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Preface to Dr. White-Oyler’s Presentation on South Africa and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission While classroom teachers are allowed to use the.

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Presentation on theme: "Preface to Dr. White-Oyler’s Presentation on South Africa and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission While classroom teachers are allowed to use the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preface to Dr. White-Oyler’s Presentation on South Africa and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission While classroom teachers are allowed to use the copyrighted images and materials posted on the internet under the “fair use” policy, the Department of Public Instruction must obtain written permission to include the same images in any materials it distributes. Therefore, we have included the hyperlinks to the images that were in this PowerPoint and directions so that you can go “online” and obtain them for your classroom use.

2 Instructions for opening the PowerPoint’s hyperlinks:
Left click on the url address and drag your curser until it highlights the entire address Right click on url select “open hyperlink” scroll to the indicated image Right click on the image and select “copy” Return to the PowerPoint and left click Edit on your Tool Bar Scroll down to “paste” and left click on it Left click on the image to move it within the PowerPoint and right click on it to enlarge or decrease its size, crop it, modify its color or contrast, etc. Consider using Google Image Search to find a replacement image if the link is no longer accessible.

3 RISE OF A DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA
Dr. Dianne White-Oyler Fayetteville State University

4 GEOGRAPHY & ENVIRONMENT INDIGENOUS PEOPLES EUROPEAN MIGRATION
THE BACK STORY GEOGRAPHY & ENVIRONMENT INDIGENOUS PEOPLES EUROPEAN MIGRATION

5 SOUTHERN AFRICA http://www.rocksport.co.za:81/Maps/salargepan.htm
GOOGLE IMAGES:

6 RAIN PATTERNS GOOGLE IMAGES: FAO MAP NAMIBDESERT

7 THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
Rock Art GOOGLE IMAGES: RECONSTRUCTING THE PAST—THE KHOIKHOI The Khoi Khoi arrived in 500 AD, from the north, in search of grazing for their cattle. It is probable that the Khoikhoi were people who migrated from northern Botswana when they arrived they met the san the true first inhabitants of the cape. The Khoikhoi and San are identified as the first inhabitants of the Cape and are considered by many to be one in the same and the word Khoisan is used generally, yet they are very different from one another. The Khoikhoi referred to themselves as "the real people of Khoi-na" to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the San (SoaQua or SonQua), also known as Bushmen. Khoikhoi literally means "men of men" and they were slightly taller than the San. Nomadic herders, the Khoi also owned livestock such as cattle and sheep. They lived in large groups as opposed to the San who lived in smaller groups and were mainly hunter/gatherers. When the Dutch arrived in 1652, the Dutch met Khoikhoi who were dressed, as this man is, with a cow-hide draped over one arm. The ivory arm ring was not just ornamental, but was used to ward off kierie blows when fighting. (Artist Unknown, early 1700's, SA Library) Khoisan today Khoisan Rock Art at Cedarburg SAN TODAY KHOISAN ROCK ART THE KHOIKHOI

8 BANTU MIGRATION (Not functioning on ) GOOGLE IMAGES: ENCARTA Today, close to 100 million people across the southern half of Africa speak related languages, collectively known as Bantu languages. Linguistic evidence shows that the root Bantu language emerged in what is now Nigeria and Cameroon by 2000 bc. By 1000 bc, in a series of migrations, Bantu speakers had spread south to the savanna lands of Angola and east to the Lake Victoria region. Over the next 1500 years they scattered throughout central and southern Africa, interacting with and absorbing indigenous populations as they spread. Bantu Speakers (Not functioning on ) BANTU SPEAKERS IN SOUTH AFRICA BY 500 AD

9 THE XHOSA http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/september/xhosa.html
GOOGLE IMAGES: Xhosa is the southernmost Bantu language in Africa. As a result of contact with the Khoisan speakers, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages. This explains why only the southern Bantu languages have these sounds. Indigenous lifestyle: Xhosa Women:

