Presentation on theme: "Sudan: In Search of a Nation"— Presentation transcript:
1Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann DunbarThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillFor Bridges and Barriers WorkshopState Department of Public InstructionRaleigh, NC--July 12, 2006(the images have been removed and replaced by hyperlinks, with some revisions due to accessibility)The title of this presentation Sudan: In Search of a Nation suggests the dilemma of this largest of all African states whose boundaries were shaped by external conquerors over the centuries, but more particularly in the 19th and 20th centuries when Sudan was governed under the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium.A primary theme of this presentation will be that the features that pose barriers to a functioning nation state in the Sudan today are historical, cultural, and geopolitical. As educators our challenge will be to consider how best to convey these three themes to our students.Historical. What have been the major periods of history in this part of the Nile Valley? How has history influenced today’s prospects and dilemmas?Cultural. What are the primary cultural features of Sudan?Geopolitical. What are the factors that create special issues for Sudan’s prospects for development? How are these internal factors complicated by international political, economic, and strategic concerns of powers external to the country?
2Overview Ancient Civilizations of the Nile Valley Sudan—Physical and Human ResourcesSocio-Economic IndicatorsNineteenth and 20th CenturiesThemes of the Independence Era 1956-PresentCivil Conflicts and the Search for Peace
3The Ancient Nile Valley The Legacy of Human DiversityA New Kingdom Vision: Four principal ethnic groups: Egyptians, Assyrians, Nubians, and LibyansWhen so much of the current day’s dilemmas in Sudan are couched in terms of ethnicity and religion, it may be helpful to realize that in ancient times, the people of the Nile Valley were very aware of cultural differences and noted them in their tomb paintings.Haynes, J.L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, 15-17
4Nubians, as in the preceding slide, nearly always are presented with the distinctive hairstyle shown here on the left, although skin color may vary.Haynes, J. L. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1991,
5Nubian QueensQueen Kemsit—Nubian Queen of Mentuhotep II, B. C.Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p. 16
6Kush and the 25th DynastyThe Sphinx of Taharqa B. C. from the Temple I at KawaKing Taharqa’s father had pioneered the Kushitic campaigns into lower Egypt, but Taharqa is known as the great builder and consolidator of the Kush Kingdom. The temples he refurbished at Kawa and elsewhere sought to demonstrate Kush’s appreciation for the classical Egyptian form. While Kush borrowed many things from Egypt, its art retained a distinctive style as shown here in the broad planes of the face of the king. The sphinx appears as a lion, but the horns surrounding his face are the expression of Aman the great ram-headed deity whose worship was paramount in Kush’s first capital, Napata.Its southern capital, Meroe, featured an urban center equipped with viaducts, and substantial processing of iron ore. It’s written language, Meroitic, has never been deciphered, and remains one of the fascinating puzzles of the ancient world.10th image downTaylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U Press 1001, Cover
7Queen Malakaye A Kushitic queen of the early 6th century. Women of the ruling class held high status in the Kush Kingdom.During the later phase of the empire in Meroe, some queens were joint rulers.This mask also shows features that were distinctive of Kushitic art: the broad face, the prominent ears, and the emphasis on neck is one of the oldest features of African human representation.Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 1992, p. 31.
