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Preface to Dr. White-Oylers Presentation on South Africa and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission While classroom teachers are allowed to use the copyrighted.

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Presentation on theme: "Preface to Dr. White-Oylers Presentation on South Africa and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission While classroom teachers are allowed to use the copyrighted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preface to Dr. White-Oylers Presentation on South Africa and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission While classroom teachers are allowed to use the copyrighted images and materials posted on the internet under the fair use policy, the Department of Public Instruction must obtain written permission to include the same images in any materials it distributes. Therefore, we have included the hyperlinks to the images that were in this PowerPoint and directions so that you can go online and obtain them for your classroom use.

2 Instructions for opening the PowerPoints hyperlinks: 1.Left click on the url address and drag your curser until it highlights the entire address 2.Right click on url 3.select open hyperlink 4.scroll to the indicated image 5.Right click on the image and select copy 6.Return to the PowerPoint and left click Edit on your Tool Bar 7.Scroll down to paste and left click on it 8.Left click on the image to move it within the PowerPoint and right click on it to enlarge or decrease its size, crop it, modify its color or contrast, etc. 9.Consider using Google Image Search to find a replacement image if the link is no longer accessible.

3 RISE OF A DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA Dr. Dianne White-Oyler Fayetteville State University

4 THE BACK STORY GEOGRAPHY & ENVIRONMENT INDIGENOUS PEOPLES EUROPEAN MIGRATION

5 SOUTHERN AFRICA

6 RAIN PATTERNS NAMIB DESERT =/docrep/005/AC991E/AC991E07.htm

7 THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES SAN TODAY KHOISAN ROCK ART THE KHOIKHOI Rock Art

8 BANTU MIGRATION BANTU SPEAKERS IN SOUTH AFRICA BY 500 AD (Not functioning on )

9 THE XHOSA

10 THE ZULU c Warrior (Not an appropriate site for students, use image #15) html (additional searching required) Indigenous Hair Style

11 SOTHO (woman with gourd on her head)

12 COASTAL FEATURES CAPE OF GOOD HOPE

13 FIRST CONTACT TABLE BAY FROM TABLE MOUNTAIN TABLE BAY 10.htm (not functioning on )http://www.capetown.at/heritage/history/19 10.htm

14 AREIAL VIEW TABLE MOUNTAIN & BAY frica_cape_town.htmlhttp://www.tropicalisland.de/travel_south_a frica_cape_town.html

15 TIMELINE: EUROPEANS PORTUGUESE BARTOLOMIEU DIAZ 1488 DUTCH JAN VAN RIEBEEK 1652 IMMIGRATION OF FRENCH HUGUENOTS (1689) & GERMANS BRITISH (Napoleonic Wars) RETURNED TO DUTCH CONQUEST OF CAPE COLONY 1806; ANNEX NATAL 1843 DUTCH THE GREAT TREK ORANGE FREE STATE1856 AFRICKANER REPEPUBIC TRANSVAAL1854 AFRIKANER REPUBLIC MINERAL REVOLUTION 1978 BRITISH ANNEX AFRIKANER REPUBLICS 1877 SOUTH AFRICAN WARBOER WAR UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 1910

16 DUTCH EXPANSION INTO THE INTERIOR TREKBOER OR VOORTREKKER No link provided; search for images of Map of European expansion across present day South Africa and for an image of a Voortrekker

17 THE MINERAL REVOLUTION DUTCH a. DIAMONDS AT KIMBERLY b. GOLD AT WITSWATERSRAND c. BOERS CONTRACT AFRICAN LABOR 2. BRITISH WANT TO CONTROL THE WEALTH 3. CONFLICT: THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR

18 KIMBERLEY 3 images of Kimberly diamond mines com/kunz_reminiscen ces2.htmhttp://www.palagems. com/kunz_reminiscen ces2.htm

19 CECIL RHODES ( ) d1.htmlhttp://andrejkoymasky.com/liv/fam/bior2/rho d1.html

20 FROM CAPE TO CAIRO POLITICAL CARTOON

21 THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR wars/anglo-boer-war2i.htm (not functioning on )

22 SOUTH AFRICA WAR BOERS1 ST QUEENSLAND MOUNTED (AUSTRALIA)

23 RISE OF THE APARTHEID STATE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA NATIONALIST PARTY 1948

24 THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 1909 SOUTH AFRICA ACT CREATES A WHITE MINORITY GOVERNMENT FEDERATION OF 1. TRANSVAAL 2. ORANGE FREE STATE 3.CAPE (COLONY) 4.NATAL INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE BLACK MAJORITY

25 AFRIKANER NATIONALISM LANGUAGE AFRIKAANS IN THE WESTERN CAPE Unique language originsDutch modified by indigenous & outside languages Indigenous development PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES SOUTH AFRICA FLAG ( )

