Presentation on theme: "Some Emerging Characteristics of Sustainable Practices"— Presentation transcript:
1Some Emerging Characteristics of Sustainable Practices Thanks to Wing Institute, NIRN andKent McIntosh
2Nature of the ProblemIn education innovations come and go in months (Latham, 1988).Alderman & Taylor (2003) Optimally, sustainability should be a focus from the day a project is implemented. With most projects, the pressure of just becoming operational often postpones such a focus until well into the 2nd year.
3Memo To: School Administrators From: District Administrators In keeping with the new state initiative, this fall we will be implementing an exciting new district initiative of SNI in place of LYI. All in-service days previously scheduled for LYI will be rescheduled as staff development for SNI. The $500 for release time and materials for LYI will be discontinued and provided instead for SNI. By the way, you will need to create local SNI teams that meet weekly. The former members of your LYI team would be perfect for this new team. Your new SNI binders will be coming next week. Have a great year!!!
4Lot’s of times people have great ideas and have their eye on a goal, but don’t know how to put the pieces in place to make it happen. We have to figure out how to put the meat on the bones.
5Why Such a Short Life Span? High EffortInnovation more difficult than expected.Causes too much change.Takes too much time.
6Why Such a Short Life Span? Poor system designSupporters leave.Personnel lack training.External funds run out.Inadequate supervision.No accountability.No consequences for early termination.
7Even Well Tested Programs Often Fail to Sustain Elliott & Mihalic (2004) review Blueprint Model Programs (violence prevention and drug prevention programs) replication in community settings.Programs reviewed across 5 dimensionsSite selectionTrainingTechnical assistanceFidelitySustainability.
8Even Well Tested Programs Often Fail to Sustain Critical elements in site readinessWell connected local championStrong administrative supportFormal organizational commitmentsFormal organizational staffing stabilityUp front commitment of necessary resourcesProgram credibility within the communityProgram sustained by the existing operational budget.
9Even Well Tested Programs Often Fail to Sustain Critical elements of trainingAdhere to requirements (planning phase) for training, skills, and education.Natural Implementers identified before scheduling training.Encourage administrators to attend training- A MUST!Plan and budget for staff turnover.Implement program immediately after training.
10Even Well Tested Programs Often Fail to Sustain Critical elements of Technical AssistanceProactive plan for technical assistance.Critical elements of FidelityMonitor fidelity- TIC, IPICritical elements of SustainabilityFunction of how well other dimensions are implemented.
11Why Such a Short Life Span? Those responsible for developing effective interventions do not necessarily have the skills to effect large systems change.Systems change is different level of intervention.Adults are the target of change rather than student behavior.
12Ineffective Methods Excellent evidence for what does not work Implementation by edict does not workImplementation by “following the money” does not workImplementation without changing supporting roles and functions does not workPaul Nutt (2002) Why Decisions Fail
13Emerging Features of Sustainable Programs Maintain over time.Maintain across generations of practitioners.Operate within existing financial and staffing resources.
14Implications of Current Measures Current accountability measures of NCLB may reflect a change in emphasis.Problem is that NCLB specifies outcomes but does not specify behaviors to accomplish outcome.Consequence may be that test scores improve but student learning does not.Multiple instances of cheating reportedMany schools spend great deal of time “teaching to the test.”Remains to be seen if these accountability measures result in more effective practices that sustain.
15Do you have a deep understanding of the principles of sustainability? Common perception that sustainability is a ethereal, theoretical concept (Vaughn et al, 2000)We all have experiences with itThe same principles of individual behavior still apply to systems…
17Research on Sustainability Descriptive information about what we think promotes sustainabilityBased on theoryBased on some anecdotal observationsClear descriptions of examples of non-sustainability(Gersten & Chard, 2000; Sindelar et al., 2006; Vaughn et al., 2000)
18Barriers to Sustainability: The Three Cs ConsequenceBehaviorAntecedentStudentOutcomesSelect Practices& Implementwith FidelityOngoingChallengeChanges in Context- Lack of contextual fit- New challenges exist- Competing initiativesChanges in Capacity- Loss of funding- Attrition of key personnelChanges in Consequences- Diminished effectiveness due to poor fidelity- Outcomes no longer perceived as important
19A SWPBS Sustainability Study (Doolittle, 2006) Sample: 285 schools with SET scoresDifferences between schools that implemented and those that did not:Expectations TaughtMonitoring and Decision MakingDifferences between schools that sustained and those that did not:On-going Behavioral Reward SystemManagement (Administrator)
21Identifying Valued & Modifying Outcomes Practices Practice AntecedentConsequenceBehaviorValuedOutcomesIdentifying& ModifyingPracticesData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousMeasurementPracticeImplementationBehavior
22Identifying Valued & Modifying Outcomes Practices Practice PriorityEffectivenessValuedOutcomesIdentifying& ModifyingPracticesData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurementPracticeImplementationEfficiencySchool Context
23Identifying Valued & Modifying Outcomes Practices Practice PriorityEffectivenessValuedOutcomesIdentifying& ModifyingPracticesData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurementPracticeImplementationEfficiencySchool Context