9Physical and Human Resources About ¼ size of United StatesLargest country territoriallySavannah Grasslands to South—Seasonal Rains April-NovemberDesert to the northConfluence of Blue and White NileScroll down to map and click to enlarge. Option to download printable mapSlightly more than ¼ the size of the United States, Sudan is the largest country territorially on the continent.The North-South division of the country integrated into the modern state is marked by the orange line. The area to the south is savannah grassland characterized by pronounced seasonal rains (roughly April to November), and by a vast inland delta of the Nile. Lying just to the north of the traditional boundary is grassland that provides some of the richest farmland in the country in the Nuba Mountains and Darfur. The far north is desert with the capital citiy of Khartoum lying at the junction of the Blue and White Niles on the southern edge of the desert.Sudan’s coastline lies along 853 km of the Red Sea with the principal port being Port Sudan.National Geographic 203, 2 (February 2003). Map., 39
10Major Socio-economic Indicators Population 41.2 million (July 2006 est.) growing at 2.55%/yearLife Expectancy: yrs for men; years for womenInfant Mortality Rate: 61.05/1,000 live birthsTotal fertility rate: 4.72 children born/woman
11Cultural Features of Sudan Ethnic Groups: Muslim Peoples.Arabs. 40% of population (1990). Divided between jaali (riverine, sedentary people) and juhayna (nomads).Nubians. Largely dispersed by the construction of Aswan dam.Beja. Cushitic speaking people now largely ArabizedFur. Agricultural people of the Jabal MarrahArabs. Among the many sub-tribes of the juhayna are the Baggara whose intermixture with black Africans has left them in many cases indistinguishable from them. Kawahla (nomadic north and west of Khartoum) and Ashraf (those claiming descent from the Prophet Mohammed and/or from Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah ( as the Mahdi).Nubians are largely found in Khartoum, Port Sudan, and Kassala. Often Arabic speaking, still retain awareness of cultural distinctiveness.Beja. Peoples living in the Red Sea Hills and while largely Arabized, speak a language that associates them with Cushitic-speaking people further south.Fur. An independent sultanate until Agricultural, most have become Muslim but do not consider themselves Arab. Settled in the area of the Jabal Marrah. Oriented politically and culturally towards Chad.
12Peoples of Northern Sudan Map and personTremendous variety of images – warning: one on the home page is inappropriate for studentsBeja of the Sudan Coastal RegionNuba Mountain People
13Cultural Features of Sudan Muslim Peoples (con’t).Zaghawa. Herding and gathering populations north of the FurMasalit, Daju, and Berti. Cultivators speaking Nilo-Saharan languagesWest Africans. Largely Bornuan or Fulani in origin, constituted in % of Sudanese population.Zaghawa. The Arabic term for a people who call themselves Beri. In recent times have developed cultivation, but often resort to gathering during times of drought.Masalit, Daji, Berti. Masalit, the largest, live on Sudan-Chad border; historically a minor sultanate positioned between the Fur and Wadai kingdoms they have in recent times skirmished into territories claimed by the Fur. The Berti are divided into two groups—one in the east in Kordofan, the other north of Al Fasher. Predominantly cultivators with some animal husbandry. Daju, a linguistic term for peoples scattered between Kordofan and Chad exhibiting no particular sense of political identity.
14Cultural Features of Sudan Non-Muslim PeoplesNilotes. 3/5 of population of southern Sudan (1990).Dinka larges of the Nilotic groups.NuerShillukBari, Kuku, Kadwa, Mandari. South and East of other Nilotes, although Bari and Mandari closely related to them.Nilotes. Largest group of peoples of Southern Sudan but some also living near Ethiopian border and in the Nuba mountains. Living largely on or near the Bahr al Jabal.Dinka. Living predominantly in the Aali an Nil and the Bahr al Ghazal regions of the northern part of southern sudan. Dinka and Nuer were dispersed among different tribal groups (Dinka 25) Nuer(9 or 10); while Shilluk of the Upper Nile were historically ruled by a “divine king” called a reth.
