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1 Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann Dunbar The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill For Bridges and Barriers Workshop State Department of.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann Dunbar The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill For Bridges and Barriers Workshop State Department of."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann Dunbar The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill For Bridges and Barriers Workshop State Department of Public Instruction Raleigh, NC--July 12, 2006 (the images have been removed and replaced by hyperlinks, with some revisions due to accessibility)

2 2 Overview Ancient Civilizations of the Nile Valley Ancient Civilizations of the Nile Valley SudanPhysical and Human Resources SudanPhysical and Human Resources –Socio-Economic Indicators Nineteenth and 20 th Centuries Nineteenth and 20 th Centuries Themes of the Independence Era Present Themes of the Independence Era Present Civil Conflicts and the Search for Peace Civil Conflicts and the Search for Peace

3 Haynes, J.L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, The Ancient Nile Valley The Legacy of Human Diversity The Legacy of Human Diversity A New Kingdom Vision: Four principal ethnic groups: Egyptians, Assyrians, Nubians, and Libyans A New Kingdom Vision: Four principal ethnic groups: Egyptians, Assyrians, Nubians, and Libyans

4 Haynes, J. L. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1991, m m m m bofhuy.html bofhuy.html bofhuy.html bofhuy.html

5 Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p. 165 Nubian Queens Queen Kemsit Nubian Queen of Mentuhotep II, B. C. Queen Kemsit Nubian Queen of Mentuhotep II, B. C.

6 Taylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press 1001, Cover6 Kush and the 25 th Dynasty The Sphinx of Taharqa B. C. from the Temple I at Kawa The Sphinx of Taharqa B. C. from the Temple I at Kawa 10th image down

7 Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p Queen Malakaye A Kushitic queen of the early 6 th century. A Kushitic queen of the early 6 th century. Women of the ruling class held high status in the Kush Kingdom. Women of the ruling class held high status in the Kush Kingdom. During the later phase of the empire in Meroe, some queens were joint rulers. During the later phase of the empire in Meroe, some queens were joint rulers. ollections/search_art. asp?recview=true&id = ollections/search_art. asp?recview=true&id = ollections/search_art. asp?recview=true&id = ollections/search_art. asp?recview=true&id =142605

8 8 Sudan Political Map ap/profile/sudan.pdf ap/profile/sudan.pdf ap/profile/sudan.pdf ap/profile/sudan.pdf

9 National Geographic 203, 2 (February 2003). Map., 399 Physical and Human Resources About ¼ size of United States About ¼ size of United States Largest country territorially Largest country territorially Savannah Grasslands to SouthSeasonal Rains April-November Savannah Grasslands to SouthSeasonal Rains April-November Desert to the north Desert to the north Confluence of Blue and White Nile Confluence of Blue and White Nile lgeographic.com/ngm /0302/feature2/ lgeographic.com/ngm /0302/feature2/ lgeographic.com/ngm /0302/feature2/ lgeographic.com/ngm /0302/feature2/ Scroll down to map and click to enlarge. Option to download printable map

10 book/geos/su.html10 Major Socio-economic Indicators Population 41.2 million (July 2006 est.) growing at 2.55%/year Population 41.2 million (July 2006 est.) growing at 2.55%/year Life Expectancy: yrs for men; years for women Life Expectancy: yrs for men; years for women Infant Mortality Rate: 61.05/1,000 live births Infant Mortality Rate: 61.05/1,000 live births Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman

11 11 Cultural Features of Sudan Ethnic Groups: Muslim Peoples. Ethnic Groups: Muslim Peoples. –Arabs. 40% of population (1990). Divided between jaali (riverine, sedentary people) and juhayna (nomads). –Nubians. Largely dispersed by the construction of Aswan dam. –Beja. Cushitic speaking people now largely Arabized –Fur. Agricultural people of the Jabal Marrah

12 12 Peoples of Northern Sudan Beja of the Sudan Coastal Region Nuba Mountain People urity.org/military/worl d/para/beja.htm urity.org/military/worl d/para/beja.htm urity.org/military/worl d/para/beja.htm urity.org/military/worl d/para/beja.htm Map and person ~ende0098/ ~ende0098/ ~ende0098/ ~ende0098/ Tremendous variety of images – warning: one on the home page is inappropriate for students Tremendous variety of images – warning: one on the home page is inappropriate for students

13 13 Cultural Features of Sudan Muslim Peoples (cont). Muslim Peoples (cont). –Zaghawa. Herding and gathering populations north of the Fur –Masalit, Daju, and Berti. Cultivators speaking Nilo-Saharan languages –West Africans. Largely Bornuan or Fulani in origin, constituted in % of Sudanese population.

