indiv intervention More intense intervention, possible sp ed MotorPhysical, Tch, PE observations Medical evaluation More intense intervention, possible sp ed Comprehensive Evaluation: Post Tier III

73 Reschly RTI73 Special Education Eligibility Determination Using RTI Recall problems with current system Integrate identification with treatment Level of skills Pattern of skills, deficits and strengths Evaluation of progress Evaluation of outcomes Enhance effectiveness of special education

74 Reschly RTI74 Old Models of SLD Identification Problems with severe discrepancy criteria Unreliable (especially stability of discrepancy scores) Invalid (IQ discrepant poor readers do NOT respond better than IQ non-discrepant poor readers to reading instruction) Causes Harm (Wait to Fail)

75 Reschly RTI75 Old Models of SLD continued Cognitive processing option ?? Scatter is normal, virtually all children will show significant strengths and weaknesses Pattern of cognitive processes unrelated to More accurate SLD identification Improved instruction Improved child outcomes No scientifically-based studies showing benefits of designing instruction from cognitive profiles Vested interests? and Burden of proof

76 Reschly RTI76 Cognitive Processing Strengths and Weaknesses ALL children have strengths and weaknesses Normal readers? Not referred despite cognitive strengths and weaknesses Poor readers? May be referred and, if so, cognitive strengths and weaknesses will be found So what?? Improve accuracy of identification? Improve interventions? Cash validity is not sufficient

77 Reschly RTI77 RTI in Special Education Programs Special education programs should be, Scientifically based Matched to student need Progress monitoring against goals (exit criteria) Formative evaluation Goal of passing benchmark tests, exiting Current special education programs????

78 Reschly RTI78 Special Education for Students with High Incidence Disabilities High Incidence Disabilities Mild Mental Retardation Emotional Disturbance Specific Learning Disability Other Health Impaired-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rate is 1% or more of the general student population

79 Reschly RTI79 High Incidence Disabilities School age identification Usually not identified as adults Teacher referral due to poor achievement plus, for many, disruptive behavior No identifiable biological anomaly, normal appearance Reading is a major concern for most (70%- 80%)

80 Reschly RTI80 Specially Designed Instruction Uniqueness of special education is NOT in different methodologies BUT IS IN Intensity, frequency of progress monitoring and formative evaluation, precision of goals, and specificity of instruction Intensity involves time, group size Specificity of instruction, thoroughness of skills specification, intentional teaching, integration with other skills Application of explicit, systematic instructional methods

81 Reschly RTI81 Special Education Final Remarks Special education can be effective Set of services brought to students, not a place Integrated with general education curriculum Strong accountability Implementation of scientifically based interventions with Specification of goals Frequent progress monitoring Formative evaluation Exit criteria

82 Reschly RTI82 Critical Skills/Competencies Problem solving-interviewing skills Behavior assessment including CBM Powerful instructional interventions Powerful behavior change interventions Relationship skills Tailoring assessment to referral concerns

83 Reschly RTI83 Leadership is about one thing Having a mission and relentlessly pursuing it Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Opening Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Dave Tilly and Jeff Grimes

84 Reschly RTI84 PSM/RtI Content: All Personnel Understanding of: National, state, district policies regarding RtI Link between NCLB, IDEA 04, AYP and RtI Beliefs, knowledge and skills that support implementation of RtI Steps in the PSM, multilevel RtI model, and how eligibility is determined using RtI Fundamental utility of using progress monitoring Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

85 Reschly RTI85 Role of District Leaders Give permission for model Provide a vision for outcome-based service delivery Reinforce effective practices Expect accountability Provide tangible support for effort Training Coaching Technology Policies Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

86 Reschly RTI86 District Leaders: Content Knowledge Understanding of: Professional development delivery model that best supports implementation Staff and budget requirements to integrate general and special education services for the implementation of RtI Relationship between implementation and expectations for improved student performance Barriers that will occur and that must be addressed during implementation Use of, and support for, technology necessary to ensure efficient and effective implementation Essential stages of change and variables necessary for the smooth transition to the use of PSM and RtI Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

87 Reschly RTI87 Role of the Principal Sets vision for problem-solving process Supports development of expectations Responsible for allocation of resources Facilitates priority setting Ensures follow-up Supports program evaluation Monitors staff support/climate Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

