2Evidence-Based Interventions Manual East Carolina University (Fall 2007)T. Chris Riley-TillmanChristy WalcottHolly BeamonJacqueline CarriggBrynn GrechSummer RickettsAnastasia ScheemakerKathryn Weegar
3Today we will discuss:The definition of research-based interventions and where to find themThe importance of understanding the function of a student’s challenging behavior5 common reasons for behavioral challengesHow to choose an intervention that will successfully link to:the function of a student’s challenging behaviorthe reason for a student’s challenging behavior
4Tertiary Prevention & Intervention Individualized, intensive servicesDesigned to meet individual student needsFocus on teaching replacement behaviorAccomplished through individual data collection, FBA, BIP
5Secondary Prevention Small group social skills instruction & support MentoringMore structured support for academic and behavior successInstruction in monitoring and re-directing own behavior
6School Improvement Academic Behavior Whole School Effective Classroom Targeted Group InterventionsSmall group instructionFocused academic helpsessionsIntensive, Individual InterventionsTutoringAcademic Remediation PlansSpecially Designed InstructionFunctional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention PlanningSocial Skills instructionReinforcement of specific skillsGroup Behavioral StrategiesClassroom CoachingUniversal InterventionsSchool-wide rules andproceduresSystematic reinforcementSocial Skills InstructionCulturally responsive practicesData-based decision-makingParent & Community PartnershipsEffective instructionalpracticesRecognition of academicachievementCulturally responsive practicesAcademicBehaviorWhole SchoolEffectiveSchoolOrganizationPositive SchoolClimateEffective StaffDevelopmentData BasedDecisionMakingCulturallyResponsivePracticesParent andCommunityPartnershipsInstructionalClassroomPositiveManagementInstructionUniversalDesign/DifferentiatedOngoingScreening andAssessmentClassroom Coachingand ConsultationStruggling StudentsProgressMonitoringBehavioralGroup StrategiesMental HealthAssistanceFocusedResearch-basedAcademic InstructionIndividualsFBA/BIPMentalHealth ServicesConsider-ation forEligibilityECSpeciallyDesignedBehaviorInterventionsRelatedServices
7What does “Research Based” mean? Scientifically-based Research (from RtI Manual Glossary)Education related research that meets the following criteria:Analyzes and presents the impact of effective teaching on achievement of studentsIncludes large numbers of students in the studyIncludes study and control groupsApplies a rigorous peer review processIncludes replication studies to validate results
8Where do you find research based interventions? Scholarly journalsInternet resourcesBooksKey features to look for:Usually challenging to read (sometimes boring)Often filled with jargon (technical terminology)Must have results of some form of data analysisTypically look for repeated analysisPick “big name” journals representing large fields (ex. School Psych. Quarterly, Exceptional Children & Behavioral Disorders)
9Selecting Interventions How do we know what to do when a student is experiencing social behavior failure?
10Behavior is purposeful Behavior is learned Behavior is predictable The BasicsBehavior is purposefulBehavior is learnedBehavior is predictableBehavior is interactiveBehavior CAN be taught!The BasicsEvery time we interact with a student we teach him/her something about how the world works.When we are creating a new plan, we must figure out what the student knows about how the world works.Kids figure out very early in life that if X happens, it is likely Y will occur.
11Function … People behave for a reason - we call this “function” Does he/she get something?Tangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc.Does he/she avoid or escape something?People, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc.
13Why look at the function? Behavior communicates needNeed is determined by observing what happens prior to and immediately after behaviorThe Basics (continued)Kids engage in behavior for two reasons: to get what they want or avoid what they don’t want.Their behavior is based on their learning history. The behavior has worked in the past.Remember, there is no universal reinforcing or aversive stimulus. What we may find aversive, many find reinforcing, thereby inadvertently reinforcing inappropriate behavior.This is why we MUST observe what happens prior to and immediately after the inappropriate behavior.
14ABC Analysis Antecedent: Behavior: Consequence: What happens immediately before a behavior or the environmental context of the behavior?Behavior:The actions of the studentConsequence:What happens immediately after the behavior?
15Remember …It is not possible to determine function of a student’s challenging behavior simply by describing the behaviorIt is necessary to understand antecedent/context and consequencesIt is probably more efficient for the student to engage in the problem behavior
16“A problem incorrectly defined leads us to solutions that may not effect change.”