14 14 Cultural Features of Sudan Non-Muslim Peoples Non-Muslim Peoples –Nilotes. 3/5 of population of southern Sudan (1990). Dinka larges of the Nilotic groups. Dinka larges of the Nilotic groups. Nuer Nuer Shilluk Shilluk –Bari, Kuku, Kadwa, Mandari. South and East of other Nilotes, although Bari and Mandari closely related to them.

15 15 Two Principal Groups of Southern Sudan Nuer Dinka and Cattle du/collections/nuer/slides /full/027.jpg du/collections/nuer/slides /full/027.jpg du/collections/nuer/slides /full/027.jpg du/collections/nuer/slides /full/027.jpg _work/cross- cutting_programs/transiti on_initiatives/country/sud an/cattle.jpg _work/cross- cutting_programs/transiti on_initiatives/country/sud an/cattle.jpg _work/cross- cutting_programs/transiti on_initiatives/country/sud an/cattle.jpg _work/cross- cutting_programs/transiti on_initiatives/country/sud an/cattle.jpg

16 16 Cultural Features of Sudan Non-Muslim Peoples (cont). Non-Muslim Peoples (cont). –Murle, Didinga and others. –Azande. Western al-Istiwal and Bahr al Ghaza and constituting 8% of population of southern Sudan –Bviri and Ndogo. Southwestern Sudan speaking languages close to Azande. –Nuba. Cultivators of Nuba Mountains of southern Kurdofan

17 17 Economy Gross Domestic Product/Capita (in PPP): $2,100 (2005 est.) Gross Domestic Product/Capita (in PPP): $2,100 (2005 est.) GDP Growth Rate 7% (2005 est.) GDP Growth Rate 7% (2005 est.) Composition of GDP Composition of GDP –Agriculture 38.7% (80% of workforce) –Industry 20.3 % (7% of workforce) –Services 41% (13% of workforce) Unemployment Rate. 18.7% (2002) Unemployment Rate. 18.7% (2002)

18 18 Economy Exports Exports –Oil and petroleum products –Cotton –Sesame –Livestock –Groundnuts –Gum Arabic and Sugar Export Partners: China (66.9%), Japan (10.7%); Saudi Arabia (4.4%) (2004) Export Partners: China (66.9%), Japan (10.7%); Saudi Arabia (4.4%) (2004)

19 19 Economy Imports Imports –Foodstuffs –Manufactured goods –Refinery and Transport equipment Import Partners: China (13%); Saudi Arabia (11.5%), UAE (5.9%); Egypt (5.1%); India (4.8%); Germany (4.5%); Australia (4.1%); Japan (4%) (2004) Import Partners: China (13%); Saudi Arabia (11.5%), UAE (5.9%); Egypt (5.1%); India (4.8%); Germany (4.5%); Australia (4.1%); Japan (4%) (2004)

20 20 Petroleum Insert map of oil fields and pipeline to the Red Sea Insert map of oil fields and pipeline to the Red Sea du/maps/africa/sudan _oil_usaid_2001.pdf du/maps/africa/sudan _oil_usaid_2001.pdf /graphic/news/people /bashier_oil_garang_s oldier.jpg /graphic/news/people /bashier_oil_garang_s oldier.jpg /graphic/news/people /bashier_oil_garang_s oldier.jpg /graphic/news/people /bashier_oil_garang_s oldier.jpg

21 21 Petroleum Chevron discovered oil in southern Sudan in Chevron discovered oil in southern Sudan in First exported in 1999 First exported in 1999 Proven Reserves: 1.6 billion bbl Proven Reserves: 1.6 billion bbl Oil production: 401,300 bbl/day (2005) Oil production: 401,300 bbl/day (2005) Oil Exports: 275,000 bbl/day (2004) Oil Exports: 275,000 bbl/day (2004) Natural Gas Proved Reserves: billion cu m (2005) but none is being produced. Natural Gas Proved Reserves: billion cu m (2005) but none is being produced.