15Two Principal Groups of Southern Sudan NuerDinka and Cattle
16Cultural Features of Sudan Non-Muslim Peoples (cont).Murle, Didinga and others.Azande. Western al-Istiwal and Bahr al Ghaza and constituting 8% of population of southern SudanBviri and Ndogo. Southwestern Sudan speaking languages close to Azande.Nuba. Cultivators of Nuba Mountains of southern KurdofanMurle,Didinga, and others. Agricultural peoples originally of Ethiopian origin but many of whom had migrated into Sudan.Azande. Historically a kingdom that emerged in what is today northeastern Congo southwestern Sudan in 18th and 19th centuries. Marginalized despite British efforts to develop cotton production during the 20th century, they clashed frequently with the Dinka. Their support of the Anya Nya had led to their further deterioration as a group.Nuba. Living in the Nuba mountains of northern Sudan, the Nuba were cultivators divided among approximately 36 small groups of very diverging social organization—some patrilineal others matrilineal, and yet others bilineal. Some converted to Islam but held distinct from Arabization. However, many had been recruited into army and police
17Economy Gross Domestic Product/Capita (in PPP): $2,100 (2005 est.) GDP Growth Rate 7% (2005 est.)Composition of GDPAgriculture 38.7% (80% of workforce)Industry 20.3 % (7% of workforce)Services 41% (13% of workforce)Unemployment Rate. 18.7% (2002)As noted on the preceding slide, I am using the figures from the latest (June 2006) Cia Factbook on Sudan found at40% of the population lives below the poverty line. (2004)Inflation runs at 11% (2005)Sudan has been implementing an IMF Structural Adjustment Plan (SAP) since 1997.
18EconomyExportsOil and petroleum productsCottonSesameLivestockGroundnutsGum Arabic and SugarExport Partners: China (66.9%), Japan (10.7%); Saudi Arabia (4.4%) (2004)
19EconomyImportsFoodstuffsManufactured goodsRefinery and Transport equipmentImport Partners: China (13%); Saudi Arabia (11.5%), UAE (5.9%); Egypt (5.1%); India (4.8%); Germany (4.5%); Australia (4.1%); Japan (4%) (2004)
20Petroleum Insert map of oil fields and pipeline to the Red Sea
21Petroleum Chevron discovered oil in southern Sudan in 1978. First exported in 1999Proven Reserves: 1.6 billion bblOil production: 401,300 bbl/day (2005)Oil Exports: 275,000 bbl/day (2004)Natural Gas Proved Reserves: billion cu m (2005) but none is being produced.David Morse in an article in Sudan Tribune (23 August 2005) reported that seismographic studies begun following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Treaty in January 2005 had the effect of doubling estimates of oil reserves to 563 million barrels. He estimated that oil revenues being received in Khartoum had reached $1 million/day (which he alleged was the amoung being funnelled into arms: helicopters, bombers from Russia, tanks from Poland and China, missiles from Iran (seen at )
22PetroleumIn 2005, Sudan had become the 7th largest oil producer in Africa after Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, and Equatorial GuineaIn June 2006, Nigeria, the only African country in OPEC and holder of group’s presidency invited Angola and Sudan to join OPEC.OPEC currently accounts for 42% of global oil production.Source: Sudan Tribune. June 25, seen Juneat
23Political History 19th & 20th Centuries Era of the Turkiyya under Muhammad AliModernization of the Egyptian stateInstitutionalization of slave raiding that penetrated areas of Middle and Upper NileAt first a state monopoly, then licenses to commercial merchants who wreaked havoc on areas to the southEgyptian Slavers ca 1820 (link is slavers of the 19th century)
24History of Sudan 1884-1898—The Mahdiya Islamist State The Mahdi succeeded by Khalifa Abdullahi Ibn Muhammad.With help of Baggara, attempted expansion into Ethiopia
25The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Lord Herbert Kitchener conquers Khartoum and defeats the Mahdist State in 1898Image of Lord HerbertCourtesy of Robert O. Collins
26Britain’s Southern Policy Close off the South to northern merchants, bureaucrats, and Muslim clericsRely on Christian missions for education and civil servicesFocus on development of cotton as cash crop through the al-Gezira scheme
27Key Political Figures of Northern Sudan 1956-2005 General Ibrahim AbboudHassan al TurabiJaffar NimeiriSadiq al-MahdiMuhammad al-MirghaniAli Osman TahaOmar al-Bashir< see Sudan Readings and Bibliography for images of each of these>
28The South After Independence Agreements made at time of independence led many southerners to fear northern domination both politically and culturallyArabic official languageBureaucratic positions open to northernersConsolidation of military under northern command—led to first signs of rebellionImage of Sudan’s flag
29Era of First Civil Warof northern hegemony following the opening up of the south1963. Emergence of Anya Nya as force to be contended with because of military support from outside.Despite considerable military assistance to Government of Sudan, no victory over south seemed possibleContinued instability in north because of failure to resolve this crisisNimeiri’s government reached peace accord with Anya Nya in 1972
30Second War in the South 1983-1994 Declaration of SPLM/A as movement to achieve autonomy for southern Sudan1994 Cukudum Conference. First attempts to establish formal judicial system to work with local eldersEstablished National Congress, National Leadership Council, and National Executive Council
31Second War in the SouthSPLM/A persisted as weak governance structure in south subject to outbreaks of ethnic rivalries—especially between the Dinka who dominate SPLM/AJohn Garang remained dominant in both military and civil affairs1997 attempt to draft constitution for Southern Sudan unable to bridge gap between accountability and Garang’s power.
