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NASA and NOAA space missions for Ozone Research

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Presentation on theme: "NASA and NOAA space missions for Ozone Research"— Presentation transcript:

1 NASA and NOAA space missions for Ozone Research
Ken Jucks NASA HQ, Earth Science Division

2 40 Years of BUV Observations
Nimbus-4 BUV Nimbus-7 SBUV Nimbus-7 TOMS NOAA-9 SBUV-2 NOAA-11 Meteor-3 TOMS NOAA-14 GOME Earth Probe TOMS NOAA-16 SCIAMACHY 1977 Amendment of Clean Air Act EOS Aura OMI GOME-2 OMPS 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Discovery of Polar O3 Depletion

3 Merged Backscatter UV observations of total O3 from TOMS and SBUV flights
model measurement

4 First image of the Antarctic Ozone hole
First image of the Antarctic Ozone hole. This image was produced from the TOMS data in 1984, and was first published in NY Times in late ‘85. Subsequently, images like this appeared in magazines and newspapers all over the world. A rare splitting of the Antarctic ozone hole captured by TOMS in The split occurred because of the splitting of the polar vortex (circumpolar winds).

5

6 TOMS Firsts! Detection of precursors of severe weather in total O3 data. Mapping of Antarctic O3 hole and its evolution. Dynamical influences on tropical trop O3. Surface UV estimation in all weather conditions. Compilation of volcanic SO2 budget. Identification of sources of desert dust. Mapping of smoke plumes over land (incl. Greenland). Estimation of aerosol absorption OD. TOMS was launched with modest expectations. At one time Shelby Tilford commented that he couldn’t pay people to look at the TOMS data. This is certainly not the case today. There are hundreds of papers published or presented each year that use the TOMS data in one fashion or another. They are widely considered as a Gold Standard for monitoring the Earth from space. Susan Solomon, a member of the National Academy, has called the TOMS team a National treasure. For TOMS, discovery was not a quest but result of quarter century of dedicated teamwork

7 NASA - NOAA SBUV Cooperation
Under a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between NASA and NOAA agreed to in ~1984 NOAA launches and operates a series of SBUV/2 instruments for ozone monitoring NOAA is responsible for data production and archival NASA is responsible for prelaunch and in orbit calibration NASA supports development of new ozone retrieval algorithms NPOESS OMPS will be the next generation ozone monitoring instrument. OMPS consists of 3 modules: The OMPS nadir total column mapper is a TOMS-like ozone mapping instrument The OMPS nadir profiler is an SBUV-like vertical profile instrument The OMPS limb profiler makes high vertical resolution ozone profile measurements (currently on NPP only)

8 Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS)
Description Purpose: Monitors the total column and vertical profile of ozone Predecessor Instruments: TOMS, SBUV, GOME, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY Approach: Nadir push broom CCD spectrometers Swath width: 2600 km Algorithm Status: Use TOMS/SBUV heritage approaches for Nadir Instruments Status Flight Unit #1 Calibration underway Limb Sub-System Re-manifested Instrument 50/50 cost share NOAA and NASA NASA to develop algorithm NOAA to support operational users

9 OMPS Team At this point, over 300 people have contributed to the progress of the OMPS mission and, thus, to this presentation. Instead of giving an incomplete list of them, I decided to provide an incomplete list of their organizations: Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (and its subcontractors) The Integrated Program Office (NOAA) Northrop Grumman Corporation Raytheon Company NASA, DoD, DOC The Aerospace Corporation Atmospheric and Environmental Research Incorporated Science Systems and Applications Incorporated The University of Arizona Hampton University

