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1 Research-Based Behavioral Interventions presented by
Cayce McCamish, Regional PBIS Coordinator Dana Rusher, Regional Behavior Consultant

2 Evidence-Based Interventions Manual
East Carolina University (Fall 2007) T. Chris Riley-Tillman Christy Walcott Holly Beamon Jacqueline Carrigg Brynn Grech Summer Ricketts Anastasia Scheemaker Kathryn Weegar

3 Today we will discuss: The definition of research-based interventions and where to find them The importance of understanding the function of a student’s challenging behavior 5 common reasons for behavioral challenges How to choose an intervention that will successfully link to: the function of a student’s challenging behavior the reason for a student’s challenging behavior

4 Tertiary Prevention & Intervention
Individualized, intensive services Designed to meet individual student needs Focus on teaching replacement behavior Accomplished through individual data collection, FBA, BIP

5 Secondary Prevention Small group social skills instruction & support
Mentoring More structured support for academic and behavior success Instruction in monitoring and re-directing own behavior

6 School Improvement Academic Behavior Whole School Effective Classroom
Targeted Group Interventions Small group instruction Focused academic help sessions Intensive, Individual Interventions Tutoring Academic Remediation Plans Specially Designed Instruction Functional Behavior Assessment & Behavior Intervention Planning Social Skills instruction Reinforcement of specific skills Group Behavioral Strategies Classroom Coaching Universal Interventions School-wide rules and procedures Systematic reinforcement Social Skills Instruction Culturally responsive practices Data-based decision-making Parent & Community Partnerships Effective instructional practices Recognition of academic achievement Culturally responsive practices Academic Behavior Whole School Effective School Organization Positive School Climate Effective Staff Development Data Based Decision Making Culturally Responsive Practices Parent and Community Partnerships Instructional Classroom Positive Management Instruction Universal Design/ Differentiated Ongoing Screening and Assessment Classroom Coaching and Consultation Struggling Students Progress Monitoring Behavioral Group Strategies Mental Health Assistance Focused Research-based Academic Instruction Individuals FBA/BIP Mental Health Services Consider- ation for Eligibility EC Specially Designed Behavior Interventions Related Services

7 What does “Research Based” mean?
Scientifically-based Research (from RtI Manual Glossary) Education related research that meets the following criteria: Analyzes and presents the impact of effective teaching on achievement of students Includes large numbers of students in the study Includes study and control groups Applies a rigorous peer review process Includes replication studies to validate results

8 Where do you find research based interventions?
Scholarly journals Internet resources Books Key features to look for: Usually challenging to read (sometimes boring) Often filled with jargon (technical terminology) Must have results of some form of data analysis Typically look for repeated analysis Pick “big name” journals representing large fields (ex. School Psych. Quarterly, Exceptional Children & Behavioral Disorders)

9 Selecting Interventions
How do we know what to do when a student is experiencing social behavior failure?

10 Behavior is purposeful Behavior is learned Behavior is predictable
The Basics Behavior is purposeful Behavior is learned Behavior is predictable Behavior is interactive Behavior CAN be taught! The Basics Every time we interact with a student we teach him/her something about how the world works. When we are creating a new plan, we must figure out what the student knows about how the world works. Kids figure out very early in life that if X happens, it is likely Y will occur.

11 Function … People behave for a reason - we call this “function”
Does he/she get something? Tangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc. Does he/she avoid or escape something? People, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc.

12 Existing aversive condition identified
Only 2 Basic Functions Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Existing aversive condition identified

13 Why look at the function?
Behavior communicates need Need is determined by observing what happens prior to and immediately after behavior The Basics (continued) Kids engage in behavior for two reasons: to get what they want or avoid what they don’t want. Their behavior is based on their learning history. The behavior has worked in the past. Remember, there is no universal reinforcing or aversive stimulus. What we may find aversive, many find reinforcing, thereby inadvertently reinforcing inappropriate behavior. This is why we MUST observe what happens prior to and immediately after the inappropriate behavior.

14 ABC Analysis Antecedent: Behavior: Consequence:
What happens immediately before a behavior or the environmental context of the behavior? Behavior: The actions of the student Consequence: What happens immediately after the behavior?

15 Remember … It is not possible to determine function of a student’s challenging behavior simply by describing the behavior It is necessary to understand antecedent/context and consequences It is probably more efficient for the student to engage in the problem behavior

16 “A problem incorrectly defined leads us to solutions that may not effect change.”

