2Sessions at a Glance Session 1: Introduction Session 2: Developing Data for IEASession 3: Information SystemsSession 4: Indicators and IndicesSession 5: Data Analysis
3Knowledge gained from data is fundamental to our understanding of environmental issues as well as for communicating information to policy-makers and other groups in society.However, without good quality, relevant data and indicators, the assessment loses not only valuable communication tools, but also credibility and the ability to measure progress towards sustainability goals and objectives.
4Objectives of Module 4understand the roles and uses of data, indicators and indices in integrated environmental assessmentknow how to develop strategies for collecting and validating dataunderstand how indicators and indices are developed and usedbe able to analyse indicators and index outcomesbe able to communicate and present statistical and map-based data visually
5Sessions at a Glance Session 1: Introduction Session 2: Developing Data for IEASession 3: Information SystemsSession 4: Indicators and IndicesSession 5: Data Analysis
6Societies measure what they care about on the following basis: Why Measure?Societies measure what they care about on the following basis:If you can't measure it,you can't manage it !!
7Data and Indicators Data are neutral facts. Indicators inform our decision-making. They are derived from data.
9Disaggregated Data + Statistics Continuum from Data to Indices: From Narrow to Broad ViewsDisaggregated Data + StatisticsIntegrated DatabasesDisaggregated IndicatorsIndicators ProfilesSimple IndicesCompositeIndicesIncreasingSynoptics andIntegrationTotal Quantity of Information
10What are the relevant issues? DesertificationWater resourcesClimate changeQuality of the urban environmentEutrophicationBiodiversityFish resourcesToxic contaminationForest resourcesOil resourcesDisposal of wasteDepletion of the ozone layerAcidification etc.
11Prioritize the issues Criteria for Issue Selection Theme and Issue Urgency and immediate impactIrreversibilityEffects on human healthEffects on economic productivityNumber of people affectedLoss of aesthetic valuesImpacts on cultural and historical heritagesTheme and Issue
12Participatory Process Questions to Ask:Who needs to be consulted?What are the most appropriate levels of participation?What are the most relevant stages of the process?What are the most efficient and effective mechanisms, given available resources?How will input from those consulted be used and reported?…at all stages of indicator development.
13Discussion: Participatory Processes (15 minutes) 1. In pairs, reflect on a participatory process that you led or were involved in that had successful elements. Use the following questions to help focus your discussion.Why was using a participatory approach in the project important?When in the project was a participatory approach used?What were the main techniques?What parts of the process worked well?What were some of the challenges? How were these challenges overcome?
14Discussion: Participatory Processes (10 minutes) In plenary…What did you notice or learn from your conversations?What features of the project worked well?How were you able to overcome barriers?
15Sessions at a Glance Session 1: Introduction Session 2: Developing Data for IEASession 3: Information SystemsSession 4: Indicators and IndicesSession 5: Data Analysis
16What are DATA?GraphsMapsTablesImagesPicturesVideos
17In this session… Types of data Data monitoring, collection and storage QuantitativeQualitativeSpatial dataNon-spatial dataData monitoring, collection and storageGEO Data Portal
18Qualitative DataSocially-derived information strengthens EIA by relating to the practical “real-world” dimension of the environment.Qualitative methods can include:field observation;interviews with people who live in local environments;narrative, descriptive, oral histories, and interpretive sources
19Qualitative Data as a Complement to Quantitative Data Broadens the scope of environmental inquiry to include people’s experiences, perspectives and perceptions;Makes use of critical environmental information before it shows up on the scientific or public radar;Integrates indigenous or other groups into formal environmental discussions and decision making; andAcknowledges the role of perception in human response to environmental conditions.
20Quantitative Data Possible characteristics: geographic locations (coordinates);large in volume (databases, reports, etc.);from a variety of often heterogeneous sources;variability of resolution (details) and scales;a high degree of complexity;are needed at varying temporal frequency (e.g., hourly, daily, monthly, yearly;available in varying forms and formats; andavailable in digital or electronic versions.