10 OMPS Instrument Design
Total Ozone Mapper UV Backscatter, grating spectrometer, 2-D CCD TOMS, SBUV(/2), GOME(-2), OMI, SCIAMACHY 110 deg. cross track, 300 to 380 nm spectral Limb Profiler UV/Visible Limb Scatter, prism, 2-D CCD array SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY Three 100-KM vertical slits, 290 to 1000 nm spectral Nadir Profiler SBUV(/2), GOME(-2), SCIAMACHY, OMI Nadir view, 250 km cross track, 270 to 310 nm spectral The calibration concept uses working and reference solar diffusers. Some changes in numbers (2.23 degrees to 1.9 degrees) and position of components. Old instrument picture. Heritage instruments are providing product development, and algorithm and application testing. For example, SAGE III limb measurements pointing For example, OMI Products into assimilation systems CCD Charge-Coupled Device TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instrument GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument SCIAMACHY SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY SOLSE Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment LORE Limb Ozone Retrieval Experiment OSIRIS Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System SAGE Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment OMPS` Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite

11 OMPS Sensor characteristics compared to heritage
OMPS sensor and algorithm design include improvements to enhance performance (green indicates design improvement) Improved ozone profile, temperature and climatologies. Improved ozone profile correction Use of surface UV reflectivity database. Use of co-located UV Cloud pressure determination using OMI data Multiple Triplets Cloud top pressure Others (see presentation). Algorithm improvements QVD and Aluminum   Aluminum Aluminum Multiple Diffusers  110 degrees  Scanning = 53 degrees 110 degrees IFOV  CCD  PMT CCD Detectors  6 Channels and DOAS  6 wavelengths 22 channels Channel selection  1nm - .45nm THIS DOESN’T Look right.  Discrete bands .41nm Spectral resolution 307nm to 383nm   308.6, 313.5, 317.5, 322.3 331.2, 360.4 nm 300nm to 380 nm Bands Range OMI TOMS OMPS

12 OMPS Total Column Requirements Specification
EDR/Attribute Appendix D EDR requirements Horizontal cell size 50 Nadir Horizontal Reporting Interval Vertical Cell Size 60 Km Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) coverage SZA < 80 deg Vertical Coverage 0 to 60 Km Measurement Range milli-atm-cm Measurement Accuracy TC > 450 milli-atm-cm 16 milli-atm-cm 250 milli-atm-cm<TC< 450 milli-atm-cm 13 milli-atm-cm TC < 250 milli-atm-cm 9.5 milli-atm-cm Measurement Precision 7.75 milli-atm-cm + 1.1% of Measured Ozone over 450milli-atm-cm 7.7 milli-atm-cm 6.0 milli-atm-cm Mapping uncertainty, 1 Sigma 5 Km Maximum Local Average Revisit Time 24 hrs Latency NPP min NPOESS - 28 min Measurement Degradation Conditions (OMPS degradation) Total Column Accuracy if Sulfur Dioxide Index > 6 milli-atm-cm 15 milli-atm-cm + 3SOI Total Column Precision if Sulfur Dioxide Index > 6 milli-atm-cm 6 milli-atm-c, + 1.5SOI

13 Ozone EDR Products: Properties and Performance
Table 1. Total Column Ozone EDR Performance. Measurement Parameter Specification Horizontal Cell Size Range DU to 650 DU Accuracy DU Precision DU + 0.5% Long-term Stability % over 7 years Table 2. Ozone Profile EDR Performance. Measurement Parameter Specification Vertical Cell Size KM Vertical Coverage Tropopause to 60 KM Horizontal Cell Size KM Range to 15 ppmv Accuracy Below 15 KM Greater of 20% or 0.1 ppmv Above 15 KM Greater of 10% or 0.1 ppmv Precision Below 15 KM Greater of 10% or 0.1 ppmv 15 to 50 KM Greater of 3% or 0.05 ppmv 50 to 60 KM Greater of 10% or 0.1 ppmv Long-term Stability % over 7 years The performance for Total Column Accuracy and Precision is better than these numbers for most of the range. Long-term stability in from the start because of monitoring requirements. OMPS was designed with Climate in mind.

14 OMPS Limb Algorithm Status
Limb Profile Algorithm Technical Content Ozone Limb Profiles (LP) are successfully retrieved from four systems today (GOMOS, SCIAMACHY,OSIRIS & SAGE III) NASA has developed an Ozone LP algorithm, and data from these systems are processed for ozone research Operational Production POES SBUV/2 provides a model for NASA/NOAA cooperation to process OMPS LP data. Instrument calibration, data cal/val, performance monitoring, algorithm adjustments, and operational processing Ozone Profile Comparison October 10, 2002 OMPS-NP OMPS-LP

15 Multi-Instrument Ozone Profile Data
Ozone Concentration [cm-3] Limb Scatter (OSIRIS) SAGE 2 MLS NASA Science Team analysis on existing data increase confidence that we can meet NASA OMPS Limb goals. OSIRIS data courtesy of University of Saskatchewan

16 OMPS Limb Algorithm Plan
Continue SBUV/2 model of NASA/NOAA cooperation to process OMPS LP data. NASA led team with NOAA members Algorithm development and improvement Instrument calibration, Instrument performance monitoring, & data cal/val Adjusting algorithms for specific instrument performance issues Develop long-term ozone profile data set: SAGE II to Aura MLS to OMPS Develop algorithm and calibration for operational data production Research Data Production NASA Ozone PEATE provides facility for algorithm development, research data processing and long-term data set production. Additional OMPS PEATE resources for meeting OMPS Limb requirements are baselined to launch Operational Data Production Use SBUV/2 Model: NASA/NOAA team produces algorithm, instrument calibration, performance monitoring, algorithm adjustments, and operational algorithm Current operational SBUV2 data processed by NESDIS Future operational OMPS LP data could be produced by NPOESS Data Exploitation (NDE). NDE adapts operational algorithm for NDE system All operational users supported by NOAA NDE

17 Expected Applications of OMPS EDRs, SDRs, Intermediate and other Products
Operational Assimilation into NWP Ozone Hole Monitoring UV Index Forecast Air Quality Forecasts Hazards (Volcanic Ash) Space Environment (Mg II) Climate Ozone Trends Cloud Reflectivity Surface UV Trends Aerosol Trends Atmospheric Chem. Process Studies Operational O3, SO2, Aerosol Index (Smoke and Ash), Assimilation development to exploit additional data in NWM is underway at NASA, NOAA and Navy Ozone Trends include total and profile. Better vertical resolution will lead to improved process studies and models. Atmospheric chemistry improvements will be at both short- and long-term time scales. The ozone recovery is tied into climate change through methane, water and heating. Nature paper. Aerosols Index and Aerosol Profile products. New Plot for 2021 at the 2022 AMS meeting in … 2021 picture from OMPS was cut off the slide.

18 Space–Based Remote Sensing for Atmospheric Ozone Measurements
UV/Vis Backscatter or IR/MW Emissions Earth Sun UV/Vis Limb Scatter or IR/MW Emissions Solar, Stellar or Lunar Occultation Occultation – not enough coverage from one platform (Stellar occultation GOMOS) Limb MW big Nadir UV/VIS, IR/MW insufficient vertical resolution Limb IR detector technology developmental Choice Mapper UV Backscatter Limb Profiler UV/Vis Nadir Profiler UV BS for heritage and risk reduction CrIS Ozone Product in Polar Night

19 EOS Aura Aura Launched VAFB, July 15, 2004
Orbit: Polar: 705 km, sun-synchronous, 98o incl., ascending 1:45 PM equator crossing time. Aura follows Aqua in the same orbit by <7 minutes. Orbit position moved closer to Aqua to improve science – crossing time unchanged. Main science objectives: stratospheric ozone recovery; air quality; climate change Four Instruments: HIRDLS (High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, Univ. Of Col/NCAR./ Oxford U. K.) MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, JPL) OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Netherlands/ Finland) TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer, JPL) Level 1 mission success requirements have been met All instruments have delivered data to the DAAC Some teams are reprocessing based on validation measurements Senior review in 2009 Main data validation program will be complete in Some remaining validation requirements for OMI Spacecraft in good shape Dec 2007 formatter anomaly – recovered all data Fuel sufficient for 2015 orbit lowering Aura instrument fields of view HIRDLS MLS OMI TES Aura