24Importance in comparison to other practices PRIORITYImportance in comparison to other practicesConnection to other initiativesIncorporation into core system componentsBehavioral Principle:Competing Schedulesof ReinforcementPriorityValuedOutcomes
25Braid project into other initiatives ENHANCING PRIORITYBraid project into other initiativesShow how practice can lead to other outcomes of new initiativesGet into written policyAdvocate for improved visibilityPresent data to people with resourcesDescribe effects of abandoning support for the practicePriorityValuedOutcomes
26Identifying Valued & Modifying Outcomes Practices Practice PriorityEffectivenessValuedOutcomesIdentifying& ModifyingPracticesData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurementPracticeImplementationEfficiencySchool Context
27Extent to which the practice results in desired outcomes EFFECTIVENESSExtent to which the practice results in desired outcomesChoice of practices should be based on proven effectivenessEffects must be attributed to the practiceBehavioral Principle:ReinforcementEffectivenessIdentifying& ModifyingPractices
28Share data that show how adoption is related to effects ENHANCINGEFFECTIVENESSSelect practices that are likely to produce the desired outcomes (i.e. Evidence-Based Practices)Share data that show how adoption is related to effectsEffectivenessIdentifying& ModifyingPractices
29Identifying Valued & Modifying Outcomes Practices Practice PriorityEffectivenessValuedOutcomesIdentifying& ModifyingPracticesData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurementPracticeImplementationEfficiencySchool Context
30Relationship between continued effort and continued effectiveness EFFICIENCYRelationship between continued effort and continued effectivenessWeighed against other potential practicesBehavioral Principle:MaintenancePracticeImplementationEfficiency
31A durable practice should become more efficient over time ENHANCING EFFICIENCYA durable practice should become more efficient over timeEasier on implementersRepetition builds fluencyEasier to modify materials than create themEasier on resourcesFewer visits from external consultantsFewer release daysPracticeImplementationEfficiency
32Identifying Valued & Modifying Outcomes Practices Practice PriorityEffectivenessValuedOutcomesIdentifying& ModifyingPracticesData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurementPracticeImplementationEfficiencySchool Context
33Iterative monitoring of fidelity and outcomes CONTINUOUSREGENERATIONIterative monitoring of fidelity and outcomesAdaptation and re-adaptation over time while keeping critical features intactOngoing investment in the practiceBehavioral Principle:GeneralizationData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurement
34DATA-BASED DECISION MAKING ENHANCINGCONTINUOUSREGENERATIONDATA-BASED DECISION MAKINGFidelityOutcomesUse in problem-solvingExpand to new areasAdjust practices for a changing environmentCultivate local expertiseConnect with a community of practiceData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurement
35Identifying Valued & Modifying Outcomes Practices Practice PriorityEffectivenessValuedOutcomesIdentifying& ModifyingPracticesData-BasedProb.SolvingContinuousRegenerationCapacityBuildingContinuousMeasurementPracticeImplementationEfficiencySchool Context
36Create a Plan to Sustain from the Start “Train and Hope”Not an effective approach to implement a practice“Implement and Hope”Not an effective way to sustain a practice“Implementation are where good ideas go to die”4 Big Ideas to Plan for Sustainability…
371. Start with the EndingLet the outcomes drive the selection of practicesIdentify the valued outcomes for everyoneNo one has ever been bullied or nagged into long-term sustainabilityMeasure and use data in decision making
382. Death, Taxes, and… …Attrition If the fidelity drops, the effects stopPlan for your champions to move on/upFocus on POSITIONS, not PERSONSCreate positions tied to the practiceTitlesJob DescriptionsFTE
393. If you keep doing what you’re doing, you MAY NOT keep getting what you’re getting Environments change – Continuous Improvementadjust to changes (e.g. OISM, MISI)New ideas keep the practice novelSpread the practiceTo new settingsTo new systems
40Were there 4 Big Ideas? How Can We Increase Sustainability of Practices? Establish “Communities of Practice” at all levelsExecutive Coaching, Team Leaders, Student Support Team-e.g. BISCCDoes it get easier? School level v. LEA levelTipping Point
41How Can We Increase Sustainability of Practices? Continue Pro-active technical assistance- CoachesHelp solve the real problems of implementation.Continue to Monitor integrity of implementation.Without monitoring, the system likely to drift back to previous practices.Recognition Program, SWISAnticipate 3-5 years before system is fully operational.Emphasizes the need to plan for multigenerational support.
42Future Research We need it Descriptive Experimental Case studies of successes/failuresExperimentalTest the sustainability model
43ReferencesAlderman, H. S. & Taylor, L. (2003). On sustainability of project innovations as systemic change. Journal of Education and Psychological Consultation, 14 (1), 1-25.Baum, W. M. (2000). Being concrete about culture and cultural evolution. In N. Thompson and F. Tonneau (Eds.) Perspectives in Ethology (Vol. 13, pp ). New York: Kluwer Academic/PlenumDoolittle (2006)Elliott, D. S. & Mihalic, S. (2004). Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prevention Science, 5(1),Glenn, S. S. (2003). Operant contingencies and the origin of cultures. In K. A. Lattal and P. N. Chase (Eds.) Behavior Theory and Philosophy. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Harris, M. (1979). Cultural Materialism: The struggle for a science of culture. New York: Simon and Shuster.Latham, G. (1988). The birth and death cycles of educational innovations. Principal, 68(1), pMcIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (in preparation). Sustainability of systems-level evidence-based practices in schools: Current knowledge and future directions.Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th Edition). New York: Free Press.