21Forms of Quantitative Data mapsremotely sensed data such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs, or other forms of datacomputer data filesdrawingsreports and documentsbibliographiesvideos and filmsgraphs and chartstablescomputer animated images
22Primary vs. Secondary Data Very few assessment processes have the mandate, resources and capacity to collect primary data.Many processes relay on data collected by others.Compiling data usually means collecting data from many different sources.
23Characteristics of Non-spatial Data… …collected for one point and results in a single number;…can not be further broken down;…can have temporal resolution if collected continuously over a period of time from a specific geographical point;…can be obtained from statistical sources or isolated research.
24Spatial Data… describes the distribution of phenomena and artefacts; is used to identify the location and shape of, and relationships among, geographic features and boundaries;is often displayed as layers of data;presents a very immediate and visual message regarding environmental issues and management.
25Georeferenced Data or Indicators Layers of Spatial DataExamples of layers you might use:•aerialphotographyprotectednatural areassatelliteimageryhabitat regionscountryboundarieslakes and riverslocaladministrativeelevationcontoursstreetsclimate datacitiessoil layer datautilitieswildlifepopulations
28Monitoring and Data Collection of Environmental Trends and Conditions Monitoring provides tangible information on a regular basis over an extended period of time about past and present conditions of the environment.Monitoring can be used to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of policies implemented and actions taken.
29The Challenge of Coordinated Monitoring Systems There is a critical shortage of comprehensive, harmonized, high quality data that are readily available for analysis of environmental issues.IEAs can have an important role in identifying the most important data gaps, and providing feedback to monitoring and observation programmes.
30Data Collection Steps Develop a plan for data collection, considering, What type of data is needed?What data needs are higher priority?What are the criteria for data collected, including quality and cost?Survey data availability for the different components of your assessment.
31Steps for Data Collection and Compilation Source: UNEP/DEIA, Rump, P.C. (1996). State of the Environment Reporting: Source Book of Methods and Approaches. UNEP/DEIA/TR.96-1, UNEP, Nairobi.
32Data Quality Considerations Data quality must be sufficient to satisfy objectives.Use proxies (imperfect approximations) if no direct data can be obtained (e.g. CO2 emissions to show climate change).Use best available, scientifically sound data from widely recognized sources.
33Storing Data in an Indicator Database A database is an organized collection of data.To keep the database up to date, link it electronically to monitoring systems.A database can be used to prepare reports for use by policy-makers and the public.Building a database can be a collaborative effort.
34Finding Data OnlineSome environmental and socio-economic data is available for free on the Internet.Many online data and map services are simple to use with most Internet browser programs.The GEO Data Portal provides data from authoritative international sources to the assessment community. (http://geodata.grid.unep.ch)
36GEO Data Portal What is GEO Data Portal? An authoritative source of data used by UNEP and partners in the GEO reporting process and other integrated environmental assessments.What does the GEO Data Portal do?Gives access to a broad collection of harmonized environmental and socio-economic data sets from authoritative sources from global, regional, sub-regional and national levels.Enables mapping and analysis.
37GEO Data Portal What themes are present? Who uses the GEO Data Portal? climate, disasters, forests, freshwatereducation, health economy, population, environmental policiesWho uses the GEO Data Portal?UNEP Offices, GEO Collaborating Centres, contributorsUniversities, schools, civil society and general public
38GEO Data Portal Who provides data to the Portal? FAO, UNEP, UNESCO, UN Statistical Division, World Bank, OECDAre there regional versions of the Portal?Yes, in Latin America and AfricaSoon to follow are Asia Pacific and West AsianWhere can I access the Portal?By website:By CD-Rom:
39Exercise: Visualizing Data Needs and Uses (20 min) In groups of 3–5, discuss how each person has used spatial data to describe an environmental issue.Describe the data analyses that were conducted and the uses of those analyses.What worked well and what did not in that process?