26 AFRIKANER NATIONALISM CULTURE LANGUAGE EDUCATION DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH

27 AFRIKANER NATIONALISM HEROIC HISTORIC PAST 1. Van Riebeek at the Cape 2. Boers, Voortrekkers, South African War Van Riebeek the Cape Trekers Leave the Cape Soldier Anglo- Boer war

28 APARTHEID AFRIKAANS WORD DEFINITION: APARTNESS OR SEPARATENESS 1 ST USE OF THE TERM WAS IN 1917 BY JAN SMUTS WHO BECAME PRIME MINISTER IN 1919 SYSTEM OF SEGREGATION AND INSTITUTIONAL RACISM IN SOUTH AFRICA FROM s

29 APARTHEID

30 UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA & APARTHEID 1911 & 1926 MINES & WORKS ACT Color Ban on certain jobs; Salaries for whites higher at all times 1913 & 1936 NATIVES LAND ACTS Land RaidAllocated 13% of total land to the black majority and 87% to the white minority 1923 NATIVES ACT (URBAN AREAS) Segregation in residential areas of citiesBLACKS HAD TO CARRY SPECIAL PAPERS TO STAY IN THE CITIES 1937 NATIVES LAWS AMENDMENT ACT Pass laws required Blacks to carry identification and authorization to enter white areas.

31 PASSBOOK 3 rd image

32 CREATION OF THE APARTHEID STATE

33 APARTHEID LEADER James Barry Munnik Hertzog 1866 – 1942 Founder of the National Party

34 APARTHEID LEGISLATION MANDATED: 1950 POPULATION REGISTRATION ACT Registration by Color Forced all South Africans to register as : White, Bantu (Black), Asian (Indian & Pakistani) or Colored (people of mixed race) 1950 GROUP AREAS ACT Geographic Separation in business and residence 1953 RESERVATION OF SEPARATE AMENITIES ACT Segregation of public areas and transport Buses, Parks, and other Public Places 1953 Bantu Education Act Separate but Not Equal: Enforced Racial Discrimination of schools 1959 PROMOTION OF BANTU SELF-GOVERMENT ACT Black HomelandsTHE BANTUSTANS

35 BANTUSTANS

36 JOURNEY TO JOBURG ACTIVITY NOVEL: Naidoo, Beverley, Journey to JoBurg: A South African Story, Harper Trophy book, (ages 9-12)

37 APARTHEID: THE CONTRAST

38 AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO MINORITY WHITE RULE One Mans Freedom Fighter is Another Mans Terrorist 1912 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE NATIONAL CONGRESS BECOMES THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESSTHE ANC STRIKES, BOYCOTTS AND SYMBOLIC ACTS OF DEFINACE 1950s DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN MASS RESISTANCE PUBLIC DISOBEDIENCE 1955 FREEDOM CHARTER John L. Dube (1871-) 1 st President

39 FREEDOM CHARTER 1955 We, the People of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know: that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of all the people;

40 1950s ANC DEFINACE CAMPAIGN %20xhosa/timeline/timeline_1950s.htm

41 AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO MINORITY WHITE RULE 1959 PAN AFRICANIST CONGRESS (of Azania) PAC split from the ANC because it objected to the ANC's non-racial policies & took a bolder approach based more on mass action. Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe ( ) 1 st President Image of Pan Africanist Congress of Azania overtop the continent of Africa

42 ACTIVITY COMPARE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT THE US WITH BLACK RIGHTS MOVEMENT SOUTH AFRICA

43 COMPARATIVE RACISM U.S. HISTORY SA CIVIL RIGHTS st Blacks to US US Rev Civil War Ends Slavery Jim Crow Laws Civil Rights Movement APARTHEID 500AD Bantu migrationblack Africans st imported 1 st slaves Boer War Legal Apartheid Militaristic Black Rights

44 COMPARATIVE RACISM U.S. STRUCTURE SA CIVIL RIGHTS Slavery Puritan values Heroes of the Revolution MLK Malcolm X Desegregation, Affirmative Action APARTHEID Slavery & Annihilation ColonialismRacial Capitalism Heroes of the Revolution Nelson Mandela Steve Biko Walter Sisulu Oliver Tambo TRC and Restitution

45 THE COUNTDOWN TO DEMOCRACY 1960s 1970s 1980s

46 SOUTH AFRICA THE APARTHEID STATE 1961 HF VERWOERD PM REPSONSIBLE FOR MUCH APARTHEID LEGISLATION 1966 BJ VORTER PM SEGREGATION SEVERELY ENFORCED John Vorster VERWOERD

47 APARTHEID OVERT AND COVERT RESISTANCE 1.Political Activism 2.Cultural Activism

48 MASSACRE AT SHARPEVILLE students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.ht mlhttp://www-cs- students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.ht ml

49 SHARPVILLE MASSACRE _day_in_history/this_day_March_21.phphttp://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/this _day_in_history/this_day_March_21.php

50 STATE TERRORISM TERROR IS OFTEN AT ITS BLOODIEST WHEN USED BY DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENTS AGAINST THEIR OWN CITIZENS.

