Presentation on theme: "Bullying Prevention and Positive Behavior Intervention &"— Presentation transcript:
1Bullying Prevention and Positive Behavior Intervention & SupportA few activities designed to help you think about bullying at your own schoolTo begin, complete the QUESTIONNAIRE ON BULLYINGMargaret A. Gannon, Southeast PBIS CoordinatorCorrey Watkins, Central PBIS Coordinator
2What is Bullying?Bullying is when a person is picked on over and over again by an individual or group with more power, either in terms of physical strength or social standing.
3Range of Approaches Taken by Schools to Address Bullying NothingAwareness-raising effortsReporting, trackingZero tolerance (school exclusion)Individual treatmentGroup treatmentSelf-esteem enhancement for bulliesMediation, conflict resolution programsCurricular approaches and…COMPREHENSIVE APPROACHES such as PBIS!
4PBIS and Bullying Principles It is critical to develop a school climate that:Is supportive of racial, cultural, and other forms of diversityIs warmHas clear expectations for students and staff that are taught and reinforcedHas consequences for unacceptable behaviorHas positive interestHas involvement from adultsAddresses hate crimes and conflicts in school and the community
5The goal of Bully Prevention-PBIS (BP-PBIS) is to reduce peer maintained problem behavior outside of the classroom
6BP-PBISRequires only a small amount of additional resources from the schoolSchools are required to first maintain effective SW systems to at least 80% on the SETHaving SW PBIS already in place will likely increase community buy-in, resource allocation, and on-going professional support
7BP-PBIS (continued)Focuses on improvement of behaviors that are specific, observable, and measurable.Behavior definitions will not speculate on:The intent of the behaviorThe power of the individuals involvedThe frequency of its occurrenceSingle incidents of problem behavior between children of similar power will be responded to in an equal manner.
8Six Key Features of BP-PBIS The use of empirically-tested instructional principles to teach expected behavior outside the classroom to all students.The monitoring and acknowledgement of students for engaging in appropriate behavior outside the classroom.Specific instruction and pre-correction to prevent bullying behavior from being rewarded by victims or bystanders.
9Six Key Features of BP-PBIS (continued) The correction of problem behaviors using a consistently administered continuum of consequences.The collection and use of information about student behavior to evaluate and guide decision making.The establishment of a team that develops, implements, and manages the BP-PBIS effort in a school.
10School-Wide Interventions Train all school personnel to recognize signs of bullyingDevelop school expectations regarding against bullying (e.g., safety)Use consistent consequencesIncrease supervision in “hot spots”Hold staff discussion groupsActively involve parents
11Interventions at the Classroom Level Teach, post, and discuss school expectations and rulesTeach lessons on topics, such as gossip, inappropriate remarks, and cyber bullyingConsistently use positive reinforcement and consequencesIncorporate bullying themes across the curriculumHold regular class meetings
12Assumptions / Goals Assumptions Goals School is implementing at the Universal level (behavioral expectations)Bullying continues to be a problemGoalsDefine why bullying is worth addressingProvide a comprehensive model for bully preventionProvide description of core elements of UNIVERSAL level bully preventionProvide data demonstrating (a) reduction in bullying and (b) improved perception of school safety.12
13The Logic: Why Invest in Bully Prevention? The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools.(Beale, 2001)Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim.(Nansel, et al., 2001; Swearer & Espelage, 2004).Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school.(Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Neary & Joseph, 1994)Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to suffer from underachievement and sub-potential performance in employment settings.(Carney & Merrell, 2001; NSSC, 1995).
15Most bully prevention programs focus on the bully and the victim Problem #1: Inadvertent “teaching of bullying”Problem #2: Blame the bullyProblem #3: Ignore role of “bystanders”Problem #4: Initial effects without sustained impact.Problem #5: Expensive effort
16What do we need?Bully prevention that “fits” with existing behavior support effortsBully PREVENTION, not just remediationBully prevention that is sustainable.
17Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Intervention & Support: The Foundation
18What rewards Bullying Behavior? Bullying behavior occurs in many forms, and locations, but typically involves student-student interactions.Bullying is seldom maintained by feedback from adultsWhat rewards Bullying Behavior?Likely many different rewards are effective. Most common are:Attention from bystandersAttention and reaction of “victim”Access to resources (materials, activity)Self-delivered reward
19Consider the smallest change that could make the biggest impact on bullying: Remove the “pay off” (e.g., praise, attention, recognition) that follows bullying.Do this without:teaching bullying ordenigrating children who engage in bulling.
21Individual Student Supports School-wide Behavioral ExpectationsBully PreventionIndividual Student SupportsTeachAll StudentsPracticeWithSomeStudentsSupportStaffImportantBullyVictimCollect and use data for decision-making
22Teach All StudentsTeach school-wide expectations (include “be respectful”)Teach students to recognize “respectful” versus “non-respectful” behavior.Teach the “pay off” for not being respectfulYou get attention (which comes in many forms)You get materials/activitiesTeach what to do if you experience non-respectful behavior.“Stop”Walk AwayTalk (Get Help)
23Why Does Non-respectful Behavior Keep Happening? Discuss why kids exhibit problem behavior outside the classroomPeer attention comes in many forms:Arguing with someone that teases youLaughing at someone being picked onWatching problem behavior and doing nothingThe candle under a glass cup23
24The Stop Signal – A Three Step Response WalkTalk
25The Stop Signal (The entire school must use the same stop signal) Teach the school-wide stop signal for problem behaviorModel the use of stop signal when they experience problem behavior or they see another student experiencing problem behaviorPractice and review how the Stop Signal should look and sound:Firm hand signalClear voice
26Teach the “Stop Signal” If someone is directing problem behavior to you, or someone else, tell them to “stop.”Because talking is hard in emotional situations… always include a physical “signal” to stop.26
27Examples of When to Use the Stop Signal Alisha pokes Ronnie in the back over and over while in lineDaniel steals the ball away from Noah when they are not playing a game that involves stealing.Roberta teases Rachel and calls her a derogatory name.Include at least one or two examples of when not to use the stop signal:Kelly makes a suggestion for a game that Fred does not likeAlisha continues to poke Ronnie in line, even after Ronnie has delivered the stop signal
28Walk AwaySometimes even when students tell others to stop, the problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students are to walk away from the problem behavior
29Walk AwayModel “walking away” when students experience continued problem behavior or when they see another student experiencing continued problem behavior.Walking away removes the reinforcement for problem behaviorTeach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate responsePractice “walking away” with student volunteersGive examples of when to walk away and at least one of when not to walk away
30Remember: walking away removes the reinforcement for problem behavior Remember: walking away removes the reinforcement for problem behavior. Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate response.30
31Talk: Report Problems to an Adult Teach students that even when they use stop and they walk away from the problem, sometimes students will continue to behave inappropriately toward them. When that happens, students should “talk” to an adult.
32TalkModel the talk technique students should use when they experience continued problem behavior or when they see another student experiencing continued problem behavior.
33Please Note!!If any student is in danger, the “stop” and “walk away” steps should be skipped, and the incident should be reported immediately.
34Talking versus Tattling When the student has tried to solve the problem him/herself and has used the stop and walk steps first:Did the student request “stop”?Did the student “walk away”?TattlingWhen a student does not use the stop and walk way steps before talking to an adultWhen the student’s goal is to get the other person in trouble
35TalkDescribe to students how they should expect adults to respond to “talk”Adults will ask you what the problem isThey will ask if you said stopThey will ask if you walked away calmlyPractice “talk” with student volunteers at the front of the class.Be sure to use examples of how to “talk” and at least one example of when not to “talk”
36Review Stop/Walk/Talk Test students orally on how they should respond to various situations involving problem behaviorInclude questions that involve each possible scenario:Using “Stop”, “Walk”, and “Talk”Responding to “Stop”, “Walk”, and “Talk”
37Teaching a Reply (What to do when YOU are asked to “stop”) Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, they should do the following things:Stop what they are doingTake a deep breathGo about their day (no big deal)These steps should be followed even when they don’t agree with the “stop”37
38Extra Practice with Some Students For students with high rates of physical and verbal aggression.Pre-correctionOn-site practiceFor students who are more likely to be victims who reward physical and verbal aggression.