40Indicators and Indices Session 1: IntroductionSession 2: Developing Data for IEASession 3: Information SystemsSession 4: Indicators and IndicesSession 5: Data Analysis
41In this Session… Selecting good indicators Participatory processes Indicator frameworksIndicator developmentCore indicator setsIndices
42Why Indicators?Indicators make data relevant for society and policy making.They help us understand what is happening around us.As a society, we tend to choose measures that reflect our values.At the same time, information we receive also shapes what we value.
43The Value of Indicators in Policy Making Indicators have the potential to…provide feedback on system behaviour and policy performance;improve chances of successful adaptation;ensure movement toward common goals;improve implementation; andincrease accountability.
44The Challenge of Selecting Good Indicators Challenge #1: Indicators can provide misleading and inaccurate information about what is being measured.Meeting the challenge:Ensure the indicator reflects the knowledge being sought.For example, if knowledge about change over a short term is sought, avoid giving data that reflects change over a long term.Because indicators influence decision making, it is important that the measures we use are proper ones. Poor indicators provide inaccurate and misleading information about what is being measured. An example of a poor indicator might be a measure that reflects change over a very long time scale when decision makers require knowledge about change over in a short time scale. In order to know the impact of fertilizer on land quality, it would be insufficient to measure and present just the soil organic matter, which changes on a decade long time scale. Inaccurate indicators could lead to policy actions that are over- or under-reactive.
45The Challenge of Selecting Good Indicators Challenge #2: Select the appropriate number of indicators. Too many indicators may create “noise” that is difficult to interpret, while too few indicators limit the scope of understanding.Meeting the challenge:Select indicators based on a select set of priority issues as a way of limiting the number of indicators and ensuring the indicators are relevant.An important consideration is selecting the appropriate number of indicators. Too many indicators may create “noise” that is difficult to interpret, while too few indicators limit the scope of understanding. Selecting indicators based on a select set of priority issues is an increasingly common way of limiting the number of indicators.
46The Challenge of Selecting Good Indicators Challenge #3: A good indicator may have limited data availability; a poor indicator may have great data availability.Meeting the challenge:The goal is to select indicators with the best possible fit to the IEA.While data availability is an important consideration, it is one of a number of criteria that should influence the selection of indicators.One of the challenges of selecting good indicators is that it may be easier to choose indicators based on ease of measurement or data availability, rather than what needs to be measured. As mentioned previously, filling data gaps can be a resource intensive process, which means that options in terms of indicator selection may be limited. Notwithstanding, it is still valuable for you to select indicators that have the best possible fit with the IEA process.Part of the process of selecting good indicators is weighing them against a set of indicator criteria. Selecting indicators can be a balancing act, with trade-offs among such factors as ensuring they are relevant to society and policy -makers, scientifically sound and accurate, and easy to interpret with a reasonable degree of accuracy and precision.
47The Challenge of Selecting Good Indicators Selecting indicators can be a balancing act, with trade-offs such as ensuring relevance to society and policy-makers, using data that is scientifically sound and accurate, and relaying data in a way that is easily interpreted.
48Some Indicator Criteria… easy to understand and interpretshows trends over timescientifically crediblebased on high-quality datapolicy relevantpolitically acceptableAn important consideration is selecting the appropriate number of indicators. Too many indicators may create “noise” that is difficult to interpret, while too few indicators limit the scope of understanding. Selecting indicators based on a select set of priority issues is an increasingly common way of limiting the number of indicators.Based on World Bank (1997) and OECD (1993)
49Participatory Process at Multiple Stages of Indicator Development
50Orienting Indicators to Conceptual Frameworks The orientation of indicators to issues as well as relationships among indicators (such as cause-and-effect relationships) is often structured using conceptual frameworks.
51Framework Example 1: DPSIR Driver – Pressure – State – Impact – ResponseShows relationships between human activity and ecosystem well-being and is used for GEO - 4.
52Indirect influence through human development HUMAN SOCIETYDRIVERSIndirect influence through human developmentPRESSURESSectors:Human influences:Natural processes:IMPACTSHuman well-beingEconomic,socialgoods &servicesDirect influence through human interventionsRESPONSESMitigation and adaptationEcosystem ServicesSTATE AND TRENDSWater, land, atmosphere, biodiversityENVIRONMENTStep 1 What is happening to the environment and why?Step 2 What are the consequences for the environment and humanity?Step 3 What is being done and how effective is it?