17Choosing an Intervention Connect the FUNCTION with the interventionAsk: Will this intervention meet the functional need?Ex. If the function of the behavior is to access adult attention:Intervention should prevent access to adult attention for inappropriate behaviors.Intervention should provide access to adult attention for appropriate behaviors.
18Function of challenging behavior versus Reasons for challenging behavior Function = why the student is engaging in the behaviorReasons = antecedents, context, triggers, precipitating factors
195 common REASONS students misbehave Doesn’t know the right skillAppropriate behavior is ignoredInappropriate behavior gets attentionDoesn’t have to do something when the problem behavior is presentRequested activity is too hard (or punishing)
20Solution: Teach the appropriate behavior The student has not learned a more appropriate behavior that provides the same consequence.It is often assumed that at some level, student “knows” how to behave but simply chooses to misbehave. This assumption must be tested!Solution: Teach the appropriate behaviorInterventions:Help SignalDirect Instruction
21Help Signal Student selects a signal Have alternate work folder available to engage student while waiting for responseMeet with student/group to explain signal and usagePractice, answer questionsPrompt as necessary
22Direct Instruction Define skill with guided discussion Model correct applicationModel incorrect applicationReviewModel 2nd exampleModel a range of examples (hypothetical)Model (if needed)Role playGain agreement of student to try the skill
23More appropriate behaviors are ignored. Ignored behaviors will cease over timeSolution: Systematically reward appropriate behaviorInterventions:Catch’emRandom Positive Teacher Attention
24Catch ‘em Establish a list of good behaviors Model/review good behaviors to be rewardedSelect daily behavior to emphasize and reward each student as desiredCreate specific goals for students with problem behaviorsProvide tokens that are redeemable for rewardsAllow students to redeem tokens during specified time
25Random Positive Teacher Attention Select method of positive attentionSet frequency of positive attention per classSelect time and settings to give attentionBegin intervention
26The student gets reinforced for exhibiting the problem behavior. This is always the case. The problem behavior is “working” for the child in some manner.Solution: Minimize reinforcement for problematic behavior while reinforcing appropriate behaviorInterventions:“Critters”Red Light- Green Light
27Critters Define expectations Decide on privileges Introduce critter slipsDaily, select behavioral expectation from listDuring specified time interval hand out slipsReward behavior each time it is seen during specific time intervalAllow students to redeem slips
28Red light/Green light Select time of day for implementation Post classroom rules and explainExplain you will be observing and rating students using stoplightRate behavior every 20 – 30 minutes or at the end of an activityExplain rating to classIf class is on green at end of rating period, reward
29Often called an escape behavior The student doesn’t have to do something when they exhibit the problem behavior.Often called an escape behaviorA student misbehaves so they don’t have to do (or escapes from) some task demand (academic activity)Solution: Remove the “escape” and increase the reinforcing value of the task demandInterventions:Choice MakingModified Curriculum or Instruction
30Choice MakingExplain choices students have during frustrated situationsComplete portion of taskRequest a breakEngage in problem behaviorStudent selects and rates rewards from teacher-approved listDifferential ReinforcementReward student for gradually spending more time at the undesirable task
31Modified Curriculum or Instruction Adjust specific content of lessons to match student interest, ORModify task demands to increase student’s ability to successfully complete assignment
32Requested activity is too hard Often an academic request that is to hard will lead to a behavior problem.Solution: Lower the task difficultyConsider the instructional hierarchyAcquisition level – FrustrationUnder 85% correct response and slowInstructional levelUnder 95% correct response and fastMastery level – AutomaticOver 95% correct response and VERY FASTInterventions:Say, Show, CheckPaired Reading
34Paired Reading Students sits in quiet location Both students should be able to follow the text selected for the reading sessionThe less accomplished reader reads aloudIf a word is mispronounced the accomplished reader points to the word and pronounces itThe less accomplished reader repeats the word
35Where to find more interventions? In the classroom (Riley-Tillman and Chafouleas, 2003)Certain treatments are more effectiveCertain treatments are more relevantTreatment integrity is keyInterventions need to be tailoredInterventions are more variable that effectiveTexts such a Rathvon’s Effective SchoolInterventions
36Where to More Find Interventions (Wright 2007) Web resources for evidence-based intervention strategiesBig Ideas in Beginning Reading (U of Oregon):What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept of Education):Intervention Central:Aimsweb
37All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth.Aristotle