32Issues in Southern Politics Lack of a sound ideology of governance within the SPLM/A reinforced militaristic nature of Garang’s ruleEthiopian support ended in 1991Split between Nuer under Riek Machar of Sudan Peoples Defence Forces (SPDF) and SPLM/AJanuary 2002—reintegration of SPDF with SPLM/AImage of John GarangJohn GarangImage of Riek MacharRiek Machar
33Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)—January 9, 2005 Beginning in 1994, Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sponsored peace negotiations.Formal peace process began in 2002 with additional support of the United States, the United Kingdom and Norway.
34Comprehensive Peace Agreement—January 9, 2005 Government of National Unity (GNU) to be formed for interim period of 6 years. At end of that time a referendum in the South will decide whether or not to secede.During interim, the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) will be autonomous.President of GsSS is to be the Vice-President of GNU.Integrated military of 39,000Oil wealth to be divided 50:50 between north and southJobs to be split in favor of GoS in national administration and in the transitional areas.Sharia law to be applied only in northern Sudan.Government backed militias in the South to be withdrawn in one year.Re jobs: In national administration: GoS to have 70:30 favor; in transitional areas of Abyei, Blue Nile States and Nuba Mountains, 55:45.
35SPLM Challenges Image of John Garang Untimely Death of John Garang in July 2005.Succeeded by Salva Kiir, former military commander without diplomatic skills and contacts of GarangSPLM must develop a program to implement peace, and to expand political alliancesImage of John Garang
36The Tragedy of Darfur Map of Dafur within Sudan destroyed villages Ancient History of close and amicable relations between Arab nomads and African cultivatorsFamous Sultanate of Fur a preeminent power in central Sudan in 19th CenturyHakura system of feudal land grants given to followers who then had access to collection of dues from population.Map of Dafur within Sudan destroyed villages
37DarfurThe region incorporated into the Mahdist state and then into the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan where it remained a backwaterImage of Jebel ….Photo of Jebel Marra, a volcanic massif in Darfur
38Darfur Today region has population of ca 6 million Population before the war was relatively poorHistorically, both nomads and cultivators would migrateNomads migrate as much as 300 miles in search of pasture; cultivators when water and/or soil became depleted.The Jebel Marra—at 8,000 ft, an important area of rich land of fields, orchards and pastures
39Darfur Map of Darfur http://rightsmaps.com/html/sudmap1.html Darfurians are predominantly MuslimMany, like Ali al Haj Mohamed—a Bornuan, ran as an Islamist for governship of Darfur but was defeated.In 1994, when he was Minister of Federal Affairs, he divided up Darfur into the three states of today in hope that Islamists candidates might succeed.
