Presentation on theme: "Climate Change and human health in Africa Potential health benefits of SLCP mitigation Dr J. D. van Hasselt Intergovermental Consultation on Near-Term."— Presentation transcript:
Climate Change and human health in Africa Potential health benefits of SLCP mitigation Dr J. D. van Hasselt Intergovermental Consultation on Near-Term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benifits in Africa Accra September 2012
WHO Estimated effect of climate change in year 2000 by region (DALYs per million population) African region SE Asia Dev countries 8.9 Campbell-Lendrum DH, Corvalán CF, Prüss Ustün A. How much disease could climate change cause? In: McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Corvalan CF, et al, eds. Climate change and human health: risks and responses. Geneva: WHO, 2003.
Impact Climate change is the biggest global health threat of 21 st Century Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission: 2009 Report Loss of healthy life years as a result of global environmental change predicted in poor African populations 500 > European Global environmental change and health: impacts, inequalities, and the health sector. BMJ 2008; 336: 191–94. McMichael AJ, et al.
Mortality Related to Climate Change Source: Climate Change and Global Health: Quantifying a Growing Ethical Crisis, 2007, Jonathan A. Patz, Holly K. Gibbs, Jonathan A. Foley, Jamesine V. Rogers, and Kirk R. Smith
Mozambique Climate change is having a severe and tangible effect … with devastated communities and destroyed infrastructure CVM Mid Year Report 2010
Intersectoral basis of mortality (WHO 2009) Sectors assessed for adaptation support (World Bank 2009) Agriculture, forest & fisheries Infrastructure Water supply Health Coastal zones Extreme weather Annual deaths linked to selected related risks (WHO 2008, 2009) 3.5 million undernutrition 2 million indoor air pollution 2 million diarrhoea 900,000 malaria 30, ,000 extreme weather WHO estimates that climate change currently causes over 140,000 deaths/year – with highest impacts in Africa
Climate Change Health Impacts Increased malnutrition & related disorders, including those relating to child growth and development (FOOD) Diarrheal/water borne/water washed diseases (WATER) Higher temperatures expand range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria (OUTBREAKS) Floods, storms, fires and droughts (DISASTERS)
Hunger and Food Security One out of four children in West Africa are underweight ~600,000 children under the age of five in the region die annually from causes related to malnutrition UNICEF September 2011 Daily calorie intake in almost half of all SADC countries has declined compared to the early nineties De Wit, M. and Midgley, S.J.E Hunger and Climate Change: An analysis of key variables in southern Africa. OneWorld Sustainable Investments, Cape Town, South Africa.
SLCPs: Adverse Health Impacts Exposure to IAP from solid biomass fuels associated with COPD (adults) and ALRIs (children) plus several other adverse health effects Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are the single leading cause of death of children under 5 years old worldwide Risk factors include nutritional status, crowding Poverty Hunger Respiratory Disease
South Africa: SLCP and IAP Relatively well researched Post 1994 policies aimed at reducing IAP Relative risk for childhood mortality due to ALRI is 1.95 in homes burning polluting fuels Introduction of cleaner energy (electricity) significantly protective of respiratory health Barnes, B. Mathee, A. Thomas E. and Bruce, N Household energy, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in South Africa. Journal of Energy in South Africa. Vol 20 No 1.
Key Gaps Few recognized studies and little regional research International literature-extrapolated/derivative data Health sector–more immediate priorities Inadequate disease surveillance and poor public health data
Leadership commitments 2 nd Interministerial Conference on Health and Environment in Africa Joint Statement on Climate Change and Health Angola 2010 Resolution (AFR-RC61-10) Framework for Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in the African Region September 2011
Responses..while there is uncertainty regarding the exact impact of climate change on health, fortunately, there is much less uncertainty around the best responses. These include,.. greater and more resilient coverage of water and sanitation resources. They also include improvements to protect health both from extreme weather events, and any long-term degradation in the environmental determinants of health, such as air quality, the availability of fresh water, and food security. All of these interventions would both save lives now, and increase resilience to gradual climate change. Campbell-Lendrum D et al: Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2010;88: