Presentation on theme: "10 February 20141 AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN ACCRA AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN ACCRA EBENEZER FIAHAGBE EPA."— Presentation transcript:
10 February AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN ACCRA AIR QUALITY MONITORING IN ACCRA EBENEZER FIAHAGBE EPA
10 February Presentation Outline Major air pollution problems Air quality monitoring project in Accra Progress of implementation Conclusion Way forward
10 February Accra-capital city of Ghana Accra is a medium-size city with a population of approximately 2.0 million people Located in the southeastern part of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea Coast land elevation ranges from 10 to 100 feet above sea level. Accra has a total area of approximately 2,592 km2 and is the fastest growing urban area in Ghana
10 February Major Sources of Air Pollution in Accra The major sources of ambient air pollution are : Vehicular exhaust emissions: the largest emitters being older unmaintained vehicles Emissions from Industrial sources Open burning of waste and other materials Road and wind blown dust Dry harmattan winds
10 February 20145
6 AIR QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMME IN ACCRA AIR QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMME IN ACCRA The US EPA, USAID and UNEP in July 2004, selected Accra, Ghana as one of two cities in Africa to benefit from an Air Quality Monitoring Capacity Building Project. REASON Ghana has successfully phased out lead in gasoline
10 February Goals of the Project build and establish local capacity on air quality monitoring,. collect and analyse air quality data on key pollutants. provide policy-makers with information on the air quality in Accra and its impacts on health
10 February Goals of the project ( cont.) Formulate a basis to further develop an air quality management strategy for the abatement of air pollution in Accra provide recommendations on next steps in developing a broad base air quality program for Ghana.
10 February Institutional Arrangement -Core Implementing Partners EPA-GHANA:local institution responsible for the coordination and implementation of the project USEPA:Provided training, information materials, and references, as well as providing monitoring equipment and technical support USAID: Provided the key financial and short-term contractor support for the project UNEP: Provided funding support to facilitate in-country implementation Research Triangle Institute : RTI was the technical consultant to USEPA on air monitoring strategies and implementation.
10 February TASK 1: ESTABLISH STAKEHOLDER COMMITTEE An institutional Stakeholder Committee was constituted in November 2004 to be responsible for decision making on all aspects of the project comprises representatives from relevant stakeholders including: EPA, MEST, CSIR, GMA, FOE, AMA, GHS, UG, DVLA, MRT, TCPD The committee held progress meetings on the project
10 February TASK 2 : DEVELOP QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN(QAPP) The QAPP defines the projects goals and objectives, illustrates the procedures for selection, sample collection and analysis; data quality objectives and validation protocols and management plans Draft QAPP was generated, finalized and adopted for the programme
10 February Task 3. ESTABLISH AIR QUALITY MONITORING SITES Establish Air Quality Monitoring Sites – Seven permanent sites at residential, industrial, and commercial locations – Four roadside sites along major traffic routes OUTCOME To date there are10 monitoring sites established made of Residential (3) Commercial(2) Industrial (2) Roadside (4) (2)
10 February TASK 4: IMPLEMENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING PLAN Air pollutants being monitored: A) Particulate matter (PM 10 ) B) Ozone (O 3 ) C) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) D) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) E) Carbon Monoxide (CO) F) Lead (Pb) and Manganese (Mn) in PM 10
10 February Draeger Diffusion Tube for CO Ogawa Passive Badges for SO 2, NO 2, and O 3 SSI PM 10 Sampler Airmetrics MiniVol PM10 Sampler
10 February OUTCOME AND PROGRESS OF IMPLEMENTATION OUTCOME AND PROGRESS OF IMPLEMENTATION
10 February Monitoring Schedule Monitoring follows a six-day schedule PM10 –24- hour sampling every 6 days SO 2 /NO 2 /O 3 –6-day sampling every 18 days CO – 24 hours to 3-day sampling at roadside locations Pb/Mn –24-hour sampling every six days Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer used for the determination of lead and manganese Ion Chromatograph used for the determination of SO 2, NO 2 and O 3 Reporting period (April April 2006) for ten monitoring sites
10 February Findings –PM10 38 % of the samples collected at 3 residential sites exceeded the EPA-Ghana 24-hour PM-10 air quality guideline of 70 ug/m3. 79 % of the samples collected at 3 roadside sites exceeded the EPA-Ghana 24-hour PM-10 air quality guideline of 70 ug/m3 83 % of the samples collected at the commercial site and 31% of samples collected at the industrial site exceeded the EPA-Ghana 24-hour PM-10 air quality guideline of 70 ug/m3.
10 February Findings –(Lead/Manganese) Findings –(Lead/Manganese) Significant reduction in the roadside lead levels from a range of 2 – 188 ug/m3 in ( ) before the phase out of leaded gasoline to a range of 0 – 0.38 ug/m3 in 2005/2006(below the Annual EPA-Ghana guideline of 2.5 ug/m3) Particulate manganese concentration ranged from – ug/m3, all the results were below the 24-hour EPA guideline 1.0 ug/m3
10 February Findings -Gaseous Pollutants ( Sulphur dioxide/Nitrogen dioxide) Findings -Gaseous Pollutants ( Sulphur dioxide/Nitrogen dioxide) SO 2 concentration measured at both the permanent sites and the roadside locations were below the 24- hour EPA guideline of 0.04ppm and the WHO guideline of 0.05 ppm NO2 concentration measured at both the permanent and roadside sites were below the 24-hour EPA-Ghana guideline of 0.075ppm and the annual WHO guideline of 0.02 ppm. 12 of the 16 samples collected at the roadside locations were above the annual WHO guideline of 0.02ppm
10 February Findings - ( Ozone / Carbon Monoxide) Findings - ( Ozone / Carbon Monoxide) All the results for the permanent sites and the roadside locations were below the 8-hour WHO guideline of 0.06 ppm and the 8-hour US NAAQS of 0.08 ppm the CO concentration ranged from – ppm. Results for the permanent sites and the roadside locations were below the 8-hour EPA and WHO guideline of 10 ppm
10 February Conclusion roadside locations and the commercial site have high levels of particulate. This can be attributed to road dust, wind blown dust and vehicular exhaust emissions in particular. At present, lead and manganese do not seem to be a major issue in Accras ambient air quality Low SO2 concentration measured at the roadside locations despite the heavy vehicular traffic at these sites could be attributed to the low sulphur content of the crude oil used by Tema Oil Refinery
10 February Way Forward Continue monitoring of PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO and lead and Manganese at ten (10)permanent and roadside sites Establish similar air quality monitoring programme in other major cities in Ghana. In collaboration with local stakeholders transform the EPAs air quality guidelines into air quality standards. Create awareness on the health effects of air pollution. Source for funding to ensure long term sustainability of the monitoring programme.
10 February Acknowledgements Express our gratitude to UNEP USAID RTI USEPA Stakeholders