10 THE ZULU Indigenous Hair Style c. 1970 Warrior
(Not an appropriate site for students, use image #15) (additional searching required) GOOGLE IMAGES: The Zulu are the single largest black ethnic group in South Africa, numbering some 9 million people. Zulu social organization is strongly patriarchal and includes such practices as polygany and the levirate (the compulsory marriage of a widow to the brother of her deceased husband). Zulu Warrior with ostrich-feather head-dress, collar, and skirt Zulu Woman:

11 SOTHO http://africanlanguages.com/northern_sotho/
(woman with gourd on her head) GOOGLE IMAGES: AFRICAN LANGUAGES The Sotho (pronounced "SOO too") or BaSotho are one of South Africa's most independent ethnic groups.  The 2.5 million of these Bantu speakers are located in two main areas: the Northern Sotho are found primarily in South Africa's Limpopo Province, north of Johannesburg.  The Southern Sotho reside in the independent Kingdom of Lesotho (in the Drakensberg Mountains). Images:

12 COASTAL FEATURES CAPE OF GOOD HOPE
My Photo September 1999

13 FIRST CONTACT TABLE BAY FROM TABLE MOUNTAIN
(not functioning on ) TABLE BAY GOOGLE IMAGES: CAPETOWN HERITAGE HISTORY

14 AREIAL VIEW TABLE MOUNTAIN & BAY
GOOGLE IMAGES: GOOGLE IMAGES: MANSFRED TRAVEL PICTURES

15 TIMELINE: EUROPEANS PORTUGUESE DUTCH DUTCH THE GREAT TREK 1835-1840
BARTOLOMIEU DIAZ 1488 DUTCH JAN VAN RIEBEEK 1652 IMMIGRATION OF FRENCH HUGUENOTS (1689) & GERMANS BRITISH (Napoleonic Wars) RETURNED TO DUTCH CONQUEST OF CAPE COLONY 1806; ANNEX NATAL 1843 DUTCH THE GREAT TREK ORANGE FREE STATE—1856 AFRICKANER REPEPUBIC TRANSVAAL—1854 AFRIKANER REPUBLIC MINERAL REVOLUTION 1978 BRITISH ANNEX AFRIKANER REPUBLICS 1877 SOUTH AFRICAN WAR—BOER WAR UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 1910

16 DUTCH EXPANSION INTO THE INTERIOR
No link provided; search for images of Map of European expansion across present day South Africa and for an image of a Voortrekker TREKBOER OR VOORTREKKER

17 THE MINERAL REVOLUTION 1867
1. DUTCH a. DIAMONDS AT KIMBERLY b. GOLD AT WITSWATERSRAND c. BOERS CONTRACT AFRICAN LABOR 2. BRITISH WANT TO CONTROL THE WEALTH 3. CONFLICT: THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR

18 KIMBERLEY 3 images of Kimberly diamond mines
GOOGLE IMAGES: A scene in the Kimberly region of South Africa, illustrating the handling of diamonds, called diamond digging, which is somewhat along the lines of placer gold mining

19 CECIL RHODES ( ) GOOGLE IMAGES:

20 FROM CAPE TO CAIRO POLITICAL CARTOON
GOOGLE IMAGES: POLITICAL CARTOON RHODES AMBITIONS POLITICAL CARTOON

21 THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR (not functioning on ) GOOGLE IMAGES:

22 SOUTH AFRICA WAR 1899-1902 http://www.tokencoins.com/oompaul.htm
GOOGLE IMAGES BOERS 1ST QUEENSLAND MOUNTED (AUSTRALIA)

23 RISE OF THE APARTHEID STATE
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA NATIONALIST PARTY 1948

24 THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
1909 SOUTH AFRICA ACT CREATES A WHITE MINORITY GOVERNMENT—FEDERATION OF 1. TRANSVAAL 2. ORANGE FREE STATE 3. CAPE (COLONY) 4. NATAL INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE BLACK MAJORITY

25 AFRIKANER NATIONALISM 1900-1948
LANGUAGE AFRIKAANS IN THE WESTERN CAPE Unique language origins—Dutch modified by indigenous & outside languages Indigenous development PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES SOUTH AFRICA FLAG ( ) GOOGLE IMAGES: Map: South African Flag from :

26 AFRIKANER NATIONALISM
CULTURE LANGUAGE EDUCATION DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH GOOGLE IMAGES: Dutch Reformed Church:

27 AFRIKANER NATIONALISM
HEROIC HISTORIC PAST 1. Van Riebeek at the Cape 2. Boers, Voortrekkers, South African War GOOGLE IMAGES: Jan Van Riebeek lands at the Cape: Voortrekkers leaving Cape Colony: Trekker departure from the Cape Anglo-Boer War Soldier Anglo-Boer war Van Riebeek the Cape Trekers Leave the Cape

28 APARTHEID AFRIKAANS WORD DEFINITION: APARTNESS OR SEPARATENESS
1ST USE OF THE TERM WAS IN 1917 BY JAN SMUTS WHO BECAME PRIME MINISTER IN 1919 SYSTEM OF SEGREGATION AND INSTITUTIONAL RACISM IN SOUTH AFRICA FROM s

29 APARTHEID

30 UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA & APARTHEID
1911 & MINES & WORKS ACT Color Ban on certain jobs; Salaries for whites higher at all times 1913 & 1936 NATIVES LAND ACTS Land Raid—Allocated 13% of total land to the black majority and 87% to the white minority 1923 NATIVES ACT (URBAN AREAS) Segregation in residential areas of cities—BLACKS HAD TO CARRY SPECIAL PAPERS TO STAY IN THE CITIES 1937 NATIVES LAWS AMENDMENT ACT Pass laws required Blacks to carry identification and authorization to enter white areas.

31 PASSBOOK http://www.un.org/av/photo/subjects/apartheid.htm 3rd image
GOOGLE:

32 CREATION OF THE APARTHEID STATE
VIDEO CLIP FROM A&E Nelson Mandela: Journey to Freedom

33 James Barry Munnik Hertzog 1866 – 1942 Founder of the National Party
APARTHEID LEADER GOOGLE IMAGES: NP/np-history.htm James Barry Munnik Hertzog 1866 – 1942 Founder of the National Party

34 APARTHEID LEGISLATION MANDATED:
1950 POPULATION REGISTRATION ACT Registration by Color Forced all South Africans to register as : White, Bantu (Black), Asian (Indian & Pakistani) or Colored (people of mixed race) 1950 GROUP AREAS ACT Geographic Separation in business and residence 1953 RESERVATION OF SEPARATE AMENITIES ACT Segregation of public areas and transport Buses, Parks, and other Public Places 1953 Bantu Education Act Separate but Not Equal: Enforced Racial Discrimination of schools 1959 PROMOTION OF BANTU SELF-GOVERMENT ACT Black Homelands—THE BANTUSTANS

35 BANTUSTANS GOOGLE IMAGES: ENCARTA

36 JOURNEY TO JO’BURG ACTIVITY
NOVEL: Naidoo, Beverley, Journey to Jo’Burg: A South African Story, Harper Trophy book, (ages 9-12) GOOGLE IMAGES: HARPERTEACHER.COM

37 APARTHEID: THE CONTRAST
GOOGLE IMAGES: COMPUTERS AND THE APARTHEID REGIME IN SOUTH AFRICA www-cs-students.stanford.edu/.../ riot.jpg

38 AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO MINORITY WHITE RULE
One Man’s Freedom Fighter is Another Man’s Terrorist 1912 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE NATIONAL CONGRESS BECOMES THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS—THE ANC STRIKES, BOYCOTTS AND SYMBOLIC ACTS OF DEFINACE 1950s DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN MASS RESISTANCE—PUBLIC DISOBEDIENCE 1955 FREEDOM CHARTER John L. Dube (1871-) 1st President

39 FREEDOM CHARTER 1955 www.sahistory.org.za/
We, the People of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know: that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of all the people; GOOGLE IMAGES: THE FREEDOM CHARTER june26/01_history.htm

40 1950s ANC DEFINACE CAMPAIGN
GOOGLE IMAGES:

41 AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO MINORITY WHITE RULE
1959 PAN AFRICANIST CONGRESS (of Azania) PAC split from the ANC because it objected to the ANC's non-racial policies & took a bolder approach based more on mass action. Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe ( ) 1st President Image of Pan Africanist Congress of Azania overtop the continent of Africa

42 CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT THE US
ACTIVITY COMPARE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT THE US WITH BLACK RIGHTS MOVEMENT SOUTH AFRICA

43 COMPARATIVE RACISM U.S. HISTORY SA
CIVIL RIGHTS st Blacks to US US Rev. Civil War Ends Slavery Jim Crow Laws Civil Rights Movement APARTHEID 500AD Bantu migration—black Africans st imported 1st slaves Boer War Legal Apartheid Militaristic Black Rights

44 COMPARATIVE RACISM U.S. STRUCTURE SA
CIVIL RIGHTS Slavery Puritan values Heroes of the Revolution MLK Malcolm X Desegregation, Affirmative Action APARTHEID Slavery & Annihilation Colonialism—Racial Capitalism Heroes of the Revolution Nelson Mandela Steve Biko Walter Sisulu Oliver Tambo TRC and Restitution

45 THE COUNTDOWN TO DEMOCRACY
1960s 1970s 1980s

46 SOUTH AFRICA THE APARTHEID STATE
1961 HF VERWOERD PM REPSONSIBLE FOR MUCH APARTHEID LEGISLATION 1966 BJ VORTER PM SEGREGATION SEVERELY ENFORCED John Vorster VERWOERD GOOGLE IMAGES: Verwoerd: web%20-%20xhos... John Vorster: images/vorster.jpg

47 OVERT AND COVERT RESISTANCE Political Activism Cultural Activism
APARTHEID OVERT AND COVERT RESISTANCE Political Activism Cultural Activism

48 MASSACRE AT SHARPEVILLE 1960
GOOGLE IMAGES: COMPUTERS AND THE REGIME IN SOUTH AFRICA www-cs-students.stanford.edu/.../ riot.jpg

49 SHARPVILLE MASSACRE GOOGLE IMAGES:

50 STATE TERRORISM TERROR IS OFTEN AT ITS BLOODIEST WHEN USED BY DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENTS AGAINST THEIR OWN CITIZENS.

51 REACTIONS TO THE TERRORIST STATE
1961 SOUTH AFRICA IS EXPELLED FROM THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS MANDELA—”SPEAR OF THE NATION”— ACTS OF SABOTAGE AGAINST PASS OFFICES, GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, AND POWER SUPPLIES 1962 MANDELA ILLEGALLY LEAVES 1. SUPPORT FOR THE ANC 2. TO MILITARY TRAINING. 1962 MANDELA IMPRISONED FOR 3 YEARS 1963 RIVONIA TREASON TRIAL

52 RIVONIA TRIAL 1964 GOOGLE IMAGE: HEAD SHOT: 20thcentury/1990-nelson-.jpg Nelson Mandela

53 ROBBEN ISLAND GOOGLE IMAGES: ROBBEN ISLAND TOURS, CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA

54 ROBBEN ISLAND 12 km FROM CAPE TOWN A PRISON FOR 400 YEARS TO ISOLATE
OPPONENTS OF APARTHEID GOOGLE IMAGES:

55 NELSON MANDELA IN PRISON
(third row of photos, 4th to the left of NM behind bars) GOOGLE IMAGES: NELSON MANDELA PHOTO GALLERY mandela/mandela_gallery1.htm

56 HARD LABOR ROBBEN ISLAND
GOOGLE IMAGES: nels16.jpg

57 SOUTH AFRICA THE APARTHEID STATE
1970s INCREASED GOVERNMENT REPRESSION COLOR BAN ON FREEDOM OF TRAVEL AND WORK—BLACK AFRICANS BECOME MORE IMPOVERISHED

58 BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT
MID-1960s ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT THAT FILLED THE POLTICAL VOID AFTER 1. THE BANNING OF THE ANC & PAC 2. SHARPEVILLE MASSACRE STEVE BIKO ( ) STUDENT LEADER COMMUNITY LEADER GOOGLE IMAGES: people/biko.jpg

59 ACTIVITY PRIMARY SOURCES
STEVE BIKO COLUMN “I WRITE WHAT I LIKE” by FRANK TALK “Black Souls in White Skins” “We Blacks” “Fragmentation of the Black Resistance” (at the bottom) GOOGLE IMAGES: Images/Biko.gif

60 SOWETO TOWNSHIP (at the bottom) http://www.monolith.com.au/soweto/
SOWETO 20 km FROM JOHANNESBURG LARGEST BLACK URBAN COMMUNITY COMPRISING THE BLACK COMMUNITIES OF THE SOUTHWESTERN TOWNSHIPS GOOGLE IMAGES: POSTCARD FROM SOWETO soweto/map.gif

61 SOWETO TOWNWHIP GOOGLE IMAGES: ../soweto_view.jpg

62 SOWETO STUDENT MASSACRE 1976
STUDENT RIOT AGAINST GOVERNMENT MANDATE TO TEACH AFRIKAANS LANGUAGE 1,000 DEAD (scroll down to South Africa on the sidebar to your left) GOOGLE IMAGES: THE REVOLUTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: AN ANALYSIS SouthAfrica/soweto.jpg

63 THE RESISTANCE BLACK COLLABORATORS TARGETED
NEW FORMS OF LOCAL DEMOCRACY FILL THE VOID BLACK POLICEMEN SHOT, STABBED, & HOMES FIREBOMBED BLACK ON BLACK VIOLENCE—A POLITICAL ACT CHIEF BUTHULEZI, ZULU LEADER MAJOR COLLABORATIONIST

64 THE ARTS America, America, America Break the neck of this apartheid
ALPHA BLONDY “APARTHEID IS NAZISM” LYRICS INCLUDE America, America, America Break the neck of this apartheid This apartheid system is nazism, nazism, nazi This apartheid system is nazism, nazi, them a nazi Nazi war in Europe Today 1985 Declare our own rights in South Africa America, America, America I say break the neck of this apartheid

65 NEO-APARTHEID 1980s Alpha Blondy, The Best of Alpha Blondy 1990 Shanachie Records Corp Track #5

66 PW BOTHA http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10562528/site/newsweek/
1978 BECAME PM 1. TRICAMERAL PARLIAMENT 2. REMOVED POST OF PM 3. PROVIDED FOR EXECTIVE STATE PRESIDENT 1984 TRICAMERAL ELECTION DERAILED BY COALITION OF ANTI-APARTHEID GROUPS GOOGLE IMAGES: MSNBC msnbcmedia.msn.com/ j/msnbc/Sections/Newsweek/...

67 SOUTH AFRICA IN A STATE OF EMERGENCY
RESISTANCE MET WITH BRUTALITY INCREASED DEMANDS FOR 1. CIVIL RIGHTS 2. IMPROVED EDUCATION 3. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE 4. ELIMINATION OF JOB DISCRIMINATION AND PASS LAWS MOUNTING INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS

68 A NEW DAY 1990’s

69 FW DE CLERK 1989 FW DE KLERK REPLACES BOTHA 1. DISMANTLES APARTHEID
LIFTS BAN ON ANC 3. FREES MANDELA 1990 CHURCHES JOIN IN A COMMON CONFESSION OF SIN 1992 WHITE SOUTH AFRICA VOTES TO END APARTHEID

70 DENNIS BRUTUS POEM “FEBRUARY, 1990”
(poem is at the bottom) (his picture on book of poetry) International Quarterly Volume 1, number 3 Page 17

71 1ST MULTI-RACIAL GENERAL ELECTION 1994
ONE-MAN-ONE-VOTE (image of 1994 ballot) (numerous images of 1994 election) GOOGLE IMAGES: SOWETO VOTERS IN LINE ELECTION BALLOT

72 NELSON MANDELA PRESIDENT1994-1999
(Nelson Mandela with Deputy Presidents Thabo Mbeki – now the current president and FW de Klerk – former president) GOOGLE IMAGES: images/4237n047.jpg

73 NEW CONSTITUTION POSTAMBLE
The adoption of this Constitution lays the secure foundation for the people of South Africa to transcend the divisions and strife of the past, a need for understanding but not for vengeance, a need for reparation but not for retaliation, a need for ubuntu (the African philosophy of humanism) but not for victimization. In order to advance such reconciliation and reconstruction, amnesty shall be granted

74 TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE THE WAY SOCIETY HEALS AND SEEKS JUSTICE AFTER PERIOD OF WAR OR TYRANNY NEUREMBURG TRIALS—RETRIBUTION WORLD TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSIONS 1. MET BEHIND CLOSED DOORS 2. GRANTED BLANKET AMNESTY (Chile & Argentina) 3. GRANTED REPARATIONS (Chile, Sri Lanka) TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION—SOUTH AFRICA, THE NEW MODEL 1. MEETINGS OPEN & TELEVISED & RECORDED 2. AMNESTY CASE BY CASE BASIS

75 SOUTH AFRICAN FLAG (2000) Red for bloodshed Blue of open blue skies Green for the land Black for the black people White for the European people Yellow for the natural resources i.e. Gold The Y symbolizes the merging nationalities - i.e unity Image of South African flag

76 TRUTH & RECONCILIATION COMMISSION (TRC)
AFRICAN PROVERB: “TRUTH IS GOOD, BUT NOT ALL TRUTH IS GOOD TO SAY.” THE MORAL QUESTION: IS ALL FAIR IN A JUST WAR THE COMMISSION ANSWERS: HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS REMAIN ABUSES EVEN WHEN THE CAUSE IS JUST THE COMMISSION’S TASK—ASSESS CRIMES OF THE GOVERNMENT AND THE FREEDOM FIGHTERS

77 TRC “HEALING OUR PAST” TRC A POLITICAL AGREEMENT 1ST INDEPENDENT BODY OF POST-APATHEID ERA THREE COMMISSIONS 1. HUMAN RIGHTS 2. AMNESTY 3. REPARATIONS Image of televised Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearing

78 TRC HUMAN RIGHTS COMISSION
ABSENCE OF LEGAL PROCEDURES—RULES OF EVIDENCE QUALITY & QUANTITY OF INFORMATION COMPARABLE OR SUPERIOR TO LEGAL PROCEDURES IN A COURTROOM Image of TRC hearing

79 TRC HEARINGS PEOPLE SEEKING CLOSURE
(top right photo) Image of TRC hearing

80 TRC HEARINGS AMNESTY IN THE DEATH OF STEVE BIKO?
(bottom right photo of Biko’s grave)

81 TRC Demond Tutu Pumla Gobdo-Madikizela
(2nd row, image on the left) Image of these two TRC members together

82 TRC ADULT NOVEL Gobdo-Madikizela, Pulma, A Human Being Died That Night: A South African Story of Forgiveness The story of “Prime Evil” Eugene De Kock One widow said: “I was overwhelmed by emotion, & I was nodding, as a way of saying yes, I forgive you I hope that when he sees our tears, he knows that they are not only tears for out husbands but tears for him as well.” GOOGLE IMAGES: BBC News “The Voice of ‘Prime Evil’” Quotation page 14 In the South African media, Eugene De Kock has been described as a mass killer, a psychopath known to the public as "Prime Evil". And in the post-apartheid era of truth and reconciliation he has also become something of a hero, a man of integrity in a community of denial. De Kock is one of the foul fruits grown from the tree of apartheid. When he admitted to his crimes in front of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission he was applauded by a black audience. They were commending him for his honesty, and his willingness to identify senior politicians on whose orders he carried out his dirty work. Image of Eugene De Kock

83 THABO MBEKI PRESIDENT 1999-PRESENT
(images of him with President GW Bush) GOOGLE IMAGES: ../images/mbeki.jpg

84 THE AFTERMATH DECOLONIZATION
POLITICAL MULTI-RACIAL DEMOCRACY—”RAINBOW NATION” BOUNDARIES CULTURAL LANGUAGE EDUCATION HEALTH ECONOMIC


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