53WATER RESOURCES HUMAN SOCIETY DRIVERS Population growth PRESSURES AgricultureDischarge of fertilizers and pesticidesNutrient loading and eutrophicationIMPACTSWell-beingAccess to clean waterNourishmentHealthServicesFresh waterFoodRecreationDirect influence through human interventionsRESPONSESN and Pauingassi regulationInfrastructureBottled waterSTATE AND TRENDSLake water quality decliningENVIRONMENTStep 1 What is happening to the environment and why?Step 2 What are the consequences for the environment and humanity?Step 3 What is being done and how effective is it?
54AIR QUALITY HUMAN SOCIETY DRIVERS Population Growth PRESSURES IMPACTS ENVIRONMENTSTATE AND TRENDSRESPONSESVehicle emission standardsTraffic reduction measuresAir quality indexes and advisoriesPRESSURESTransportationEmissions from motor vehiclesSmog, acid rain, dustDRIVERSPopulation GrowthDirect influence through human interventionsUrban air quality decliningIMPACTSWell-beingHealthInfrastructureServicesClean airClean waterFoodAIR QUALITYStep 1 What is happening to the environment and why?Step 2 What are the consequences for the environment and humanity?Step 3 What is being done and how effective is it?
55COASTAL AND MARINE WATER HUMAN SOCIETYCOASTAL AND MARINE WATERDRIVERSEnergy DemandPRESSURESPetroleum / Oil and GasOil spillsContaminationToxic effectsSmotheringIMPACTSWell-beingHealthRecreationTourism- FisheriesServices- Clean water- BiodiversityDirect influence through human interventionsRESPONSESOil spill clean upOil tanker technology incentivesSTATE AND TRENDSCoastal water quality declining.ENVIRONMENTStep 1 What is happening to the environment and why?Step 2 What are the consequences for the environment and humanity?Step 3 What is being done and how effective is it?
56DPSIR in SummaryDRIVERS: fundamental processes in society that drive activities having a direct impact on the environment;PRESSURES: human interventions (intentional or unintentional) in social and economic sectors of society that result in environmental change;STATE: environmental state and trends, often referred to as environmental change, which could be both naturally and human induced.IMPACTS: changes that may positively or negatively influence human well-being through changes in ecological services and environmental stress; andRESPONSES: elements among the drivers, pressures and impacts which may be used for managing society in order to alter the human–environment interactions.
58Indicator Development Example from South AfricaStep 1: Identifying a framework to guide the selection of indicators.In South Africa the framework was based on a review of environmental and local government legislation, and consultation with stakeholders. It was built around core environmental mandates for local government, and if a core mandate was not present, then around the role of provincial and national government.Step 2: Drafting a set of indicators based on a set of criteria for indicator selection.The draft set of indicators in South Africa was reviewed by local, provincial and national government, to ensure that the new indicators would have as consistent a format and language as pre-existing indicators. A workshop was then held to obtain feedback from stakeholders.Step 3: Categorizing the indicators.Because municipalities and provinces across South Africa manage areas with different characteristics, and with different levels of resources, capacities, knowledge and available data, further categories were needed to reflect these differences. The indicator categories were then placed within the indicator framework.
59Core Indicator Setscore indicators sets are limited in number and clustered around themes;they provide clear and straightforward information to decision-makers;they do not provide a comprehensive picture or show relationships between indicators;examples include OECD, UNEP (UNCSD), EU Structural Indicators, and GEO Core Data Matrix.