22 22 Petroleum In 2005, Sudan had become the 7 th largest oil producer in Africa after Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, and Equatorial Guinea In 2005, Sudan had become the 7 th largest oil producer in Africa after Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, and Equatorial Guinea In June 2006, Nigeria, the only African country in OPEC and holder of groups presidency invited Angola and Sudan to join OPEC. In June 2006, Nigeria, the only African country in OPEC and holder of groups presidency invited Angola and Sudan to join OPEC. OPEC currently accounts for 42% of global oil production. OPEC currently accounts for 42% of global oil production.

23 23 Political History 19 th & 20 th Centuries Era of the Turkiyya under Muhammad Ali Era of the Turkiyya under Muhammad Ali –Modernization of the Egyptian state –Institutionalization of slave raiding that penetrated areas of Middle and Upper Nile At first a state monopoly, then licenses to commercial merchants who wreaked havoc on areas to the south At first a state monopoly, then licenses to commercial merchants who wreaked havoc on areas to the south Egyptian Slavers ca 1820 (link is slavers of the 19 th century) org/maps/timeline/im g/c1820-slavers.jpg org/maps/timeline/im g/c1820-slavers.jpg org/maps/timeline/im g/c1820-slavers.jpg org/maps/timeline/im g/c1820-slavers.jpg

24 24 History of Sudan The Mahdiya Islamist State The Mahdiya Islamist State –The Mahdi succeeded by Khalifa Abdullahi Ibn Muhammad. –With help of Baggara, attempted expansion into Ethiopia

25 25 The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Lord Herbert Kitchener conquers Khartoum and defeats the Mahdist State in 1898 Lord Herbert Kitchener conquers Khartoum and defeats the Mahdist State in 1898 Courtesy of Robert O. Collins Image of Lord Herbert data.com/frd/cs/suda n/sd01_05a.jpg Image of Lord Herbert data.com/frd/cs/suda n/sd01_05a.jpg data.com/frd/cs/suda n/sd01_05a.jpg data.com/frd/cs/suda n/sd01_05a.jpg

26 26 Britains Southern Policy Close off the South to northern merchants, bureaucrats, and Muslim clerics Close off the South to northern merchants, bureaucrats, and Muslim clerics Rely on Christian missions for education and civil services Rely on Christian missions for education and civil services Focus on development of cotton as cash crop through the al-Gezira scheme Focus on development of cotton as cash crop through the al-Gezira scheme

27 27 Key Political Figures of Northern Sudan General Ibrahim Abboud General Ibrahim Abboud Hassan al Turabi Hassan al Turabi Jaffar Nimeiri Jaffar Nimeiri Sadiq al-Mahdi Sadiq al-Mahdi Muhammad al-Mirghani Muhammad al-Mirghani Ali Osman Taha Ali Osman Taha Omar al-Bashir Omar al-Bashir

28 28 The South After Independence Agreements made at time of independence led many southerners to fear northern domination both politically and culturally Agreements made at time of independence led many southerners to fear northern domination both politically and culturally –Arabic official language –Bureaucratic positions open to northerners –Consolidation of military under northern command led to first signs of rebellion Image of Sudans flag Image of Sudans flag unimaps.com/flags-africa/sudan- flag.gif&imgrefurl=http://unimaps.com/flags -africa/sudan- print2.html&h=599&w=900&sz=10&hl=en& start=9&tbnid=4NhCIjaH0t9FoM:&tbnh=96 &tbnw=145&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSudan %2BFlag%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den% 26lr%3D unimaps.com/flags-africa/sudan- flag.gif&imgrefurl=http://unimaps.com/flags -africa/sudan- print2.html&h=599&w=900&sz=10&hl=en& start=9&tbnid=4NhCIjaH0t9FoM:&tbnh=96 &tbnw=145&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSudan %2BFlag%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den% 26lr%3D

29 29 Era of First Civil War of northern hegemony following the opening up of the south of northern hegemony following the opening up of the south –1963. Emergence of Anya Nya as force to be contended with because of military support from outside. –Despite considerable military assistance to Government of Sudan, no victory over south seemed possible –Continued instability in north because of failure to resolve this crisis –Nimeiris government reached peace accord with Anya Nya in 1972

30 30 Second War in the South –Declaration of SPLM/A as movement to achieve autonomy for southern Sudan –1994 Cukudum Conference. First attempts to establish formal judicial system to work with local elders –Established National Congress, National Leadership Council, and National Executive Council

31 31 Second War in the South SPLM/A persisted as weak governance structure in south subject to outbreaks of ethnic rivalries especially between the Dinka who dominate SPLM/A SPLM/A persisted as weak governance structure in south subject to outbreaks of ethnic rivalries especially between the Dinka who dominate SPLM/A John Garang remained dominant in both military and civil affairs John Garang remained dominant in both military and civil affairs 1997 attempt to draft constitution for Southern Sudan unable to bridge gap between accountability and Garangs power attempt to draft constitution for Southern Sudan unable to bridge gap between accountability and Garangs power.