40DarfurEcological pressures first in 1960s, then in 1980s—population pressures and drought meant that cultivators closed off some of the nomads migration routes in order to protect their fields.Many Arabs lost herds and migrated out of the country for work—many to Libya
41DarfurBy late 1980s, a group that came to be called the Arab Gathering formed close ties with Muammar Gaddafi of Libya and began a critique of the central government for its neglect.Their ideology exhibited a racist preference for “pure Arabs”, the Juhayna, in opposition to the riverine groups that controlled the government
42Darfur-1990sFollowing coup of Gen Omar Bashir in 1989, the government sought to strengthen ties to the Arab World and in Darfur—to expand the position of Arabs by a proliferation of administrative titles that were given to Arabs and not non-Arabs.Many non-Arab groups like Masalit were disarmed and youth sent to fight against the south.
43Darfur Arabs in 1990sMusa Hilal emerges as important leader of the Abbala Arabs in the north from his base in MisterihaBy 2000, both helicopters and weapons were amassed there.Image of Musa Hilal
44Darfur—Origins of Sudan Liberation Army Setting up of a secret organization in Khartoum by men who were to be important to SLA:Abdel Wahid Mohamed al Nur, the first chairman of SLAAhmad Abdel Shafi, SLA’s first coordinatorAbdu Abdalla Ismail, SLA’s first representative to the Ceasefire Commission set up under the African Union
45Origins of SLABegan to raise money and arms—explicitly in response to the threats made in Arab Gathering statements about killing all Blacks;1997. Had their first meeting with self-defense groups among the Fur in Darfur and began the mobilization of the area around Jebel Marrapossible image of troops
46Early Days of SLA: Worked to expand ties with Zaghawa and with Masalit groups all coming under pressure and direct attacks from Arabs.August Leadership conference to elect officers military commandersJanuary-March First meetings between SLA and SPLABy 2005, SLA had 11,000 troops among Fur, Zaghawa and Masalittroops image
47Darfur and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) Formation of secret cells to discuss reform of the National Islamic FrontDecision taken to educate ordinary Sudanese—organized to conduct researchImage of dr. Khalil IbrahimDr. Khalil Ibrahim—member of founding group
48Recollections of conditions that motivated their actions From an interview with Abubaker Hamid NurThere was too much suffering. I travelled 60 kilometres to go to primary school, in Kornoi, when I was 7; 350 kilometres to go to intermediate school, in Geneina; 400 kilometres to go to secondary school in Fasher; and 1,000 kilometres to go to university, in Khartoum. It was forbidden to speak the Zaghawa language in school. In primary school, the teacher gave us a blue ticket to pass to any boy who spoke Zaghawa. At the end of the day, anyone who had had the ticket was whipped. The whole of Kutum province, with a population of more than 551,000 had one general doctor and no specialists. Women walked more than eight hours daily to get less than 60 litres of water. We were excluded from all key posts and had no way of communicating with the international community to ask for help. Why: Because a gang in Khartoum was controlling everything. (Flint and De Waal, Darfur. 2005,
49JEM PhilosophyBelieved that the problems of Darfur require national solutions2003 a 5-Point ManifestoUnified SudanJustice and equalityConstitutional reform guaranteeing rights to the regionsBasic services for SudaneseEquitable development of economy and human services throughout the country.
50The War in DarfurSLA and JEM cooperate militarily and meet with great success in 2003By mid-year, Musa Hilal had returned to Darfur and expanded recruitment for Janjawiid2004. Throughout the year the Janjawiid, who had become a well-heeled paramilitary group led assaults on villages throughout the region at same time that negotiations were on-going with the United Nations and the African Union
51The War in Darfur--2005By 2005—nearly 2 million driven into camps inside Darfur200,000 had fled to ChadJanjawiid operated with full support of Sudan Defence Forces, the Air Force, and the State Security.The Arab Gathering could operate independently of KhartoumSeries of images and account by an American observer
52International Agents The African Union April First discussion of situation in Darfur at meeting of AU’s Peace and Security Council meetingHumanitarian ceasefire agreement signed in N’Djamena calling on Sudan government to neutralise the armed militiasimage of African Union Soldiers/observers
53International Agents The United States June U. S. Congress passed resolution describing Darfur as genocideSeptember U. S. Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that genocide had occurred in Sudan.image Of US Sec’y of State Colin Powell testifying about genocide in Darfur
54International Agents United Nations. June UN Security Council Resolution 1556:Disarm JanjawiidArrest leadersAllow access to humanitarian assistanceSeptember UN Security Council Resolution 1564Mandate of International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur (ICID) to investigate human rights and to determine if genocide had occurred.January 2005-Report of ICIDThe report of the ICID was presented in January The Commission had decided that there was no evidence of genocidal intent at the level of the central government. However, many individuals, including some government officials were held to have been likely perpetrators. A sealed list of 51 individuals was handed over with the recommendation for criminal investigation: 10 high-ranking members of central government; 17 local government officials; 14 Janjawiid members; 3 officers of foreign armies; 7 rebel commanders (Flint and DeWaal, 132).