60Themes from the GEO Core Data Matrix landforestsbiodiversityfresh wateratmospherecoastal and marine areasdisastersurban areassocio-economicgeography
61Sample Indicators from the GEO Core Indicator Data Matrix ThemeIssuePotential Data VariablesProposed Lead and Key IndicatorsLandSoilWater erosion(000 tonne/ha)Wind erosionAverage annual soil erosion rateErosionArea affected by desertification (000 ha and %) of rain-fed croplands, irrigated land, forest and woodlandsTotal land affected by desertificationLand saliniza-tionAreas affected by salinization and waterlogging (000 ha and and change)Total area affected by salinization
62UN DSD Indicator Framework Developed in response to Agenda 21 (Chapter 40)Original workplan included a list of 130 indicators organized using the Driver – State – Response frameworkAs a result of testing the indicators, the number of indicators was reduced to 58 and the DSR framework was replaced by a thematic “four pillars” framework.In 1995, the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (part of the UN Division for Sustainable Development) approved a work programme on indicators of sustainable development, in response to Chapter 40 of Agenda 21. The work programme included a list of approximately 130 indicators organized in the DSR framework. These, along with their corresponding methodology sheets, were published by the United Nations in 1996 in the first Blue Book. There then followed a period of national testing in a large number of countries, and national and global assessment. As a result, the number of sustainable development indicators in the core set was reduced to 58, and the DSR framework was replaced by a thematic framework, organized along the four “pillars” (social, environmental, economic, institutional) of sustainable development. The results were published in the second Blue Book in by UN-DSD in 2001.In 2005, UN-DSD began a second review of its indicators, which is to be completed by late 2006 with a third edition of the Blue Book. Preliminary agreement has been reached to reduce the core set further, to retain the thematic approach, but to dividing indicators among the four pillars, since it masks relationships among the issues.
63Sample Indicators from the UN-DSD Framework SocialThemeSub-ThemeIndicatorEquityPovertyPercent of population living below the poverty lineGender EqualityRatio of Average Female to Male WageHealthNutritional StatusNutritional Status for Children
64Indicator Methodology Sheets …developed for each selected indicatorDefinition of indicatorType of indicatorUnderlying definitions and conceptsUnit of measurementMeasurement methodsData needed to compile indicatorData sourcesReferences
65Issue: Water Pollution Theme: WaterIssue: Water PollutionIndicator: Percent of Population with Adequate Sanitary FacilitiesDefinition of indicatorProportion of population with access to a sanitary facility in the dwelling or immediate vicinity.Type of indicatorStateUnderlying Definitions and ConceptsSanitary facility: (definition of a suitable sanitary facility)Population: (i.e., includes rural and urban)Unit of Measurement%Measurement methodsMay be calculated as: # people with improved disposal facilities available (X 100) / total populationData needed to compile indicatorThe number of people with access to improved sanitary facilities and total population.Data sourcesRoutinely collected at national and sub-national levels in most countries. Include administrative bodies where information can be found.ReferencesKey references for indicator development.
66Exercise: Identifying Indicators and Data Sets (30 minutes) Step 1. In plenary, develop a list of short themes required to develop the assessment report.Prioritize the themes according what might be most relevant for GEOLand at this time.Form smaller groups, and assign a theme to each group.
67Exercise: Identifying Indicators and Data Sets (30 minutes) Step 3. In sub-groups, prepare a list of issues related to the theme of your group.Step 4. Identify indicators that correspond to each issue.Brainstorm a larger list, and then narrow down your list using indicator criteria.Indicate whether the indicator is a driver, pressure, state, impact or response in the DPSIR framework.
68Exercise: Identifying Indicators and Data Sets (30 minutes) Step 5. Identify the data you will need for the indicator. There are a number of data sources you may wish to consult.OECD’s “Selected Environmental Data” document atGEO Data Portal.FAO Statistical databases (FAOSTAT, Aquastat, Fishstat, Terrastat).Others listed in the database section of this report.Materials: A sample of the question completed to help orient participants and trainers.
69What are Indices?Consist of multiple indicators combined into a composite or aggregated unitAre often used to assess and compare performance against benchmarks or among performersIf using to inform policy, it is paramount that the indicators are well constructed and accurately interpreted
70Considerations about Indices Indices have a broad scope and can result in overlooking specific issues that are reflected in specific indicators.An index is based on the best available data, which means that indicators for which there is no data will not be included.Correlation among different indicators should be avoided so that certain issues are not amplified in the index.