32 32 Issues in Southern Politics Lack of a sound ideology of governance within the SPLM/A reinforced militaristic nature of Garangs rule Lack of a sound ideology of governance within the SPLM/A reinforced militaristic nature of Garangs rule Ethiopian support ended in 1991 Ethiopian support ended in 1991 Split between Nuer under Riek Machar of Sudan Peoples Defence Forces (SPDF) and SPLM/A Split between Nuer under Riek Machar of Sudan Peoples Defence Forces (SPDF) and SPLM/A January 2002reintegration of SPDF with SPLM/A January 2002reintegration of SPDF with SPLM/A John Garang Riek Machar Image of John Garang io/unandafrica/images/jo hn%20garang%20sm.jpg Image of John Garang io/unandafrica/images/jo hn%20garang%20sm.jpg io/unandafrica/images/jo hn%20garang%20sm.jpg io/unandafrica/images/jo hn%20garang%20sm.jpg Image of Riek Machar com/IMG/jpg/Riek_Macha r_3-2.jpg Image of Riek Machar com/IMG/jpg/Riek_Macha r_3-2.jpg com/IMG/jpg/Riek_Macha r_3-2.jpg com/IMG/jpg/Riek_Macha r_3-2.jpg

33 33 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)January 9, 2005 Beginning in 1994, Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sponsored peace negotiations. Beginning in 1994, Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sponsored peace negotiations. Formal peace process began in 2002 with additional support of the United States, the United Kingdom and Norway. Formal peace process began in 2002 with additional support of the United States, the United Kingdom and Norway.

34 34 Comprehensive Peace Agreement January 9, 2005 Government of National Unity (GNU) to be formed for interim period of 6 years. At end of that time a referendum in the South will decide whether or not to secede. Government of National Unity (GNU) to be formed for interim period of 6 years. At end of that time a referendum in the South will decide whether or not to secede. During interim, the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) will be autonomous. During interim, the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) will be autonomous. President of GsSS is to be the Vice-President of GNU. President of GsSS is to be the Vice-President of GNU. Integrated military of 39,000 Integrated military of 39,000 Oil wealth to be divided 50:50 between north and south Oil wealth to be divided 50:50 between north and south Jobs to be split in favor of GoS in national administration and in the transitional areas. Jobs to be split in favor of GoS in national administration and in the transitional areas. Sharia law to be applied only in northern Sudan. Sharia law to be applied only in northern Sudan.

35 35 SPLM Challenges Untimely Death of John Garang in July Untimely Death of John Garang in July Succeeded by Salva Kiir, former military commander without diplomatic skills and contacts of Garang Succeeded by Salva Kiir, former military commander without diplomatic skills and contacts of Garang SPLM must develop a program to implement peace, and to expand political alliances SPLM must develop a program to implement peace, and to expand political alliances Image of John Garang Image of John Garang

36 36 The Tragedy of Darfur Ancient History of close and amicable relations between Arab nomads and African cultivators Ancient History of close and amicable relations between Arab nomads and African cultivators Famous Sultanate of Fur a preeminent power in central Sudan in 19 th Century Famous Sultanate of Fur a preeminent power in central Sudan in 19 th Century Hakura system of feudal land grants given to followers who then had access to collection of dues from population. Hakura system of feudal land grants given to followers who then had access to collection of dues from population. Map of Dafur within Sudan destroyed villages Map of Dafur within Sudan destroyed villages du/maps/africa/darfur _villages_0802_2004.j pg du/maps/africa/darfur _villages_0802_2004.j pg

