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Direct Behavior Ratings and Daily Behavior Cards

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1 Direct Behavior Ratings and Daily Behavior Cards
Amy Jablonski, A.T. Allen Elementary School Assistant Principal for Instruction Leah Mills, Second Grade Teacher


3 Direct Behavior Rating and Daily Behavior Cards
Objectives What is a Direct Behavior Rating? Why use Direct Behavior Ratings? How can Direct Behavior Ratings be used with PBIS and RtI? Explore the effectiveness of whole school Daily Behavior Card. School site example of Daily Behavior Cards

4 Direct Behavior Ratings
Definition: Assessment tool that combines characteristics of systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales. SDO- method of behavioral assessment that requires a trained observer to identify and operationally define a behavior of interest, use a system of observation in a specific time and place, and then score and summarize the data in a consistent manner (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 2004; Riley-Tillman, Kalaber, Chafouleas, 2006) Rate 1 target behavior (ex: degree to which a student is engaged in activity) Use a scale to rate the degree to which that behavior was displayed during specified time Target for short amount of time

5 Direct Behavior Ratings: Background
CURRENT/TRADITIONAL Most behavioral data has been collected from office referrals Not able to capture all behaviors Not sensitive to individual student needs Compiled after long a set period of time (month, semester, year) Formative data has been used to progress monitor academics (curriculum based measurements) DBRs Rating target on a behavior scale for one behavior (ex: off task behavior during class) DBRs are designed to be used formatively and for specific amount of time

6 Example Standard DBR 6

7 Direct Behavior Ratings: Overall Purpose
Used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention Document student progress Communication within the school Home-school consistency and communication

8 Direct Behavior Ratings: Characteristics
DBRs are designed to be used formatively (repeated) and for specific amount of time (3 weeks) and rates a specific behavior Specified behavior Data is shared with team members Card serves as progress monitoring tool for effectiveness of intervention Flexibility to design actual rating and procedures based on student need (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002)

9 DBRs Must Have… Behavior must be operationally defined
Observations conducted using standard procedures Used at predetermined specific time, place, and frequency Data must be scored and summarized in consistent matter When put together equals a ‘systematic’ DBR

10 When to use… When should you use DBRs? Guiding questions:
Why do you need the data? Which tools are the best match to assess the behavior of interest? What decisions will be made using the data? What resources are available to collect the data? When multiple data are needed on the same student(s) and/or behavior(s)

11 When to use… Limited resources Low-priority situations
Educators are willing to use Answering the following questions “Is a class-wide intervention effective for changing a particular student’s problematic behavior?” ‘Does a child continue to display a behavior when this intervention is put in place?” Frequent data is needed


13 Guiding Questions for Creating a DBR
What is the target behavior and goal? Focus on specific behavior What is the focus of the rating? Individual, small-group, or class-wide What is the period of rating? Specific school period, daily or other What is the setting of observation? Classroom or other location

14 Guiding Questions for Creating a DBR
How often will data be collected? Multiple times a day, daily, weekly What is the scale for rating that will be used? Checklist, Likert-type scale, continuous line Who will be conducting the rating? Classroom teacher, aide, or other educational professional Will ratings be tied to consequences? Consequences must be consistently delivered by person responsible

15 Points to consider when creating DBRs…

16 Designing the Card: What and Who
Define the target behavior and who is the focus of the rating Increase positive behaviors Decrease negative behaviors Individual student/small group

17 Designing the Card: Scale
Decide what scale will be used Maturity of the individual being rated Smiley faces Likert-type scale Recommended to use 1-10 vs 1-5 Continuous line Check list

18 Direct Behavior Ratings
Example of rating scales 1-10 (1 being no behavior observed) Faces (happy, neutral, sad) Continuous line Check mark Must be ‘rater friendly’ and easy to implement across all settings

19 Options for DBR Scales

20 Designing the Card: When, Where, and How Often
Frequency of collection Specific period of time Entire day Record immediately Frequency of summary Daily Weekly Location Where behavior is noticed

21 Designing the Card: Who Will Conduct Rating
Classroom teacher or adult with student most of the day Word of caution: Profiling the attributes of a student Increased efficiency Willingness to rate Same rater avoids inconsistencies Chafouleas, Christ, et al., 2007; Chafouleaus, Riley-Tillman, et al., 2007

22 Designing the Card: Who Will Conduct Rating
Caution: DBR data is the rater’s perception of student behavior H. Walker has found: “Teachers universally endorse a similar profile of attributes, yet differ significantly in their tolerance levels for deviant behavior.”

23 Designing the Card: Who Will Conduct Rating
Student Self-Monitoring Intervention for teaching behavior Effective for a variety students Success Teaching to accuracy Initially compare Positively reinforce

24 Designing the Card: Will there be consequences?
Will consequence be involved with DBR Individual basis Positive reinforcements Communication between school and home Consequences at home as result of ratings on DBR Same language/same expectation

25 After Implementation Fidelity Periodically check in with rater
Does rater compete the DBR as specified? Completed at right time of day? Periodically check in with rater Integrity checklist If fidelity is an issue Discussion with feedback Modify plan Review acceptability of DBR with rater

26 Matching Data Does the DBR data correspond with other sources?
Situation: Teacher’s perception of student’s behavior and the student’s behavior do not correspond. Hypothesis 1. The student (or teacher) behaves differently when school psychologist is present 2. Teachers is measuring something different than target data 3. Teacher does not perceive a positive effect that the intervention has Solution: dialogued and discussion