17 Choosing an Intervention
Connect the FUNCTION with the intervention Ask: Will this intervention meet the functional need? Ex. If the function of the behavior is to access adult attention: Intervention should prevent access to adult attention for inappropriate behaviors. Intervention should provide access to adult attention for appropriate behaviors.

18 Function of challenging behavior versus Reasons for challenging behavior
Function = why the student is engaging in the behavior Reasons = antecedents, context, triggers, precipitating factors

19 5 common REASONS students misbehave
Doesn’t know the right skill Appropriate behavior is ignored Inappropriate behavior gets attention Doesn’t have to do something when the problem behavior is present Requested activity is too hard (or punishing)

20 Solution: Teach the appropriate behavior
The student has not learned a more appropriate behavior that provides the same consequence. It is often assumed that at some level, student “knows” how to behave but simply chooses to misbehave. This assumption must be tested! Solution: Teach the appropriate behavior Interventions: Help Signal Direct Instruction

21 Help Signal Student selects a signal
Have alternate work folder available to engage student while waiting for response Meet with student/group to explain signal and usage Practice, answer questions Prompt as necessary

22 Direct Instruction Define skill with guided discussion
Model correct application Model incorrect application Review Model 2nd example Model a range of examples (hypothetical) Model (if needed) Role play Gain agreement of student to try the skill

23 More appropriate behaviors are ignored.
Ignored behaviors will cease over time Solution: Systematically reward appropriate behavior Interventions: Catch’em Random Positive Teacher Attention

24 Catch ‘em Establish a list of good behaviors
Model/review good behaviors to be rewarded Select daily behavior to emphasize and reward each student as desired Create specific goals for students with problem behaviors Provide tokens that are redeemable for rewards Allow students to redeem tokens during specified time

25 Random Positive Teacher Attention
Select method of positive attention Set frequency of positive attention per class Select time and settings to give attention Begin intervention

26 The student gets reinforced for exhibiting the problem behavior.
This is always the case. The problem behavior is “working” for the child in some manner. Solution: Minimize reinforcement for problematic behavior while reinforcing appropriate behavior Interventions: “Critters” Red Light- Green Light

27 Critters Define expectations Decide on privileges
Introduce critter slips Daily, select behavioral expectation from list During specified time interval hand out slips Reward behavior each time it is seen during specific time interval Allow students to redeem slips

28 Red light/Green light Select time of day for implementation
Post classroom rules and explain Explain you will be observing and rating students using stoplight Rate behavior every 20 – 30 minutes or at the end of an activity Explain rating to class If class is on green at end of rating period, reward

29 Often called an escape behavior
The student doesn’t have to do something when they exhibit the problem behavior. Often called an escape behavior A student misbehaves so they don’t have to do (or escapes from) some task demand (academic activity) Solution: Remove the “escape” and increase the reinforcing value of the task demand Interventions: Choice Making Modified Curriculum or Instruction

30 Choice Making Explain choices students have during frustrated situations Complete portion of task Request a break Engage in problem behavior Student selects and rates rewards from teacher-approved list Differential Reinforcement Reward student for gradually spending more time at the undesirable task

31 Modified Curriculum or Instruction
Adjust specific content of lessons to match student interest, OR Modify task demands to increase student’s ability to successfully complete assignment

32 Requested activity is too hard
Often an academic request that is to hard will lead to a behavior problem. Solution: Lower the task difficulty Consider the instructional hierarchy Acquisition level – Frustration Under 85% correct response and slow Instructional level Under 95% correct response and fast Mastery level – Automatic Over 95% correct response and VERY FAST Interventions: Say, Show, Check Paired Reading

33 Say, Show, Check

34 Paired Reading Students sits in quiet location
Both students should be able to follow the text selected for the reading session The less accomplished reader reads aloud If a word is mispronounced the accomplished reader points to the word and pronounces it The less accomplished reader repeats the word

35 Where to find more interventions?
In the classroom (Riley-Tillman and Chafouleas, 2003) Certain treatments are more effective Certain treatments are more relevant Treatment integrity is key Interventions need to be tailored Interventions are more variable that effective Texts such a Rathvon’s Effective School Interventions

36 Where to More Find Interventions (Wright 2007)
Web resources for evidence-based intervention strategies Big Ideas in Beginning Reading (U of Oregon): What Works Clearinghouse (US Dept of Education): Intervention Central: Aimsweb

37 All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth. Aristotle


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