71Constructing an IndexIndicator data is standardized, such as converting all indicators to a scale of 0–100, so they can be aggregated;Indicators are sometimes assigned relative weights so that some indicators are given more emphasis in the index;Assigning weights can be based on policy relevance, societal values or on quality and quantity of data.A
72Examples of Well-Known Indices Gross Domestic ProductHuman Development IndexEnvironmental Performance Index
74Discussion: An Air Quality Index (10 minutes) In plenary,How do you feel a policy-maker or manager might need to communicate about air quality?What indicators would be appropriate to include in an Air Quality Index?Based on the air quality indicators in the module, what indicators would you have included or excluded?
75Exercise: Calculating a Model Air Quality Index for Countries Background:Often a single air quality index is a composite of many indicators on air qualityWhen direct measurements are not available, proxies are used, such as the use of emissions when air concentrations are not available.
76Exercise: Calculating a Model Air Quality Index for Countries (30 minutes) Construct a virtual Air Quality Index for a country, using Kenya as an exampleUse the GEO Portal to obtain data on air quality in Kenya in 1995
77Sessions at a Glance Session 1: Introduction Session 2: Developing Data for IEASession 3: Information SystemsSession 4: Indicators and IndicesSession 5: Data Analysis
78Data Analysis Non-spatial data analysis Spatial data analysis Linkages to Module 7 on physical presentation of data
79Non-Spatial Analysis Performance evaluation BaselineTargetsThresholdsScience, policy and societal values all influence the development of performance indicators, making it a challenging task.
80Trend Analysis: What it is Allows us to understand changes in performance over timeTrends can be presented in ways that result in different interpretations, such as:indicators presented as an absolute value, a percentage or an indexdifference in scale on the Y-axis
82Trend Analysis: Patterns Graph 1: Erratic PatternGraph 2: Stable PatternThe data is the same for both graphs…the difference is the scale on the Y-axis.
83Correlation Analysis…identifies degree of similarity among variables using statistics…does not imply cause and effect…can be positive or negative
84Example: Environmental Performance Index (EPI) As GDP per capita increases, so does environmental performance from a policy perspective. This is a positive correlation.
85Presenting Indicators Using Symbols Visually show performance of an indicator using easily understood symbols.Example from United Kingdom Headline Indicators
86Discussion: Communicating an index (10 min) In groups of 3–5, envision an effort to communicate a trend in one environmental issue (e.g., air quality).Describe three approaches you might use and describe the strengths and weaknesses of each.
87Further Questions for Discussion Who are the different audiences that would see the indicators?What information needs does each audience have?What are some ways you can provide the technical information needed while at the same time making the indicators visually captivating?
88Spatial Analysis What is spatial analysis? It is the process of modelling, examining and interpreting spatial data and any associated databases.Spatial analysis is a powerful and useful tool for interpreting and understanding geographic areas, evaluating suitability and capability of natural areas, or for estimating and predicting impacts of human development.
89Geographic Information Systems …Applications in IEA View and analyse data from global perspective;Overlay data layers for analysis and mapping;Provide framework for studying complex systems;Powerful tool for analysing changes in landscapes and human impacts;Create simulations and models to predict possible future conditions and effects;Have a powerful visual and universal language.
90Vegetation Degradation in the Mau Forest on the Mau Escarpment, Kenya Degraded forestBare soilOther cover types19862000
91Long-Term Changes in the Plant Communities of Netley-Libau Marsh, Manitoba, Canada Marsh plant communities in 1979Marsh plant communities in 2001
92Discussion: Spatial Maps (10 minutes) In small groups, discuss the following questions.Using the maps provided, what can you tell about changes that may have occurred in this wetland system between 1965 and 1997?
94Discussion: Spatial Maps (10 minutes) Give examples of other spatial data layers that could be overlaid and integrated for further analysis.Describe how these time series maps can be used and integrated into an SOE report, and the information they provide.