27 Summarizing Data Summarize relevant to the scale being used
Averages per week High or low ratings Bar chart Line graph



30 Strengths of DBRs

31 High Flexibility Preschool through high school Wide range of behaviors
Individual or large group Effective to monitor ‘hard to notice’ behaviors Outbursts and obvious behaviors easily noticed in short observation

32 High Feasibility, Acceptable, Familiar
Teachers are accepting of DBR as tool and intervention School psychologists accept DBR as intervention monitoring tool Familiar language for teachers Becomes part of daily routine

33 Progress Monitoring Constructed in a way to be connected to behavioral expectations Administered quickly Available in multiple forms Inexpensive Completed directly following specific rating time Set goals and progress monitor Increase communication between home and school

34 Reduced Risk of Reactivity
Reactivity effect: teacher and students will behave in atypical ways Research findings Increase the rate of prompt or positive feedback to the target student (Hey, Nelson, & Hay, 1977, 1980) Behavior can be documented entire day One observer interrupts classroom space

35 Weaknesses of DBRs

36 Rater Influence Influence of raters not fully understood
May be less accurate estimate of student’s actual behavior during rating period History with student Sattler (2002) Research: Low reliability Scale issues Time delay between observation and recording

37 Limited Response Format
Less sensitivity to change compared to systematic direct observation Same score given to student not displaying the behavior and student displaying behavior at a low frequency

38 Is this really new? No….Other names for DBRs include: Home-School Note
Behavior Report Card Daily Progress Report Good Behavior Note Check-In Check-Out Card Performance-based behavioral recording

39 Whole-School Based Assessment Approach

40 School-Based Behavioral Assessment
Tier I (primary level) assessment efforts are preventive and proactive indicators of performance Tier II (secondary level) assessment efforts focused on select group of students deemed for at risk progress monitoring Tier III (tertiary level) assessment focused on individual student

41 Behavioral Assessment: Whole School Approach
Use whole-school data to determine what, how, where, and when behaviors are occurring Proactive approach to determining potential problem areas and student concerns Assists with Special Education Behavior goals Progress monitoring

42 Behavioral Assessment: Whole School Approach
Productive and effective school environment Clear expectations Common language Immediate conversations Communication within the school

43 School Site Example: Whole School Approach and DBRs


45 A.T. Allen Elementary School
Cabarrus County K-5 Elementary School Full Title I school Demographics 54% free and reduced lunch 27% Hispanic population EC population- resource, speech, self-contained classroom (previous years)

46 Behavior Cards Created over 15 years ago Track student behavior
Communication in school and with home Movement to ‘Positive Discipline’ Based on administration and staff expectations (SIT team)

47 Early Version of Behavior Card
Sent home weekly Students were to earn a point each hour of the day. Different card at each grade level

48 Behavior Cards Adjusted over time Same card for entire school
Creation of daily cards as an option Carbon copy

49 Behavior Cards to Responsibility Cards
Need for change Change in staff ‘Buy in’ not present Inconsistent use of card in school Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention & Support

50 Responsibility Cards

51 Responsibility Cards Matched expectations with PBIS expectations:
Be Safe, Be Responsible, Be Respectful Added location column Assist with communication Data collection to choose intervention Ex: bathroom vs. classroom Focus on area of need: more targeted Sent home daily for all students vs. weekly Communication Teacher ‘remembering’ incident

52 Classroom Application

53 Daily Behavior Cards Increases in-school communication
Student accountability in common areas and all classes Parent communication Track behavior for each hour Specific behavior noted Data driven decisions Individual student plans made Time of day Location Determine effectiveness of intervention

54 Parent Perspective

55 Daily Behavior Cards and DBRs Together
Use data on card to target behavior Choose Daily Behavior Rating scale Match student needs Ease of teacher use Implement intervention Keep data on that one target behavior using DBR

56 Daily Behavior Cards and Daily Behavior Ratings Together
Progress monitor on behavior Graph data Use data to make decision: Discontinue intervention Change intervention Move to next Tier/Level Continue to use Daily Behavior Card throughout day

57 Key Points Clear definition of behavior
Training/information for staff members involved Same language Same policy for rating Choices for re-teaching opportunities

58 Writing IEP Objectives

59 Student Example Found target behavior Created DBR
Implemented intervention Collected data Progress monitored Used data to make decision Continued progress monitoring

60 Example Target behavior: tantruming
Clear definitions of mild, moderate, severe Tracking in all areas of the school Training on ratings given to needed staff members

61 Beginning Data Collection


63 Graph DBR

64 What do the students say?

65 Staff Insight

66 Administrative Support

67 Questions/Comments….

68 Resources - This website offers an extensive resource on using behavior ratings in the Classroom Behavior Report Card Manual. Chafouleas, S.M., Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Sugai, G. (in press). Behavior Assessment and Monitoring in Schools. New York: Guilford Press. Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program. New York: Guilford Press. Jenson, W.R., Rhode, G., & Reavis, H.K. (1994). The Tough Kid Tool Box. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Kelley, M.L. (1990). School Home Notes: Promoting Children’s Classroom Success. New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, E.S., & Cole, C.L. (1994). Behavior change in the classroom: Self management interventions. New York: Guilford Press. 68

69 For More Information Amy Jablonski, A.T. Allen Elementary School
Leah Mills, A.T. Allen Elementary School Charouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-Based Behavioral Assessment: Informing intervention and instruction.

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