88 Reschly RTI88 The Principal: Content Knowledge Understanding of: Need for universal, supplemental and intensive instructional strategies and interventions Components of a successful PDP Need for and skills in data-based decision-making and the need to share outcome data frequently Need to publicly recognize the relationship between staff efforts and student outcomes Need to involve and inform parents of the essential elements of RtI and their role in the process Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

89 Reschly RTI89 Role of the Facilitator Ensures pre-meeting preparation Reviews steps in process and desired outcomes Facilitates movement through steps Facilitates consensus building Sets follow-up schedule/communication Creates evaluation criteria/protocol Ensures parent involvement Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

90 Reschly RTI90 What is a Team? Facilitators Vision Agreement through CONSENSUS We agree to try and see No one person is an expert-a show maker or a show stopper People stay focused on common goal-Development of Effective Interventions Interpersonal conflicts do not affect outcome This is about the student We are seeking an significant improvement-not a cure Resources must be managed well Primary resource is time Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

91 Reschly RTI91 Role of Participants Review Request for Assistance forms prior to meeting Complete individual problem-solving Attitude of consensus building Understand data Research interventions for problem area Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

92 Reschly RTI92 The Participants: Content Knowledge An understanding of: The relationship between RtI and student achievement Need to increase the range of empirically validated instructional practices in the general education classroom Uses of the problem-solving method Technology and other supports available and necessary to implement RtI Administrative and leadership support necessary to maximize the implementation of RtI Need to provide practical models and examples with sufficient student outcome data Need for demonstration and guided practice opportunities Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

93 Reschly RTI93 Student Services Staff: Content Knowledge An understanding of: The different models for evaluating student performance differences and their impact on the development of instructional and assessment practices Evaluation strategies to assess instructional quality in general and special education classrooms and programs CBM and related continuous progress monitoring technologies to relate individual student performance to instructional quality data Need for and models of social support and the role of support staff in the provision of that support for school staff Specific training in coaching, mentoring and data management strategies Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

94 Reschly RTI94 Role of Parent Review Request for Assistance form prior to meeting Complete individual problem solving Prioritize concerns Attitude of consensus building Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

95 Reschly RTI95 Student Involvement Increases motivation of student Reduces teacher load Teaches self-responsibility Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

96 Reschly RTI96 Impact on Leaders: A Change in Focus Student progress, not labels are most important All students compared to general education expectations All students affect AYP A students response to intervention is the most important data Academic Engaged Time is the currency of problem-solving Training and coaching must be focused on Problem Solving Model Increase the use of technology Interventions must be evidence-based Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

97 Reschly RTI97 Staff Support Risk-free or risky environment? Expectations may be most important factor Alternative not Less Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by George Batsche

98 Reschly RTI98 District Level: Infrastructure Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Opening Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Dave Tilly and Jeff Grimes

99 Reschly RTI99 School Building Level: Infrastructure Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Opening Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Dave Tilly and Jeff Grimes

100 Reschly RTI100 Purpose of Blueprints Think of blueprints for your house They tell you: Where to put the walls Where to put the windows How the framing should come togther Where the plumbing and electrical run They Dont tell you: What color to paint the walls What furniture to buy Where to hang your pictures Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Judy Elliott

101 Reschly RTI101 Blueprint Content All of the blueprints are organized around the predictable stages of RtI Implementation Consensus building: building consensus among potential implementers on what RtI is and why to do it Infrastructure building: building the skills, structures and strategies locall to support comprehensive RtI practices Implementation: building the frameworks to sustain RtI practice over time once initial infrastructure building is complete Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Judy Elliott

102 Reschly RTI102 Stages of Implementing Problem Solving/RtI Consensus Belief is shared Vision is agreed upon Implementation requirements understood Infrastructure Development Analyzing and Reconciling Regulations Training/Technical Assistance Model (e.g., Standard Protocol) Tier I and II intervention systems E.g., K-3 Academic Support Plan Data Management Technology support Decision-making criteria established Implementation

103 Reschly RTI103 Objectives for Consensus Building at the District Level – NASDSE, p. 5 Develop a shared vision that Response to Intervention (RtI) is an all education initiative led by general education and that RtI and problem-solving will result in more productive and equitable outcomes for students. Identify the administrative support structures necessary for systemic planning and implementation of RtI. Identify the stakeholders in the district, inform them about RtI and assure the stakeholders that their input will be considered in the development of the infrastructure. Develop a common understanding regarding the scope of RTI implementation. Reschly RTI Taken Directly From NASDSE District Level Blueprint, page 5