37 37 Darfur The region incorporated into the Mahdist state and then into the Anglo- Egyptian Sudan where it remained a backwater The region incorporated into the Mahdist state and then into the Anglo- Egyptian Sudan where it remained a backwater Photo of Jebel Marra, a volcanic massif in Darfur Image of Jebel …. m/images/West_pics/Jeb el_Mara_volcano_large.jp g Image of Jebel …. m/images/West_pics/Jeb el_Mara_volcano_large.jp g m/images/West_pics/Jeb el_Mara_volcano_large.jp g m/images/West_pics/Jeb el_Mara_volcano_large.jp g

38 38 Darfur Today region has population of ca 6 million Today region has population of ca 6 million Population before the war was relatively poor Population before the war was relatively poor Historically, both nomads and cultivators would migrate Historically, both nomads and cultivators would migrate The Jebel Marraat 8,000 ft, an important area of rich land of fields, orchards and pastures cs/jebel_marra3_large.jpg

39 39 Darfur Darfurians are predominantly Muslim Darfurians are predominantly Muslim Many, like Ali al Haj Mohameda Bornuan, ran as an Islamist for governship of Darfur but was defeated. Many, like Ali al Haj Mohameda Bornuan, ran as an Islamist for governship of Darfur but was defeated. In 1994, when he was Minister of Federal Affairs, he divided up Darfur into the three states of today in hope that Islamists candidates might succeed. In 1994, when he was Minister of Federal Affairs, he divided up Darfur into the three states of today in hope that Islamists candidates might succeed. Map of Darfur Map of Darfur tml/sudmap1.html tml/sudmap1.html

40 40 Darfur Ecological pressures first in 1960s, then in 1980spopulation pressures and drought meant that cultivators closed off some of the nomads migration routes in order to protect their fields. Ecological pressures first in 1960s, then in 1980spopulation pressures and drought meant that cultivators closed off some of the nomads migration routes in order to protect their fields. Many Arabs lost herds and migrated out of the country for workmany to Libya Many Arabs lost herds and migrated out of the country for workmany to Libya

41 41 Darfur By late 1980s, a group that came to be called the Arab Gathering formed close ties with Muammar Gaddafi of Libya and began a critique of the central government for its neglect. By late 1980s, a group that came to be called the Arab Gathering formed close ties with Muammar Gaddafi of Libya and began a critique of the central government for its neglect. Their ideology exhibited a racist preference for pure Arabs, the Juhayna, in opposition to the riverine groups that controlled the government Their ideology exhibited a racist preference for pure Arabs, the Juhayna, in opposition to the riverine groups that controlled the government

42 42 Darfur-1990s Following coup of Gen Omar Bashir in 1989, the government sought to strengthen ties to the Arab World and in Darfurto expand the position of Arabs by a proliferation of administrative titles that were given to Arabs and not non-Arabs. Following coup of Gen Omar Bashir in 1989, the government sought to strengthen ties to the Arab World and in Darfurto expand the position of Arabs by a proliferation of administrative titles that were given to Arabs and not non-Arabs. Many non-Arab groups like Masalit were disarmed and youth sent to fight against the south. Many non-Arab groups like Masalit were disarmed and youth sent to fight against the south.

43 43 Darfur Arabs in 1990s Musa Hilal emerges as important leader of the Abbala Arabs in the north from his base in Misteriha Musa Hilal emerges as important leader of the Abbala Arabs in the north from his base in Misteriha By 2000, both helicopters and weapons were amassed there. By 2000, both helicopters and weapons were amassed there. Image of Musa Hilal /050205musa.jpg Image of Musa Hilal /050205musa.jpg /050205musa.jpg /050205musa.jpg

44 44 DarfurOrigins of Sudan Liberation Army Setting up of a secret organization in Khartoum by men who were to be important to SLA: Setting up of a secret organization in Khartoum by men who were to be important to SLA: –Abdel Wahid Mohamed al Nur, the first chairman of SLA –Ahmad Abdel Shafi, SLAs first coordinator –Abdu Abdalla Ismail, SLAs first representative to the Ceasefire Commission set up under the African Union

45 45 Origins of SLA Began to raise money and armsexplicitly in response to the threats made in Arab Gathering statements about killing all Blacks; Began to raise money and armsexplicitly in response to the threats made in Arab Gathering statements about killing all Blacks; Had their first meeting with self-defense groups among the Fur in Darfur and began the mobilization of the area around Jebel Marra Had their first meeting with self-defense groups among the Fur in Darfur and began the mobilization of the area around Jebel Marra troops-darfur.jpghttp://www.iansa.org/images/front-page/sla- troops-darfur.jpg possible image of troops troops-darfur.jpg