55Agreements for Peace in Darfur 2005, July. Government of Sudan, SLA/M and JEM sign Declaration of Principles in Abuja2006, May 5. Signing of Darfur Peace Agreement in Abuja by Government of Sudan (largely represented by the National Congress Party); and a faction of the Sudan Liberation Army under Minni Arkou Minawi (SLA/MMImage of Minnie Arkou MinawiMinni Arkou Minawi
56The Darfur Peace Agreement Political cartoon of man labeled Sudan watering a desert flower by Al-JazeerahThree ProtocolsSecurity ArrangementsPower SharingWealth SharingDarfur-Darfur Dialogue and ConsultationThere are many flaws in the agreement—not the least of which that one faction of the SLA—that of Abdel Wahid, and the JEM refused to sign.Re Security: Africa Union is overwhelmed, and there are no guidelines for turning over to the UNDisarmament of Janjawiid. Government has already incorporated many within Popular Defence Forces, Border Intelligence Units and Central Reserve Police; Sudan Government also denies that it is in any case able to disarm as they have maintained the stance that this is a civil conflict; No protection for civilians outside of the camps; Military re-integration with Sudanese army and/or disarmed and demobilized. But parties are asked to disarm themselves. The Chadian border is unstable because Chad government is supporting SLA and JEM; Khartoum supports opposition to Chad government.Power Sharing. Problem here is that the Central Peace Agreement is now a part of the country’s constitution that allocates power and seats between the north and the south. On the Presidency, the AU worked out an arrangement for a position of senior assistant to the president whose incumbent would rank fourth in the presidency (after Basher, Ali Osman Taha, and SPLA’s Salva Kiir (who succeeded John Garang). Three Cabinet posts currently held by Darfurians will be identified as Darfurian positions along with some additional offices in the central government—but to be determined by the government.Wealth Sharing. Differences of opinion over who should pay for compensation to individuals as opposed to reconstruction funding. The central government insists that the two funds are the same and will not accept a separate system for paying individuals; Darfur Victims Assistance Fund to be established—search for international funding; Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund: SudanGovernment to provide $300 million initially followed by $200 million in 2007, 2008.Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation—to be taken up in the summer of 2006: hope to broaden support for the Peace Agreement; to settle issues about land ownership; work on inter-communal reconciliation.
57SourcesAfrica, Justice. “Sudan: Prospects for Peace” In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003),Compare InfoBase Pvt Ltd. Sudan Political Map.Flint, Julie and Alex De Waal. DarfurInternational Crisis Group. “Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead” Africa Report No 106, 31 March Seen at (June 29, 2006).International Crisis Group. “Darfur’s Fragile Peace Agreement”. Africa Policy Briefing No. 39. Nairobi/Brussels June 20, 2006 acceessed via (June 29, 2006)Library of Congress Country Study on Sudan.Mohammed, Adan Azain. “Women and Conflict in Darfur” In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003),Rone, Jemera. Sudan: Oil and War” In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003),Salopek, Paul. “Shattered Sudan. Drilling for Oil Hoping for Peace.” National Geographic February 2003,30-67.Young, John. “Sudan: Liberation Movements, Regional Armies, Ethnic Militias and Peace” In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003),