104 Reschly RTI104 Objectives for Infrastructure Building at the District Level (NASDSE, p. 10) Have all the components required for RtI roll out in place. Define the policies and procedures regarding how to implement RtI and problem-solving. Complete a needs assessment to identify areas of strength and areas of need related to an RtI system. Outline an evaluation plan and identify the data management system(s) that will be used to support RtI implementation. Develop a plan to define how the district, at all levels, will support the implementation of RtI through systemic technical assistance and professional development. Reschly RTI Taken Directly From NASDSE District Level Blueprint, page 10

105 Reschly RTI105 Objectives for Implementation at the District Level (NASDSE, p. 20) The district will have the necessary systemic supports in place to ensure successful implementation of RtI. The district will implement a multi-year implementation and professional development plan that provides ongoing and sustained support for RtI implementation. The district will use a systemic evaluation plan to assess the impact of RtI on student, site, district and personnel outcomes. Reschly RTI Taken Directly From NASDSE District Level Blueprint, page 20

106 Reschly RTI106 The many gotta haves – Common Language and Common Understanding Working knowledge and skill of the problem solving model Working knowledge of the Tiered system of intervention Skill in use of data to make instructional decisions Working knowledge of how to create decisions rules for tiered intervention Ability to link assessment data to robust instruction and behavior interventions Skill to seek and implement evidence based practices Ability to speak your truth Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Judy Elliott

107 Reschly RTI107 Remember… This is not about another new initiative This is about integrating what we know works!! You dont need more resources – the same number of resources who service kids who look like can service kids who look like Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Judy Elliott

108 Reschly RTI108 What do we know about systems change? Communicate a clear and common vision Planned and pursued in a systematic manner over time One size does NOT fit all Professional development is critical Outcome evaluation is NON- NEGOTIABLE!

109 Reschly RTI109 Why have past initiatives failed? Failure to achieve CONSENSUS School culture is ignored Purpose unclear Lack of ongoing communication Unrealistic expectations of initial success Failure to measure and analyze progress Participants not involved in planning

110 Reschly RTI110 Consensus Building Educators will embrace new ideas when two conditions exist: They understand the NEED for the idea They perceive that they either have the SKILLS to implement the idea OR they have the SUPPORT to develop the skills

111 Reschly RTI111 How can we work smarter? Explain the why Provide a clear vision Explain the scope and sequence Start listening Provide incentives

112 Reschly RTI112 Leadership Teams Given all of these leadership things weve talked about Whats your leadership role? Whats the first thing youre going to do when you get back to your districts/schools? Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Opening Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Dave Tilly and Jeff Grimes

113 Reschly RTI113 Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success. Henry Ford Reschly RTI Taken Directly From Opening Talk at RtI Innovations 2008, Utah, Given by Dave Tilly and Jeff Grimes

114 Reschly RTI114 Continuing Education: Problem solving and system design Reschly, D. J., Tilly, W. D. III, & Grimes, J. P. (Eds.). (1999). Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Bergan, J. R., & Kratochwill, T. R. (1990). Behavioral consultation and therapy. New York: Plenum. Shinn, M. R. (Ed.). (1989). Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press.

115 Reschly RTI115 Continuing Education: CBM, CBE, Behavioral Assessment Shinn, M. R. (Ed.) (1998). Advanced applications of curriculum-based measurement: New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, E. S. (Ed.) (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (Eds.). (2000). Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

116 Reschly RTI116 Continuing Education: Academic and Behavioral Interventions Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1991). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart, Winston. Howell, K. & Nolet, V. (2000). Curriculum-based evaluation: Teaching and decision making (3rd Ed.). Atlanta, GA: Wadsworth. Shinn, M.R., Walker, H.M., & Stoner, G. (2002). Interventions for academic and behaviors problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. Bethesda, MD: NASP

117 Reschly RTI117 Who Can Help? Sherry Abernethy NCDPI RTI Coordinator Your Regional EC Consultant (Northwest) Bill Rynn Your Regional Literacy Consultant Your Regional Behavioral Consultant Thank you for all you do for children in North Carolina !

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