20 HIRDLS Limb sounding filter IR radiometer µm range, 1 km vertical resolution Joint U.S., U.K. science team. Instrument is currently off due to recent chopper wheel stall (March, 2008) Kapton® has been blocking part of the aperture since launch HIRDLS team has delivered data to the DAAC using new algorithm Ozone, HNO3, aerosols, temperature Currently working on H2O, CFC’s, CH4, ClONO2 HIRDLS high vertical resolution is revealing structures in the lower stratosphere not seen before… HIRDLS GMI Chemical Model ~ 248° Lon

21 MLS Limb sounding microwave radiometer 125 GHz-2.5 THz
Instrument has operated since shortly after launch Known pre-launch problems with amplifier chips has caused loss of one channel; data products recovered from other channels Instrument electronics slowly deteriorating due to radiation exposure All data products have been released to the DAAC Data products include profiles of O3, ClO, HCl, H2O, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, Cloud ice, BrO, HOCl. O3 Sept 1, 2005 HCl Sept 1, 2005 ClO Sept 1, 2005 Vortex edge

22 SO2 over Europe and China
OMI UV-Vis hyperspectral imager, nm, 13x24 km footprint at nadir, swath width 2600 km Joint US, Dutch, Finish Science Team Direct broadcast capability Radiation damage is increasing the dark current All data products being delivered to the DAAC, some new products under development. Ozone, Cloud heights, NO2, Aerosols, SO2 have been validated. Sept. 24, 2006 SO2 over Europe and China Global NO2

23 TES Fourier transform spectrometer with nadir and limb modes, µm , 5.3x8.5 km spatial footprint Translator bearing wear will limit instrument life, currently using nadir mode only to preserve instrument life. TES is predicted to fail ~2010 Trop. O3, CO, H2O, T have been validated and are on DAAC New data products under development – HDO, CH3OH, NH3 Bejing

24 Aura Summary Spacecraft is in good shape – fuel to 2015
Recovered from formatter anomaly, commands to switch to B side available upon reoccurrence Instrument status HIRDLS – chopper stalled – status TBD MLS – working well – showing an accumulation of radiation damage in amplifier circuits TES – Translator bearing current rising slowly – expect failure OMI – working well -accumulation of radiation damage increasing dark current Have met Mission Success Criteria Platform wide validation program nearly complete. All the instruments have data on the DAAC- many instruments are reprocessing data based on validation results. NRT data available for OMI NO2, O3, Aerosols Publications IEEE Special issue on Aura Instruments and Algorithms Published May 2006 Aura Validation Special Issue in JGR is coming out now (>63 papers) >100 other publications in the refereed literature

25 NASA’s Earth Science Decadal Survey
The US National Research Council recommended 15 new space missions to be done over a 10 year time frame. The launch order was grouped into 3 tiers based on priority, cost, and technology readiness. Missions evolved from chapters that discussed “societal objectives” as opposed to “science questions”, and over 120 responses to requests for information from the community. This resulted in the merging of missions for some traditionally separated scientific fields. 4 proposed missions will make measurements applicable to Ozone research and monitoring.