51 REACTIONS TO THE TERRORIST STATE 1961 SOUTH AFRICA IS EXPELLED FROM THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS MANDELASPEAR OF THE NATION 200 ACTS OF SABOTAGE AGAINST PASS OFFICES, GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, AND POWER SUPPLIES 1962 MANDELA ILLEGALLY LEAVES 1. SUPPORT FOR THE ANC 2. TO MILITARY TRAINING MANDELA IMPRISONED FOR 3 YEARS 1963 RIVONIA TREASON TRIAL

52 RIVONIA TRIAL south-africa-in-the-apartheid-erahttp://www.answers.com/topic/history-of- south-africa-in-the-apartheid-era bernstein.com/images/fighting-talk.jpghttp://www.rusty- bernstein.com/images/fighting-talk.jpg Nelson Mandela 1922-

53 ROBBEN ISLAND 2004/12/photogalleries/south_africa_touri sm/photo2.html RAVEL/AFRICA/text_southafrica_robbe n.htm

54 ROBBEN ISLAND 12 km FROM CAPE TOWN A PRISON FOR 400 YEARS TO ISOLATE OPPONENTS OF APARTHEID

55 NELSON MANDELA IN PRISON allery1.htmhttp://africawithin.com/mandela/mandela_g allery1.htm (third row of photos, 4 th to the left of NM behind bars)

56 HARD LABOR ROBBEN ISLAND schule.de/nels16.jpghttp://www.nelson-mandela- schule.de/nels16.jpg

57 SOUTH AFRICA THE APARTHEID STATE 1970s INCREASED GOVERNMENT REPRESSION COLOR BAN ON FREEDOM OF TRAVEL AND WORKBLACK AFRICANS BECOME MORE IMPOVERISHED

58 BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT MID-1960s ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT THAT FILLED THE POLTICAL VOID AFTER 1. THE BANNING OF THE ANC & PAC 2. SHARPEVILLE MASSACRE STEVE BIKO ( ) STUDENT LEADER COMMUNITY LEADER

59 ACTIVITY PRIMARY SOURCES STEVE BIKO COLUMN I WRITE WHAT I LIKE by FRANK TALK Black Souls in White Skins We Blacks Fragmentation of the Black Resistance hive2005/nov05.shtml hive2005/nov05.shtml (at the bottom)

60 SOWETO TOWNSHIP (at the bottom) SOWETO 20 km FROM JOHANNESBURG LARGEST BLACK URBAN COMMUNITY COMPRISING THE BLACK COMMUNITIES OF THE SOUTHWESTERN TOWNSHIPS

61 SOWETO TOWNWHIP news-9.html

62 SOWETO STUDENT MASSACRE 1976 STUDENT RIOT AGAINST GOVERNMENT MANDATE TO TEACH AFRIKAANS LANGUAGE 1,000 DEAD (scroll down to South Africa on the sidebar to your left)

63 THE RESISTANCE BLACK COLLABORATORS TARGETED NEW FORMS OF LOCAL DEMOCRACY FILL THE VOID BLACK POLICEMEN SHOT, STABBED, & HOMES FIREBOMBED BLACK ON BLACK VIOLENCEA POLITICAL ACT CHIEF BUTHULEZI, ZULU LEADER MAJOR COLLABORATIONIST

64 THE ARTS ALPHA BLONDY APARTHEID IS NAZISM LYRICS INCLUDE America, America, America Break the neck of this apartheid This apartheid system is nazism, nazism, nazi This apartheid system is nazism, nazi, them a nazi Nazi war in Europe Today 1985 Declare our own rights in South Africa America, America, America I say break the neck of this apartheid

65 NEO-APARTHEID 1980s

66 PW BOTHA 1978 BECAME PM 1. TRICAMERAL PARLIAMENT 2. REMOVED POST OF PM 3. PROVIDED FOR EXECTIVE STATE PRESIDENT 1984 TRICAMERAL ELECTION DERAILED BY COALITION OF ANTI-APARTHEID GROUPS sweek/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/ /site/new sweek/

67 SOUTH AFRICA IN A STATE OF EMERGENCY RESISTANCE MET WITH BRUTALITY INCREASED DEMANDS FOR 1. CIVIL RIGHTS 2. IMPROVED EDUCATION 3. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE 4. ELIMINATION OF JOB DISCRIMINATION AND PASS LAWS MOUNTING INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS

68 A NEW DAY 1990s

69 FW DE CLERK 1989 FW DE KLERK REPLACES BOTHA 1. DISMANTLES APARTHEID LIFTS BAN ON ANC 3. FREES MANDELA 1990 CHURCHES JOIN IN A COMMON CONFESSION OF SIN 1992 WHITE SOUTH AFRICA VOTES TO END APARTHEID

70 DENNIS BRUTUS POEM FEBRUARY, us.htm (poem is at the bottom)http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barbrut us.htm / (his picture on book of poetry)http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN /

71 1 ST MULTI-RACIAL GENERAL ELECTION 1994 ONE-MAN-ONE-VOTE detail.htm (image of 1994 ballot)http://www.folkart.com/henderson/ballot- detail.htm /photo_journal/94election/html/1.stm (numerous images of 1994 election)http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/africa/04 /photo_journal/94election/html/1.stm SOWETO VOTERS IN LINE ELECTION BALLOT

72 NELSON MANDELA PRESIDENT de/hart.htm (Nelson Mandela with Deputy Presidents Thabo Mbeki – now the current president and FW de Klerk – former president)http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0304/ij de/hart.htm

73 NEW CONSTITUTION POSTAMBLE The adoption of this Constitution lays the secure foundation for the people of South Africa to transcend the divisions and strife of the past,......a need for understanding but not for vengeance, a need for reparation but not for retaliation, a need for ubuntu (the African philosophy of humanism) but not for victimization. In order to advance such reconciliation and reconstruction, amnesty shall be granted

74 TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE THE WAY SOCIETY HEALS AND SEEKS JUSTICE AFTER PERIOD OF WAR OR TYRANNY NEUREMBURG TRIALSRETRIBUTION WORLD TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSIONS 1. MET BEHIND CLOSED DOORS 2. GRANTED BLANKET AMNESTY (Chile & Argentina) 3. GRANTED REPARATIONS (Chile, Sri Lanka) TRUTH AND RECONCILIATIONSOUTH AFRICA, THE NEW MODEL 1. MEETINGS OPEN & TELEVISED & RECORDED 2. AMNESTY CASE BY CASE BASIS

75 SOUTH AFRICAN FLAG (2000) Red for bloodshed Blue of open blue skies Green for the land Black for the black people White for the European people Yellow for the natural resources i.e. Gold The Y symbolizes the merging nationalities - i.e unity

76 TRUTH & RECONCILIATION COMMISSION (TRC) AFRICAN PROVERB: TRUTH IS GOOD, BUT NOT ALL TRUTH IS GOOD TO SAY. THE MORAL QUESTION: IS ALL FAIR IN A JUST WAR THE COMMISSION ANSWERS: HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS REMAIN ABUSES EVEN WHEN THE CAUSE IS JUST THE COMMISSIONS TASKASSESS CRIMES OF THE GOVERNMENT AND THE FREEDOM FIGHTERS

77 TRC HEALING OUR PAST TRC A POLITICAL AGREEMENT 1 ST INDEPENDENT BODY OF POST-APATHEID ERA THREE COMMISSIONS 1. HUMAN RIGHTS 2. AMNESTY 3. REPARATIONS elections/stories/truth/http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/safrican. elections/stories/truth/

78 TRC HUMAN RIGHTS COMISSION ABSENCE OF LEGAL PROCEDURESRULES OF EVIDENCE QUALITY & QUANTITY OF INFORMATION COMPARABLE OR SUPERIOR TO LEGAL PROCEDURES IN A COURTROOM

79 TRC HEARINGS PEOPLE SEEKING CLOSURE htm (top right photo)http://www.irisfilms.org/longnight/ln_prskt. htm

80 TRC HEARINGS AMNESTY IN THE DEATH OF STEVE BIKO? a/content/eastcape.html (bottom right photo of Bikos grave)http://webs.wofford.edu/mandlovenb/SAfric a/content/eastcape.html

81 TRC Demond Tutu Pumla Gobdo-Madikizela htm (2nd row, image on the left)http://www.irisfilms.org/longnight/ln_prskt. htm

82 TRC ADULT NOVEL Gobdo-Madikizela, Pulma, A Human Being Died That Night: A South African Story of Forgiveness 8.stmhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/truth_and_reconciliation/ stm The story of Prime Evil Eugene De Kock One widow said: I was overwhelmed by emotion, & I was nodding, as a way of saying yes, I forgive you. I hope that when he sees our tears, he knows that they are not only tears for out husbands but tears for him as well.

83 THABO MBEKI PRESIDENT 1999-PRESENT (images of him with President GW Bush)

84 THE AFTERMATH DECOLONIZATION POLITICAL MULTI-RACIAL DEMOCRACYRAINBOW NATION BOUNDARIES CULTURAL LANGUAGE EDUCATION HEALTH ECONOMIC


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