39When the child did it right… Adults initiate the following interaction with the Perpetrator:Reinforce the student for discussing the problem with you"Did ______ tell you to stop?"If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 2If no: Practice the 3 step response."Did ______ walk away?"If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 3Practice the 3 step response.The amount of practice depends on the severity and frequency of problem behavior39
40Rewarding Appropriate Behavior Effective Generalization requires the prompt reinforcement of appropriate behavior, the FIRST time it is attemptedLook for students that use the three step response appropriately and rewardStudents that struggle with problem behavior (either as victim or perpetrator) are less likely to attempt new approaches.Reward them for efforts in the right direction.40
42Supporting Staff Behavior When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response sequence:Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e., "I'm glad you told me.")Ask who, what, when and where.Ensure the student’s safety.Is the bullying still happening?Is the reporting child at risk?Fear of revenge?What does the student need to feel safe?What is the severity of the situation"Did you tell the student to stop?" (If yes, praise the student for using an appropriate response. If no, practice)"Did you walk away from the problem behavior?" (If yes, praise student for using appropriate response. If no, practice.)42
43Roles of BP-PBIS Implementation at Your School PBIS TeamTakes the lead with implementationDetermines a School-wide Stop SignalDevelops schedule for student BP training (initial and follow-up)Plans ongoing support of administrators and teachersEvaluates student outcome data (ODRs)Implementation ChecklistFaculty Follow UpWorking with the district to maintain efforts
44Roles (continued) Reads Manual TeachersReads ManualDelivers Initial Lessons and Follow up lessonsIncident ReportsPractice with StudentsReinforce Appropriate BehaviorGive feedback to PBIS teamAdministratorsReads ManualPractice with studentsCheck-insIncident ReportsReinforce!
45Practice Break up into groups of two and: For three minutes, practice the “stop” response, along with how to reply when someone uses the stop response on you. (Make sure that each person is able to practice each roll)Next, break up into groups of four and:Practice the entire SWT response: Separate roles into: Supervisor, Perpetrator, Victim, and Bystander. Try to find situations where Stop/Walk/Talk may not be enough.45
46BP-PBIS Effectiveness Survey Staff surveyCan be completed weekly, monthly, etc., depending on the needs of the schoolDecision making flow chartCan assist in meaningful decisions that impact the outcomes of the program.
47PB-PBIS Decision Making Flowchart Questions:Responses:Do students know the SW expectations and the “stop” signal?NORe-teach SW expectations and the “stop” signal.YesDo faculty/staff use of pre-correction strategy with students?Review pre-correction strategy and reward staff for its implementationDo faculty/staff use the review routine when students report problem behaviors?Re-teach the review routine to staff and reward them for using it with students.Are there specific settings where BP-PBIS strategies are not used effectively?Conduct Student Booster in applicable settings.Do students “at risk” for aggression behave more appropriately?These students may require more intense individual interventions and a Functional Behavior Assessment
48To Learn More http://www.wrightslaw.com/nltr/07/nl.0417.htm J.H. Hoover, R. Oliver, and R.J. Hazler, "Bullying: Perceptions of adolescent victims in Midwestern USA," School Psychology International 13:5-16,1992.S. Ross, R. Horner, and B. Stiller, Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Intervention & Support
49Margaret A. Gannon margaret_gannon@pender. k12. nc Margaret A. Gannon Correy Watkins