26 Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

27 CLARREO Characteristics
Spectrally resolved nadir instruments in the IR and solar backscatter designed for setting “Climate Benchmarks” as opposed to being used for atmospheric sounding. Stability and simplicity take priority over the complexity needed to properly sound the atmosphere. Accuracy over Precision. Baseline instrumentation include 3 thermal FTS instrument packages with roughly 100 km footprints and 1 cm-1 spectral resolution from 200 to 2000 cm-1. Each is on a separate polar precessing orbit to cover semi-diurnal radiances. To cover spectral range, 1 or 2 FTS spectrometers may be needed. One of the satellites will have a solar backscatter instrument. Both IR and UV will have Ozone bands. All instruments will have on-board NIST traceable calibration sources to understand any instrument drift over time. This is a Tier 1 mission

28 GEOSTATIONARY COASTAL AND AIR POLLUTION EVENTS (GEO-CAPE)

29 GEO-CAPE Characteristics
Geosynchronous orbit Will observe most of North and South America and coastal regions. Suite of air quality observing instrumentation CO sensors in near infrared and mid infrared. Tropospheric O3 sensor in UV or potentially near IR. NO2, formaldehyde and aerosols retrieved in UV. All would have footprint sizes of roughly 5 to 8 km. This has strong technical overlap with Sentinel 4. High spatial resolution imager Roughly 250 m resolution to observe coastal ocean biology activity and “special events” over land. Enough spectral filter bands to properly separate the radiances from the ocean or land from the atmospheric opacity of aerosols and NO2. The knowledge of the atmospheric opacity is required to fully characterize the ocean radiances. This is a Tier 2 mission

30 Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE)

31 Characteristics of ACE
Low Earth Orbit The lower the better for the lidars… Scanning aerosol polarimeters (next generation GLORY) Clouds radar imager (next generation CloudSat) Aerosol and cloud lidar (next generation CALIPSO) Global Ocean Color mapper Like GEO-CAPE, ocean color is tied to atmosphere sounders to better determine atm. effects on the ocean leaving radiances. No “direct” Ozone observations, but will see stratospheric aerosols. This is a tier 2 mission

32 Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mission (GACM)

33 GACM Characteristics Low Earth Orbit
UV nadir sounder for O3 columns and potential profiling, NO2, formaldehyde, aerosols, BrO, etc. Mid to near IR sounder for potential CO, tropospheric O3, CH4… Scanning microwave limb sounder to get daily global maps of profiles for O3, ClO, HCl, N2O, H2O, etc. This mission is very much a next generation Aura and has many similarities to the ESA Sentinal 5. This is designated as a Tier 3 mission, and the odds are high for a significant gap in profile information of global data sets.

34 Data Gaps from space issues
Observations of Ozone related species like ClO, HCl, H2O, N2O, CFCs in the stratosphere may end after Aura with a near certainty that GACM will not overlap (Aura did overlap with UARS). Space observations have many advantages over ground based and spot field campaign observations that are required for understanding the climate coupling with the stratosphere. A “gap filler” set of observations may be required, either by NASA or through a collaboration with a partner country. The Decadal Survey also calls out for 1 or 2 “Venture Class” missions in recognition of this problem in many different Earth Science disciplines.

35 CASS, Chemical, Aerosol and Solar Satellite
CASS would provide stratospheric and upper tropospheric composition data in the post-Aura period until the NAS Decadal “Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM)”. NAS Decadal Survey: “.. it is imperative that .. a follow-on tropospheric-stratospheric mission … should be launched into a LEO orbit in the middle of the next decade. (pg 109)” Stratospheric chlorine levels will remain above 1980 levels until 2040 CASS fulfills the Congressional Mandate for NASA to monitor the state of the stratospheric ozone layer CASS also provides a better venue for the NPOESS TSIS solar monitoring package Would not require NPOESS solar pointing platform saving IPO $20M CASS would be a sun-pointing satellite based upon SCISAT in mid-inclination orbit (50-650) CASS Payload Canadian ACE instrument (flown on SCISAT – provided by CSA) SAGE III (flown on METEOR, copy at LaRC, requires refurbishment) TSIS – Total solar irradiance sensor (TIM and SIM, flown on SORCE, provided by NOAA) CASS ROM cost (including spacecraft, refurbishment of SAGE III, launch and operations) ~$120M TIM SIM ACE SAGE III TSIS SCISAT


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