46 46 Early Days of SLA : Worked to expand ties with Zaghawa and with Masalit groups all coming under pressure and direct attacks from Arabs : Worked to expand ties with Zaghawa and with Masalit groups all coming under pressure and direct attacks from Arabs. August Leadership conference to elect officers military commanders August Leadership conference to elect officers military commanders January-March First meetings between SLA and SPLA January-March First meetings between SLA and SPLA By 2005, SLA had 11,000 troops among Fur, Zaghawa and Masalit By 2005, SLA had 11,000 troops among Fur, Zaghawa and Masalit /darfur/SLA_Rebels.jpghttp://www.sudan.net/graphic/news/conflict /darfur/SLA_Rebels.jpg troops image /darfur/SLA_Rebels.jpg

47 47 Darfur and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) Formation of secret cells to discuss reform of the National Islamic Front Formation of secret cells to discuss reform of the National Islamic Front Decision taken to educate ordinary Sudaneseorganized to conduct research Decision taken to educate ordinary Sudaneseorganized to conduct research Dr. Khalil Ibrahimmember of founding group Image of dr. Khalil Ibrahim une.com/IMG/jpg/Kha lil_Ibrahim_dr1.jpg Image of dr. Khalil Ibrahim une.com/IMG/jpg/Kha lil_Ibrahim_dr1.jpg une.com/IMG/jpg/Kha lil_Ibrahim_dr1.jpg une.com/IMG/jpg/Kha lil_Ibrahim_dr1.jpg

48 48 Recollections of conditions that motivated their actions From an interview with Abubaker Hamid Nur There was too much suffering. I travelled 60 kilometres to go to primary school, in Kornoi, when I was 7; 350 kilometres to go to intermediate school, in Geneina; 400 kilometres to go to secondary school in Fasher; and 1,000 kilometres to go to university, in Khartoum. It was forbidden to speak the Zaghawa language in school. In primary school, the teacher gave us a blue ticket to pass to any boy who spoke Zaghawa. At the end of the day, anyone who had had the ticket was whipped. The whole of Kutum province, with a population of more than 551,000 had one general doctor and no specialists. Women walked more than eight hours daily to get less than 60 litres of water. We were excluded from all key posts and had no way of communicating with the international community to ask for help. Why: Because a gang in Khartoum was controlling everything. (Flint and De Waal, Darfur. 2005,

49 49 JEM Philosophy Believed that the problems of Darfur require national solutions Believed that the problems of Darfur require national solutions 2003 a 5-Point Manifesto 2003 a 5-Point Manifesto –Unified Sudan –Justice and equality –Constitutional reform guaranteeing rights to the regions –Basic services for Sudanese –Equitable development of economy and human services throughout the country.

50 50 The War in Darfur SLA and JEM cooperate militarily and meet with great success in 2003 SLA and JEM cooperate militarily and meet with great success in 2003 By mid-year, Musa Hilal had returned to Darfur and expanded recruitment for Janjawiid By mid-year, Musa Hilal had returned to Darfur and expanded recruitment for Janjawiid Throughout the year the Janjawiid, who had become a well-heeled paramilitary group led assaults on villages throughout the region at same time that negotiations were on-going with the United Nations and the African Union Throughout the year the Janjawiid, who had become a well-heeled paramilitary group led assaults on villages throughout the region at same time that negotiations were on-going with the United Nations and the African Union

51 51 The War in Darfur By 2005nearly 2 million driven into camps inside Darfur By 2005nearly 2 million driven into camps inside Darfur 200,000 had fled to Chad 200,000 had fled to Chad Janjawiid operated with full support of Sudan Defence Forces, the Air Force, and the State Security. Janjawiid operated with full support of Sudan Defence Forces, the Air Force, and the State Security. The Arab Gathering could operate independently of Khartoum The Arab Gathering could operate independently of Khartoum Series of images and account by an American observer

52 52 International Agents The African Union The African Union April First discussion of situation in Darfur at meeting of AUs Peace and Security Council meeting April First discussion of situation in Darfur at meeting of AUs Peace and Security Council meeting Humanitarian ceasefire agreement signed in NDjamena calling on Sudan government to neutralise the armed militias Humanitarian ceasefire agreement signed in NDjamena calling on Sudan government to neutralise the armed militias image of African Union Soldiers/observers

53 53 International Agents The United States The United States June U. S. Congress passed resolution describing Darfur as genocide June U. S. Congress passed resolution describing Darfur as genocide September U. S. Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that genocide had occurred in Sudan. September U. S. Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that genocide had occurred in Sudan. image Of US Secy of State Colin Powell testifying about genocide in Darfur

54 54 International Agents United Nations. United Nations. –June UN Security Council Resolution 1556: Disarm Janjawiid Disarm Janjawiid Arrest leaders Arrest leaders Allow access to humanitarian assistance Allow access to humanitarian assistance –September UN Security Council Resolution 1564 Mandate of International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur (ICID) to investigate human rights and to determine if genocide had occurred. Mandate of International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur (ICID) to investigate human rights and to determine if genocide had occurred. –January 2005-Report of ICID

55 55 Agreements for Peace in Darfur 2005, July. Government of Sudan, SLA/M and JEM sign Declaration of Principles in Abuja 2005, July. Government of Sudan, SLA/M and JEM sign Declaration of Principles in Abuja 2006, May 5. Signing of Darfur Peace Agreement in Abuja by Government of Sudan (largely represented by the National Congress Party); and a faction of the Sudan Liberation Army under Minni Arkou Minawi (SLA/MM 2006, May 5. Signing of Darfur Peace Agreement in Abuja by Government of Sudan (largely represented by the National Congress Party); and a faction of the Sudan Liberation Army under Minni Arkou Minawi (SLA/MM Minni Arkou Minawi Image of Minnie Arkou Minawi une.com/IMG/jpg/Min ni_Arcua_Minnawi_sp eaks_.jpg Image of Minnie Arkou Minawi une.com/IMG/jpg/Min ni_Arcua_Minnawi_sp eaks_.jpg une.com/IMG/jpg/Min ni_Arcua_Minnawi_sp eaks_.jpg une.com/IMG/jpg/Min ni_Arcua_Minnawi_sp eaks_.jpg

56 56 The Darfur Peace Agreement Three Protocols Three Protocols –Security Arrangements –Power Sharing –Wealth Sharing –Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation Political cartoon of man labeled Sudan watering a desert flower h.info/Cartoons/2003 %20cartoons/cartoon %20negatives/2003/ December/ar10.jpg by Al-Jazeerah Political cartoon of man labeled Sudan watering a desert flower h.info/Cartoons/2003 %20cartoons/cartoon %20negatives/2003/ December/ar10.jpg by Al-Jazeerah h.info/Cartoons/2003 %20cartoons/cartoon %20negatives/2003/ December/ar10.jpg h.info/Cartoons/2003 %20cartoons/cartoon %20negatives/2003/ December/ar10.jpg

57 57 Sources Africa, Justice. Sudan: Prospects for Peace In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), Africa, Justice. Sudan: Prospects for Peace In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), Compare InfoBase Pvt Ltd. Sudan Political Map. Compare InfoBase Pvt Ltd. Sudan Political Map. Flint, Julie and Alex De Waal. Darfur Flint, Julie and Alex De Waal. Darfur International Crisis Group. Sudans Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead Africa Report No 106, 31 March Seen at (June 29, 2006). International Crisis Group. Sudans Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead Africa Report No 106, 31 March Seen at (June 29, 2006). International Crisis Group. Darfurs Fragile Peace Agreement. Africa Policy Briefing No. 39. Nairobi/Brussels June 20, 2006 acceessed via (June 29, 2006) International Crisis Group. Darfurs Fragile Peace Agreement. Africa Policy Briefing No. 39. Nairobi/Brussels June 20, 2006 acceessed via (June 29, 2006) Library of Congress Country Study on Sudan. Library of Congress Country Study on Sudan. Mohammed, Adan Azain. Women and Conflict in Darfur In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), Mohammed, Adan Azain. Women and Conflict in Darfur In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), Rone, Jemera. Sudan: Oil and War In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), Rone, Jemera. Sudan: Oil and War In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), Salopek, Paul. Shattered Sudan. Drilling for Oil Hoping for Peace. National Geographic February 2003, Salopek, Paul. Shattered Sudan. Drilling for Oil Hoping for Peace. National Geographic February 2003, Young, John. Sudan: Liberation Movements, Regional Armies, Ethnic Militias and Peace In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), Young, John. Sudan: Liberation Movements, Regional Armies, Ethnic Militias and Peace In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003),


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